Results for 'Paul E. Dunne'

993 found
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  1.  5
    Coherence in finite argument systems.Paul E. Dunne & T. J. M. Bench-Capon - 2002 - Artificial Intelligence 141 (1-2):187-203.
  2.  5
    Weighted argument systems: Basic definitions, algorithms, and complexity results.Paul E. Dunne, Anthony Hunter, Peter McBurney, Simon Parsons & Michael Wooldridge - 2011 - Artificial Intelligence 175 (2):457-486.
  3.  5
    Characteristics of multiple viewpoints in abstract argumentation.Paul E. Dunne, Wolfgang Dvořák, Thomas Linsbichler & Stefan Woltran - 2015 - Artificial Intelligence 228 (C):153-178.
  4.  3
    Computational properties of argument systems satisfying graph-theoretic constraints.Paul E. Dunne - 2007 - Artificial Intelligence 171 (10-15):701-729.
  5.  2
    The computational complexity of ideal semantics.Paul E. Dunne - 2009 - Artificial Intelligence 173 (18):1559-1591.
  6.  2
    On the computational complexity of qualitative coalitional games.Michael Wooldridge & Paul E. Dunne - 2004 - Artificial Intelligence 158 (1):27-73.
  7.  2
    Two party immediate response disputes: Properties and efficiency.Paul E. Dunne & T. J. M. Bench-Capon - 2003 - Artificial Intelligence 149 (2):221-250.
  8.  1
    On the computational complexity of coalitional resource games.Michael Wooldridge & Paul E. Dunne - 2006 - Artificial Intelligence 170 (10):835-871.
  9.  1
    Parametric properties of ideal semantics.Paul E. Dunne, Wolfgang Dvořák & Stefan Woltran - 2013 - Artificial Intelligence 202 (C):1-28.
  10.  3
    Solving coalitional resource games.Paul E. Dunne, Sarit Kraus, Efrat Manisterski & Michael Wooldridge - 2010 - Artificial Intelligence 174 (1):20-50.
  11.  2
    The complexity of contract negotiation.Paul E. Dunne, Michael Wooldridge & Michael Laurence - 2005 - Artificial Intelligence 164 (1-2):23-46.
  12.  15
    A logical characterisation of qualitative coalitional games.Paul E. Dunne, Wiebe van der Hoek & Michael Wooldridge - 2007 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 17 (4):477-509.
    Qualitative coalitional games (QCGs) were introduced as abstract formal models of goal-oriented cooperative systems. A QCG is a game in which each agent is assumed to have some goal to achieve, and in which agents must typically cooperate with others in order to satisfy their goals. In this paper, we show how it is possible to reason about QCGs using Coalition Logic (CL), a formalism intended to facilitate reasoning about coalitional powers in game-like multiagent systems. We introduce a correspondence relation (...)
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  13.  7
    Decidability in argumentation semantics.Paul E. Dunne - forthcoming - Argument and Computation:1-14.
    Much of the formal study of algorithmic concerns with respect to semantics for abstract argumentation frameworks has focused on the issue of computational complexity. In contrast matters regarding computability have been largely neglected. Recent trends in semantics have, however, started to concentrate not so much on the formulation of novel semantics but more on identifying common properties: for example, from basic ideas such as conflict-freeness through to quite sophisticated ideas such as serializability. The aim of this paper is to look (...)
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  14.  36
    A value-based argument model of convention degradation.Paul E. Dunne - 2005 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 13 (1):153-188.
    The analysis of how social conventions emerge and become established is rightly viewed as a significant study of great relevance to models of legal and social systems. Such conventions, however, do not operate in a monotonic fashion, i.e. the fact that a convention is recognised and complied with at some instant is no guarantee it will continue to be so indefinitely. In total rules and protocols may evolve, with or without the consent of individual members of the society, even to (...)
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  15.  4
    Characterizing strongly admissible sets.Paul E. Dunne - 2020 - Argument and Computation 11 (3):239-255.
    The concept of strong admissibility plays an important role in dialectical proof procedures for grounded semantics allowing, as it does, concise proofs that an argument belongs to the grounded extension without having necessarily to construct this extension in full. One consequence of this property is that strong admissibility ceases to be a unique status semantics. In fact it is straightforward to construct examples for which the number of distinct strongly admissible sets is exponential in the number of arguments. We are (...)
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  16.  1
    The maximum length of prime implicates for instances of 3-SAT.Paul E. Dunne & Trevor J. M. Bench-Capon - 1997 - Artificial Intelligence 92 (1-2):317-329.
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  17.  3
    Algorithms for decision problems in argument systems under preferred semantics.Samer Nofal, Katie Atkinson & Paul E. Dunne - 2014 - Artificial Intelligence 207 (C):23-51.
