Eye movements during false-belief tasks can reveal an individual's capacity to implicitly monitor others' mental states (theory of mind - ToM). It has been suggested, based on the results of a single-trial-experiment, that this ability is impaired in those with a high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD), despite neurotypical-like performance on explicit ToM measures. However, given there are known attention differences and visual hypersensitivities in ASD it is important to establish whether such impairments are evident over time. In addition, investigating implicit (...) ToM using a repeated trial approach allows an assessment of whether learning processes can reduce the ASD impairment in this ability, as is the case with explicit ToM. Here we investigated the temporal profile of implicit ToM in individuals with ASD and a control group. Despite similar performance on explicit ToM measures, ASD-diagnosed individuals showed no evidence of implicit false-belief tracking even over a one-hour period and many trials, whereas control participants did. These findings demonstrate that the systems involved in implicit and explicit ToM are distinct and hint that impaired implicit false-belief tracking may play an important role in ASD. Further, they indicate that learning processes do not alleviate this impairment across the presentation of multiple trials. (shrink)
The question of whether object recognition is orientation-invariant or orientation-dependent was investigated using a repetition blindness (RB) paradigm. In RB, the second occurrence of a repeated stimulus is less likely to be reported, compared to the occurrence of a different stimulus, if it occurs within a short time of the first presentation. This failure is usually interpreted as a difficulty in assigning two separate episodic tokens to the same visual type. Thus, RB can provide useful information about which representations are (...) treated as the same by the visual system. Two experiments tested whether RB occurs for repeated objects that were either in identical orientations, or differed by 30, 60, 90, or 180°. Significant RB was found for all orientation differences, consistent with the existence of orientation-invariant object representations. However, under some circumstances, RB was reduced or even eliminated when the repeated object was rotated by 180°, suggesting easier individuation of the repeated objects in this case. A third experiment confirmed that the upside-down orientation is processed more easily than other rotated orientations. The results indicate that, although object identity can be determined independently of orientation, orientation plays an important role in establishing distinct episodic representations of a repeated object, thus enabling one to report them as separate events. (shrink)
Spatial asymmetries are an intriguing feature of directed attention. Recent observations indicate an influence of temperament upon the direction of these asymmetries. It is unknown whether this influence generalises to visual orienting behaviour. The aim of the current study was therefore to explore the relationship between temperament and measures of spatial orienting as a function of target hemifield. An exogenous cueing task was administered to 92 healthy participants. Temperament was assessed using Carver and White's (1994) Behavioural Inhibition System and Behavioural (...) Activation System (BIS/BAS) scales. Individuals with high sensitivity to punishment and low sensitivity to reward showed a leftward asymmetry of directed attention when there was no informative spatial cue provided. This asymmetry was not present when targets were preceded by spatial cues that were either valid or invalid. The findings support the notion that individual variations in temperament influence spatial asymmetries in visual orienting, but only when lateral targets are preceded by a non-directional (neutral) cue. The results are discussed in terms of hemispheric asymmetries and dopamine activity. (shrink)
Do the previous termviewpoint costsnext term incurred when naming rotated familiar objects arise during initial identification or during previous termconsolidation?next term To answer this question we employed an attentional blink (AB) task where two target objects appeared amongst a rapid stream of distractor objects. Our assumption was that while both targets and distractors undergo initial identification only targets are consolidated in a form that allows overt report. We presented line drawings of objects with a usual upright canonical orientation, and separately (...) manipulated the orientation of targets and distractors. In two experiments, targets were defined by colour, whereas in a third experiment they were defined by semantic category. Target 1 orientation influenced the AB, with objects rotated by 90° causing a larger second target deficit than upright and upside-down objects. However, distractor orientation did not affect the magnitude of the second target deficit, regardless of whether targets were defined by colour or semantic category. Taken together, these findings suggest that the visual representations involved in the preliminary recognition of familiar objects are previous termviewpointnext term-invariant and that previous termviewpoint costsnext term are incurred when these objects are consolidated for report. (shrink)
