98 found
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  1.  9
    The Physics of Time Asymmetry.Paul Davies - 1974 - University of California Press.
    The physics of time asymmetry has never been a single well-defined subject, but more a collection of consistency problems which arise in almost all branches ...
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  2.  12
    The re-emergence of emergence: the emergentist hypothesis from science to religion.Philip Clayton & Paul Davies (eds.) - 2006 - New York: Oxford University Press.
    This volume introduces readers to emergence theory, outlines the major arguments in its defence, and summarizes the most powerful objections against it. It provides the clearest explication yet of this exciting new theory of science, which challenges the reductionist approach by proposing the continuous emergence of novel phenomena.
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  3.  8
    Information and the nature of reality: from physics to metaphysics.Paul Davies & Niels Henrik Gregersen (eds.) - 2010 - New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Many scientists regard mass and energy as the primary currency of nature. In recent years, however, the concept of information has gained importance. In this book, eminent scientists, philosophers, and theologians chart various aspects of information, from quantum information to biological and digital information, in order to understand how nature works. Beginning with a historical treatment of the topic, the book also examines physical and biological approaches to information, and the philosophical, theological, and ethical implications.
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  4. The Mind of God.Paul Davies - 1994 - Science and Society 58 (2):233-237.
  5.  6
    Subjects of the World: Darwin’s Rhetoric and the Study of Agency in Nature.Paul Sheldon Davies - 2009 - London: University of Chicago Press.
    Being human while trying to scientifically study human nature confronts us with our most vexing problem. Efforts to explicate the human mind are thwarted by our cultural biases and entrenched infirmities; our first-person experiences as practical agents convince us that we have capacities beyond the reach of scientific explanation. What we need to move forward in our understanding of human agency, Paul Sheldon Davies argues, is a reform in the way we study ourselves and a long overdue break with traditional (...)
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  6.  6
    Malfunctions.Paul Sheldon Davies - 2000 - Biology and Philosophy 15 (1):19-38.
    A persistent boast of the historical approach to functions is that functional properties are normative. The claim is that a token trait retains its functional status even when it is defective, diseased, or damaged and consequently unable to perform the relevant task. This is because historical functional categories are defined in terms of some sort of historical success -- success in natural selection, typically -- which imposes a norm upon the performance of descendent tokens. Descendents thus are supposed to perform (...)
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  7.  12
    Cancer progression as a sequence of atavistic reversions.Charles H. Lineweaver, Kimberly J. Bussey, Anneke C. Blackburn & Paul C. W. Davies - 2021 - Bioessays 43 (7):2000305.
    It has long been recognized that cancer onset and progression represent a type of reversion to an ancestral quasi‐unicellular phenotype. This general concept has been refined into the atavistic model of cancer that attempts to provide a quantitative analysis and testable predictions based on genomic data. Over the past decade, support for the multicellular‐to‐unicellular reversion predicted by the atavism model has come from phylostratigraphy. Here, we propose that cancer onset and progression involve more than a one‐off multicellular‐to‐unicellular reversion, and are (...)
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  8.  5
    The Accidental Universe.Paul Davies & P. C. W. Davies - 1982 - CUP Archive.
    This book is a survey of the range of apparently miraculous accidents of nature that have enabled the universe to evolve its familiar structures (atoms, stars, galaxies, and life itself) concludes with an investigation of the so-called anthropic principle.
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  9.  8
    Complexity and the Arrow of Time.Charles H. Lineweaver, Paul C. W. Davies & Michael Ruse (eds.) - 2013 - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    There is a widespread assumption that the universe in general, and life in particular, is 'getting more complex with time'. This book brings together a wide range of experts in science, philosophy and theology and unveils their joint effort in exploring this idea. They confront essential problems behind the theory of complexity and the role of life within it: what is complexity? When does it increase, and why? Is the universe evolving towards states of ever greater complexity and diversity? If (...)
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  10. The Fifth Miracle.Paul Davies - 2004 - Zygon 39 (1):261 - 265.
     
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  11.  15
    The nature of natural norms: Why selected functions are systemic capacity functions.Paul Sheldon Davies - 2000 - Noûs 34 (1):85–107.
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  12.  13
    The physics of downward causation.Paul Davies - 2006 - In Philip Clayton & Paul Davies (eds.), The re-emergence of emergence: the emergentist hypothesis from science to religion. New York: Oxford University Press.
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  13. Universe from bit.Paul Davies - 2010 - In Paul Davies & Niels Henrik Gregersen (eds.), Information and the nature of reality: from physics to metaphysics. New York: Cambridge University Press.
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  14.  8
    The physics of downward causation.Paul Davies - 2006 - In Philip Clayton & Paul Davies (eds.), The re-emergence of emergence: the emergentist hypothesis from science to religion. New York: Oxford University Press.
  15. Emergent biological principles and the computational properties of the universe.Paul Davies - manuscript
    T he term emergence is used to describe the appearance of new properties that arise when a system exceeds a certain level of size or complexity, properties that are absent from the constituents of the system. It is a concept often summed up by the phrase that “the whole is greater than the sum of its parts,” and it is a key notion in the burgeoning field of complexity science. Life is often cited as a classic example of an emergent (...)
     