  18.  5
    Audiences in argumentation frameworks.Trevor J. M. Bench-Capon, Sylvie Doutre & Paul E. Dunne - 2007 - Artificial Intelligence 171 (1):42-71.
  19.  5
    Automata for infinite argumentation structures.Pietro Baroni, Federico Cerutti, Paul E. Dunne & Massimiliano Giacomin - 2013 - Artificial Intelligence 203 (C):104-150.
  20.  15
    Toward feasible and efficient DNA computation.Martyn Amos, Alan Gibbons & Paul E. Dunne - 1998 - Complexity 4 (1):20-24.
  21.  55
    Argumentation in AI and law: Editors' introduction. [REVIEW]Trevor J. M. Bench-Capon & Paul E. Dunne - 2005 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 13 (1):1-8.
  22.  17
    The first survey of attitudes of medical students in Ireland towards termination of pregnancy.James M. Fitzgerald, Katherine E. Krause, Darya Yermak, Suzanne Dunne, Ailish Hannigan, Walter Cullen, David Meagher, Deirdre McGrath, Paul Finucane, Calvin Coffey & Colum Dunne - 2014 - Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (10):710-713.
    Background Since the UK Abortion Act (1967), women have travelled from Ireland to the UK for legal abortion. In 2011 >4000 women did so. Knowledge and attitudes of medical students towards abortion have been published, however, this is the first such report from Ireland. Objective To investigate medical students’ attitudes towards abortion in Ireland. Methods All medical students at the University of Limerick, and physicians who graduated from the university within the previous 12 months, were invited via email to complete (...)
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  23.  18
    Augustine’s Use of the Pauline Portrayal of Peter in Galatians 2.Geoffrey D. Dunn - 2015 - Augustinian Studies 46 (1):23-42.
    The incident at Antioch described in Galatians 2:11–14 features in a number of Augustine’s works: Expositio epistulae ad Galatas, his correspondence with Jerome, De mendacio, Sermo 162C, and in De baptismo contra Donatistas. While a few scholars have seen Augustine’s anti-Donatism as a driving force behind all his comments about this encounter between Peter and Paul, this article argues that, while the idea of Peter’s humility is to be found in his commentary, the sermon, one of the letters, and (...)
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  24. What Emotions Really Are: The Problem of Psychological Categories.Paul E. Griffiths - 1997 - University of Chicago Press.
    Paul E. Griffiths argues that most research on the emotions has been as misguided as Aristotelian efforts to study "superlunary objects" - objects...
  25.  3
    On Politics and Ethics.Paul E. Thomas & Sigmund - 1988
  26. Unto Others: The Evolution and Psychology of Unselfish Behavior.Paul E. Griffiths - 2002 - Mind 111 (441):178-182.
  27.  2
    Self, society, existence.Paul E. Pfuetze - 1961 - Westport, Conn.,: Greenwood Press.
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  28. What is innateness?Paul E. Griffiths - 2001 - The Monist 85 (1):70-85.
    In behavioral ecology some authors regard the innateness concept as irretrievably confused whilst others take it to refer to adaptations. In cognitive psychology, however, whether traits are 'innate' is regarded as a significant question and is often the subject of heated debate. Several philosophers have tried to define innateness with the intention of making sense of its use in cognitive psychology. In contrast, I argue that the concept is irretrievably confused. The vernacular innateness concept represents a key aspect of 'folkbiology', (...)
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  29. Functional analysis and proper functions.Paul E. Griffiths - 1993 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 44 (3):409-422.
    The etiological approach to ‘proper functions’ in biology can be strengthened by relating it to Robert Cummins' general treatment of function ascription. The proper functions of a biological trait are the functions it is assigned in a Cummins-style functional explanation of the fitness of ancestors. These functions figure in selective explanations of the trait. It is also argued that some recent etiological theories include inaccurate accounts of selective explanation in biology. Finally, a generalization of the notion of selective explanation allows (...)
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  30. Squaring the Circle: Natural Kinds with Historical Essences.Paul E. Griffiths - 1999 - In Robert A. Wilson (ed.), Species: New Interdisciplinary Essays. MIT Press. pp. 209-228.
  31. Theory-testing in psychology and physics: A methodological paradox.Paul E. Meehl - 1967 - Philosophy of Science 34 (2):103-115.
    Because physical theories typically predict numerical values, an improvement in experimental precision reduces the tolerance range and hence increases corroborability. In most psychological research, improved power of a statistical design leads to a prior probability approaching 1/2 of finding a significant difference in the theoretically predicted direction. Hence the corroboration yielded by "success" is very weak, and becomes weaker with increased precision. "Statistical significance" plays a logical role in psychology precisely the reverse of its role in physics. This problem is (...)
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  32. Evolution, Dysfunction, and Disease: A Reappraisal.Paul E. Griffiths & John Matthewson - 2018 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 69 (2):301-327.
    Some ‘naturalist’ accounts of disease employ a biostatistical account of dysfunction, whilst others use a ‘selected effect’ account. Several recent authors have argued that the biostatistical account offers the best hope for a naturalist account of disease. We show that the selected effect account survives the criticisms levelled by these authors relatively unscathed, and has significant advantages over the BST. Moreover, unlike the BST, it has a strong theoretical rationale and can provide substantive reasons to decide difficult cases. This is (...)
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  33. The compleat autocerebroscopist: A thought-experiment on professor Feigl's mind-body identity thesis.Paul E. Meehl - 1966 - In Paul K. Feyerabend & Grover Maxwell (eds.), Mind, Matter, and Method: Essays in Philosophy and Science in Honor of Herbert Feigl. University of Minnesota Press. pp. 184-248.
     
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  34. Measuring Causal Specificity.Paul E. Griffiths, Arnaud Pocheville, Brett Calcott, Karola Stotz, Hyunju Kim & Rob Knight - 2015 - Philosophy of Science 82 (4):529-555.
    Several authors have argued that causes differ in the degree to which they are ‘specific’ to their effects. Woodward has used this idea to enrich his influential interventionist theory of causal explanation. Here we propose a way to measure causal specificity using tools from information theory. We show that the specificity of a causal variable is not well-defined without a probability distribution over the states of that variable. We demonstrate the tractability and interest of our proposed measure by measuring the (...)
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  35. What is the developmentalist challenge?Paul E. Griffiths & Robin D. Knight - 1998 - Philosophy of Science 65 (2):253-258.
    Kenneth C. Schaffner's paper is an important contribution to the literature on behavioral genetics and on genetics in general. Schaffner has a long record of injecting real molecular biology into philosophical discussions of genetics. His treatments of the reduction of Mendelian to molecular genetics first drew philosophical attention to the problems of detail that have fuelled both anti-reductionism and more sophisticated models of theory reduction. An injection of molecular detail into discussions of genetics is particularly necessary at the present time, (...)
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  36.  37
    What kind of expert should a system be?Paul E. Johnson - 1983 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 8 (1):77-97.
    Human experts are the source of knowledge required to develop computer systems that perform at an expert level. Human beings are not, however, able to reliably express what they know. As a result, experts often develop non-authentic accounts of their own expertise. These accounts, here termed reconstructed methods of reasoning, lead to computer systems that perform at a high level of proficiency but have the disadvantage that they often do not reflect the heuristics and processing constraints of a system user. (...)
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  37.  85
    The cultural evolution of emergent group-level traits.Paul E. Smaldino - 2014 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 37 (3):243-254.
    Many of the most important properties of human groups – including properties that may give one group an evolutionary advantage over another – are properly defined only at the level of group organization. Yet at present, most work on the evolution of culture has focused solely on the transmission of individual-level traits. I propose a conceptual extension of the theory of cultural evolution, particularly related to the evolutionary competition between cultural groups. The key concept in this extension is the emergent (...)
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  38. Crossing the Milvian bridge: When do evolutionary explanations of belief debunk belief?Paul E. Griffiths & John S. Wilkins - 2015 - In Phillip R. Sloan, Gerald McKenny & Kathleen Eggleson (eds.), Darwin in the Twenty-First Century: Nature, Humanity, and God. University of Notre Dame Press. pp. 201-231.
    Ever since Darwin people have worried about the sceptical implications of evolution. If our minds are products of evolution like those of other animals, why suppose that the beliefs they produce are true, rather than merely useful? In this chapter we apply this argument to beliefs in three different domains: morality, religion, and science. We identify replies to evolutionary scepticism that work in some domains but not in others. The simplest reply to evolutionary scepticism is that the truth of beliefs (...)
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  39. The concept of emergence.Paul E. Meehl & Wilfrid S. Sellars - 1956 - In Herbert Feigl & Michael Scriven (eds.), Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science. , Vol. pp. 239--252.
  40. Genes in the postgenomic era.Paul E. Griffiths & Karola Stotz - 2006 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 27 (6):499-521.
    We outline three very different concepts of the gene—instrumental, nominal, and postgenomic. The instrumental gene has a critical role in the construction and interpretation of experiments in which the relationship between genotype and phenotype is explored via hybridization between organisms or directly between nucleic acid molecules. It also plays an important theoretical role in the foundations of disciplines such as quantitative genetics and population genetics. The nominal gene is a critical practical tool, allowing stable communication between bioscientists in a wide (...)
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  41. Modularity, and the psychoevolutionary theory of emotion.Paul E. Griffiths - 1990 - Biology and Philosophy 5 (2):175-196.