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  16.  6
    Logical reasoning and domain specificity: A critique of the social exchange theory of reasoning.Paul Sheldon Davies, James H. Fetzer & Thomas R. Foster - 1995 - Biology and Philosophy 10 (1):1-37.
    The social exchange theory of reasoning, which is championed by Leda Cosmides and John Tooby, falls under the general rubric “evolutionary psychology” and asserts that human reasoning is governed by content-dependent, domain-specific, evolutionarily-derived algorithms. According to Cosmides and Tooby, the presumptive existence of what they call “cheater-detection” algorithms disconfirms the claim that we reason via general-purpose mechanisms or via inductively acquired principles. We contend that the Cosmides/Tooby arguments in favor of domain-specific algorithms or evolutionarily-derived mechanisms fail and that the notion (...)
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  17.  14
    Troubles for direct proper functions.Paul Sheldon Davies - 1994 - Noûs 28 (3):363-381.
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  18.  26
    Sober on Brandon on screening-off and the levels of selection.Robert N. Brandon, Janis Antonovics, Richard Burian, Scott Carson, Greg Cooper, Paul Sheldon Davies, Christopher Horvath, Brent D. Mishler, Robert C. Richardson, Kelly Smith & Peter Thrall - 1994 - Philosophy of Science 61 (3):475-486.
    Sober (1992) has recently evaluated Brandon's (1982, 1990; see also 1985, 1988) use of Salmon's (1971) concept of screening-off in the philosophy of biology. He critiques three particular issues, each of which will be considered in this discussion.
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  19. Conceptual conservatism : The case of normative functions.Paul Sheldon Davies - 2009 - In Ulrich Krohs & Peter Kroes (eds.), Functions in Biological and Artificial Worlds: Comparative Philosophical Perspectives. MIT Press.
     
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  20.  25
    Targeting cancer's weaknesses (not its strengths): Therapeutic strategies suggested by the atavistic model.Charles H. Lineweaver, Paul C. W. Davies & Mark D. Vincent - 2014 - Bioessays 36 (9):827-835.
    In the atavistic model of cancer progression, tumor cell dedifferentiation is interpreted as a reversion to phylogenetically earlier capabilities. The more recently evolved capabilities are compromised first during cancer progression. This suggests a therapeutic strategy for targeting cancer: design challenges to cancer that can only be met by the recently evolved capabilities no longer functional in cancer cells. We describe several examples of this target‐the‐weakness strategy. Our most detailed example involves the immune system. The absence of adaptive immunity in immunosuppressed (...)
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  21. Does information matter?Paul Davies & Niels Henrik Gregersen - 2010 - In Paul Davies & Niels Henrik Gregersen (eds.), Information and the nature of reality: from physics to metaphysics. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  22.  24
    From Matter to Life: Information and Causality.Sara Imari Walker, Paul C. W. Davies & George F. R. Ellis (eds.) - 2017 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book tackles the most difficult and profound open questions about life and its origins from an information-based perspective.
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  23.  5
    Sincerity and the end of theodicy: Three remarks on Levinas and Kant.Paul Davies - 1998 - Research in Phenomenology 28 (1):126-151.
  24.  6
    The Matter Myth: Towards 21st-century Science.Paul Davies & John Gribbin - 1991
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  25. How bio-friendly is the universe ?Paul Davies - manuscript
    : The oft-repeated claim that life is ‘ written into ’ the laws of nature is examined and criticised. Arguments are given in favour of life spreading between near-neighbour planets in rocky impact ejecta (transpermia), but against panspermia, leading to the conclusion that if life is indeed found to be widespread in the universe, some form of life principle or biological determinism must be at work in the process of biogenesis. Criteria for what would constitute a credible life principle are (...)
     
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  26. Signatures of a Shadow Biosphere.Paul C. W. Davies, Carol E. Cleland & Christopher P. McKay - unknown
    Astrobiologists are aware that extraterrestrial life might differ from known life, and considerable thought has been given to possible signatures associated with weird forms of life on other planets. So far, however, very little attention has been paid to the possibility that our own planet might also host communities of weird life. If life arises readily in Earth-like conditions, as many astrobiologists contend, then it may well have formed many times on Earth itself, which raises the question whether one or (...)
     