    It is unreasonable to assume that our pre-scientific emotion vocabulary embodies all and only those distinctions required for a scientific psychology of emotion. The psychoevolutionary approach to emotion yields an alternative classification of certain emotion phenomena. The new categories are based on a set of evolved adaptive responses, or affect-programs, which are found in all cultures. The triggering of these responses involves a modular system of stimulus appraisal, whose evoluations may conflict with those of higher-level cognitive processes. Whilst the structure (...)
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  42. Emotions as natural and normative kinds.Paul E. Griffiths - 2004 - Philosophy of Science 71 (5):901-911.
    In earlier work I have claimed that emotion and some emotions are not `natural kinds'. Here I clarify what I mean by `natural kind', suggest a new and more accurate term, and discuss the objection that emotion and emotions are not descriptive categories at all, but fundamentally normative categories.
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  43.  20
    Aquinas: Moral, Political, and Legal Theory.Paul E. Sigmund & John Finnis - 2001 - Philosophical Review 110 (1):129.
  44.  87
    The historical turn in the study of adaptation.Paul E. Griffiths - 1996 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 47 (4):511-532.
    A number of philosophers and ‘evolutionary psychologists’ have argued that attacks on adaptationism in contemporary biology are misguided. These thinkers identify anti-adaptationism with advocacy of non-adaptive modes of explanation. They overlook the influence of anti-adaptationism in the development of more rigorous forms of adaptive explanation. Many biologists who reject adaptationism do not reject Darwinism. Instead, they have pioneered the contemporary historical turn in the study of adaptation. One real issue which remains unresolved amongst these methodological advances is the nature of (...)
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  45. Innateness, canalization, and 'biologicizing the mind'.Paul E. Griffiths & Edouard Machery - 2008 - Philosophical Psychology 21 (3):397 – 414.
    This article examines and rejects the claim that 'innateness is canalization'. Waddington's concept of canalization is distinguished from the narrower concept of environmental canalization with which it is often confused. Evidence is presented that the concept of environmental canalization is not an accurate analysis of the existing concept of innateness. The strategy of 'biologicizing the mind' by treating psychological or behavioral traits as if they were environmentally canalized physiological traits is criticized using data from developmental psychobiology. It is concluded that (...)
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  46. Function, homology and character individuation.Paul E. Griffiths - 2006 - Philosophy of Science 73 (1):1-25.
    I defend the view that many biological categories are defined by homology against a series of arguments designed to show that all biological categories are defined, at least in part, by selected function. I show that categories of homology are `abnormality inclusive'—something often alleged to be unique to selected function categories. I show that classifications by selected function are logically dependent on classifications by homology, but not vice-versa. Finally, I reject the view that biologists must use considerations of selected function (...)
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  47. Darwinism and Developmental Systems.Paul E. Griffiths & Russell D. Gray - 2001 - In Susan Oyama, Paul Griffiths & Russell D. Gray (eds.), Cycles of Contingency: Developmental Systems and Evolution. MIT Press. pp. 195-218.
     
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  48.  42
    The Case for Kidney Donation Before End-of-Life Care.Paul E. Morrissey - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics 12 (6):1-8.
    Donation after cardiac death (DCD) is associated with many problems, including ischemic injury, high rates of delayed allograft function, and frequent organ discard. Furthermore, many potential DCD donors fail to progress to asystole in a manner that would enable safe organ transplantation and no organs are recovered. DCD protocols are based upon the principle that the donor must be declared dead prior to organ recovery. A new protocol is proposed whereby after a donor family agrees to withdrawal of life-sustaining treatments, (...)
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  49. Replicator II – judgement day.Paul E. Griffiths & Russell D. Gray - 1997 - Biology and Philosophy 12 (4):471-492.
    The Developmental Systems approach to evolution is defended against the alternative extended replicator approach of Sterelny, Smith and Dickison (1996). A precise definition is provided of the spatial and temporal boundaries of the life-cycle that DST claims is the unit of evolution. Pacé Sterelny et al., the extended replicator theory is not a bulwark against excessive holism. Everything which DST claims is replicated in evolution can be shown to be an extended replicator on Sterelny et al.s definition. Reasons are given (...)
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  50.  87
    Daily Life in Western Africa During the Era of the "Slave Route".Paul E. Lovejoy - 1997 - Diogenes 45 (179):1-19.
    The slave route from Africa to the Americas is as old as the contact between Europe and the New World itself, and the slave route across the Sahara is older still. Hence to describe the lives of ordinary people in western Africa during the era of slavery would require an examination of the whole of African history over the past five hundred years and more. And in Africa, as in Europe and the Americas, there was tremendous change over this period (...)
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