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  27.  9
    The implications of a cosmological information bound for complexity, quantum information and the nature of physical law.Paul Davies - unknown
    The finite age of the universe and the existence of cosmological horizons provides a strong argument that the observable universe represents a finite causal region with finite material and informational resources. A similar conclusion follows from the holographic principle. In this paper I address the question of whether the cosmological information bound has implications for fundamental physics. Orthodox physics is based on Platonism: the laws are treated as infinitely precise, perfect, immutable mathematical relationships that transcend the physical universe and remain (...)
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  28.  5
    Giving Reasons for What We Do.Paul Sheldon Davies - 2016 - Southwest Philosophy Review 32 (1):135-144.
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  29.  9
    Are We Alone?: Philosophical Implications of the Discovery of Extraterrestrial Life.Paul Davies - 1995 - Basic Books.
    The search for extra-terrestrial intelligence (SETI) raises a number of scientific/philosophical questions. If we are the only conscious, intelligent species in the galaxy, why? If we are not, given that other cultures must be more technically advanced than us, why haven't we met them yet?
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  30.  10
    Difficult friendship.Paul Davies - 1988 - Research in Phenomenology 18 (1):149-172.
  31.  5
    Some evolutionary model or other: Aspirations and evidence in evolutionary psychology.Paul Sheldon Davies - 2009 - Philosophical Psychology 22 (1):83 – 97.
    Evolutionary Psychology as Maladapted Psychology ROBERT C. RICHARDSON Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2007 248 pages, ISBN: 0-262-18260-2 (hbk); $30.00 “Just about anything is consistent with some evolut...
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  32. The conflict of evolutionary psychology.Paul Sheldon Davies - 1999 - In Valerie Gray Hardcastle (ed.), Where Biology Meets Psychology: Philosophical Essays. MIT Press.
     
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  33.  11
    The Excesses of Teleosemantics.Paul Sheldon Davies - 2001 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 31 (sup1):117-137.
    Teleosemantics asserts that mental content is determined by natural selection. The thesis is that content is fixed by the historical conditions under which certain cognitive mechanisms—those that produce and those that interpret representational states—were selectively successful. Content is fixed by conditions of selective success. The thesis of this paper is that teleosemantics is mistaken, that content cannot be fixed by conditions of selective success, because those conditions typically outnumber the intentional objects within a given representational state. To defend against this (...)
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  34.  5
    The Re-Emergence of Emergence: The Emergentist Hypothes.Philip Clayton & Paul Davies (eds.) - 2006 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Much of the modern period was dominated by a `reductionist' theory of science. On this view, to explain any event in the world is to reduce it down to fundamental particles, laws, and forces. In recent years reductionism has been dramatically challenged by a radically new paradigm called `emergence'. According to this new theory, natural history reveals the continuous emergence of novel phenomena: new structures and new organisms with new causal powers. Consciousness is yet one more emergent level in the (...)
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  35. The appearance of design in physics and cosmology.Paul Davies - 2003 - In Neil A. Manson (ed.), God and design: the teleological argument and modern science. New York: Routledge.
     
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  36.  4
    The Excesses of Teleosemantics.Paul Sheldon Davies - 2001 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 31 (Supplement):117-137.
  37.  4
    Uneasiness: the line between Sterne's novel and Locke's essay.Paul Davies - unknown
    The paper notes the tendency and temptation for scholars and critics to find a justification in the novel for silencing or categorising Locke, and for lampooning or reducing to absurdity the project and the arguments of the Essay. It argues that such approaches can miss what is most interesting in the novel’s indebtedness to the Essay, and offers a reading of a famous sequence where Walter, Toby, and Tristram mention, quote, present, rearrange and redistribute one of Locke’s key doctrines, the (...)
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  38. Did nature also choose arsenic ?Felisa Wolfe-Simon & Paul C. W. Davies - unknown
    : All known life requires phosphorus (P) in the form of inorganic phosphate (PO43x or Pi) and phosphate-containing organic molecules. Pi serves as the backbone of the nucleic acids that constitute genetic material and as the major repository of chemical energy for metabolism in polyphosphate bonds. Arsenic (As) lies directly below P on the periodic table and so the two elements share many chemical properties, although their chemistries are sufficiently dissimilar that As cannot directly replace P in modern biochemistry. Arsenic (...)
     
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  39. The origin of life I: When and where did it begin?Paul Davies - manuscript
    For decades most scientists assumed that life emerged billions of years ago in a “primordial soup” somewhere on the Earth’s surface. Evidence is mounting, however, that life may have begun deep beneath the surface, perhaps near a volcanic ocean vent or even inside the hot crust itself. Since there are hints that life’s history on Earth extends back through the phase of massive cosmic bombardment, it may be that life started on Mars and came here later, perhaps inside rocks ejected (...)
     
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  40. Detection of negative energy: 4-dimensional examples.Paul Davies - manuscript
    We study the response of switched particle detectors to static negative energy densities and negative energy fluxes. It is demonstrated how the switching leads to excitation even in the vacuum and how negative energy can lead to a suppression of this excitation. We obtain quantum inequalities on the detection similar to those obtained for the energy density by Ford and co-workers and in an ‘‘operational’’ context by Helfer. We reexamine the question ‘‘Is there a quantum equivalence principle?’’ in terms of (...)
     
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  41.  2
    This Contradiction.Paul Davies - 2001 - In Richard Rand (ed.), Futures: Of Jacques Derrida. Stanford University Press. pp. 18-65.
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  42. A quantum recipe for life.Paul Davies - unknown
    One of the most influential physics books of the twentieth century was actually about biology. In a series of lectures, Erwin Schrödinger described how he believed that quantum mechanics, or some variant of it, would soon solve the riddle of life. These lectures were published in 1944 under the title What is life? and are credited by some as ushering in the age of molecular biology. In the nineteenth century, many scientists thought they knew the answer to Schrödinger’s rhetorical question. (...)
     
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  43.  12
    On Being Patient (with Kant, Kierkegaard, and Levinas).Paul Davies - 2021 - Levinas Studies 15:121-146.
    Patience has generally been regarded as a virtue, but it has proved very difficult to say why it should be so. A phenomenology of patience quickly turns into ambiguity and confusion, and it does so in a way that seems to hinder any straightforward ethical evaluation of the term. Kant suggests that patience’s moral status can only be recognized if it is supplemented by a less problematic virtue such as, say, courage. Kierkegaard in contrast keeps the focus on patience itself (...)
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  44.  3
    9. The Face and the Caress: Levinas's Ethical Alterations of Sensibility.Paul Davies - 1993 - In David Michael Levin (ed.), Modernity and the Hegemony of Vision. University of California Press. pp. 252-272.
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  45. Order From Disorder: The Role of Noise in Creative Processes. A Special Issue On Game Theory And.Derek Abbott & Paul C. W. Davies - unknown
    The importance of applying game theory to the evolution of information in the presence of noise has recently become widely recognized. This Special Issue addresses the theme of spontaneously emergent order in both classical and quantum systems subject to external noise, and includes papers directly related to game theory or the development of supporting techniques. In the following editorial overview we examine the broader context of the subject, including the tension between the destructive and creative aspects of noise, and foreshadow (...)
     
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  46. Detecting the rotating quantum vacuum.Paul Davies - manuscript
    We derive conditions for rotating particle detectors to respond in a variety of bounded spacetimes and compare the results with the folklore that particle detectors do not respond in the vacuum state appropriate to their motion. Applications involving possible violations of the second law of thermodynamics are briefly addressed.
     
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  47. Quantum mechanics and the equivalence principle.Paul Davies - manuscript
    A quantum particle moving in a gravitational field may penetrate the classically forbidden region of the gravitational potential. This raises the question of whether the time of flight of a quantum particle in a gravitational field might deviate systematically from that of a classical particle due to tunnelling delay, representing a violation of the weak equivalence principle. I investigate this using a model quantum clock to measure the time of flight of a quantum particle in a uniform gravitational field, and (...)
     
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  48.  5
    Asymmetry and transcendence: On scepticism and first philosophy.Paul Davies - 2005 - Research in Phenomenology 35 (1):118-140.
    In attempting to re-think the notion of asymmetry and its relations with 'first philosophy' and to see how that notion is tracked by the provocation of scepticism, the paper demonstrates something about the implications of Levinas' ethical asymmetry. The paper considers Levinas' tendency to introduce the topic of scepticism when confronted by the logical and textual difficulties that necessarily befall his account of the ethical relation. It argues that such an introduction commits Levinas to the claim: first philosophy entails a (...)
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  49.  3
    A Remarkable Fact: Wittgenstein Reading Tolstoy.Paul Davies - 2013 - In Sascha Bru, Wolfgang Huemer & Daniel Steuer (eds.), Wittgenstein Reading. Berlin & New York: De Gruyter. pp. 289-318.
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  50.  3
    Commentary: Being Faithful to Impossibility.Paul Davies - 1994 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 32 (S1):19-25.
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