The apolipoprotein E gene plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease , and amyloid plaque comprised mostly of the amyloid-beta peptide ) is one of the major hallmarks of AD. However, the relationship between these two important molecules is poorly understood. We examined how A treatment affects APOE expression in cultured cells and tested the role of the transcription factor NF-B in APOE gene regulation. To delineate NF-B's role, we have characterized a 1098 nucleotide segment containing the (...) 5'-flanking region of the human APOE gene . Sequence analysis of this region suggests the presence of two potential NF-B elements. To demonstrate promoter activity, the region was cloned upstream of a promoterless luciferase gene. This segment was able to drive expression of luciferase in transient transfections of human fetal glial cells. Promoter activity was stimulated twofold by A treatment. Pretreatment with double-stranded DNA decoy oligonucleotides against NF-B reduced A stimulation. Deletion and mutagenetic analyses demonstrated that the distal NF-B element was functional and showed a strong DNA-protein complex band in gel shift analysis, similar to that from control NF-B consensus element. An anti-inflammatory and anti-NF-B drug, sodium salicylate, significantly blocked A-induced APOE promoter function. Our data provide evidence that upregulation of APOE by A in astroglial cells is mediated by an NF-B-element present in the 5'-flanking region of the APOE gene. (shrink)
This is Volume I of a new series entitled Aquinas Scripture Commentaries. With the exception of the nineteenth century Oxford translation of Aquinas' Gospel Commentaries, Aquinas the exegete has not been available in English. It is hoped that this Magi Books series will fill this gap soon, though no definite prospectus of further titles other than this and the one mentioned below has been set forth by the publisher. Aquinas' Scripture Commentaries, like his Commentaries on the Aristotelian corpus, follow the (...) lectio form of line by line and structural interpretation of the entire text. This literal approach to Biblical exegesis is mediated, however, by the systematic philosophical and theological perspective Aquinas brings to bear on the text. The result of this union is a Commentary which has quite a bit more than simply historical importance. The translation is smooth and the book has been turned out in a reasonably scholarly fashion.—E. A. R. (shrink)
Selections from "twentieth century sources" which include Moore, Broad, Price, Paul, Lewis, Chisholm, and Warnock. Sense data and phenomenalism are the most heavily represented topics. The choice is substantial, and the editor has skillfully arranged selections in pairs which take up opposite sides of the same problem. This appears to be the best buy in paper on this subject.—E. A. R.
This is an excellent addition to Bobbs-Merrill's "Text and Commentary Series." In addition to the text of the Principles, there are eleven critical essays, three of which are original with this volume. Turbayne has arranged the essays to parallel the unfolding of the major themes in the Principles. Thus, he himself opens with "Berkeley's Metaphysical Grammar," which picks up and develops the theme of the centrality of the study of language to the philosophical enterprise, a point Berkeley makes in his (...) "Preface." Next, W. H. Hay and Richard Van Iten are paired together with different perspectives on Berkeley's nominalism. By way of comment on esse is percipi, G. E. Moore and W. T. Stace present their respective refutations of idealism and realism. Richard Popkin discusses skepticism and Berkeley. Popper examines the ways in which Berkeley anticipated Mach and Einstein, as well as significant features of contemporary philosophy of science. Turbayne and Cornman offer differing appraisals of the philosophy of mind that is sketched in the Principles. Paul Olscamp attempts to systematize the elements of Berkeley's critical theory. Finally, J. D. Mabbott treats of "The Place of God in Berkeley's Philosophy" and argues for a radical voluntarism in Berkeley--a not surprising analysis, but one which often gets buried under the epistemological issues raised in the Principles. Turbayne has also supplied an excellent introduction, a chronology of Berkeley's life, a working bibliography, and an analytical index. This enhances the usefulness of an already first-rate book.--E. A. R. (shrink)
The essays in this volume are certainly first rate, as is Natanson's introduction, which attempts to outline the more salient features of phenomenology as a method for philosophy and a philosophical evaluation of the other sciences. Included are Erwin Straus' "The Upright Posture," a translation of Sartre's "Faces" and "Official Portraits," Schutz's "Some Leading Concepts of Phenomenology," and Spiegelberg's "How Subjective is Phenomenology?" A balance between actual phenomenological analyses and historical and critical evaluations of phenomenology itself is attempted and achieved. (...) Other contributors include Aron Gurwitsch, James Street Fulton, Harmon Chapman, Michael Kullman and Charles Taylor, Fritz Kaufmann, and Paul-Louis Landsberg.—E. A. R. (shrink)
This slim volume can best be characterized as a condensed reworking of the theme of The Phenomenon of Man. Of course, as more and more of Teilhard's work becomes available, it becomes clear that everything he wrote is an earlier transcription or later reworking of the themes of "corpusculization," "biogenesis," "noogenesis," in short, Teilhard's dominantly stated theme of "anthropogenesis." To these teleologically generated levels of emergence of the primordial unity of spirit and matter-categoreally expressed in terms of the internal relatedness (...) of "inner" and "outer"—the theologian, and indeed Teilhard, would want to add Christogenesis—what St. Paul terms "the filling out of Christ's body." It seems hopeless to expect that Teilhard's sweeping synthesis will ever be able to meet the logical tests required by even the broad consensus in contemporary philosophy of science. Perhaps this consensus will have to be adjusted. But insofar as Teilhard claims to have presented a scientific theory, some criteria of meaning and truth will have to be met. But this is a challenge, not a rebuttal.—E. A. R. (shrink)
The title of this work is a somewhat saucy overstatement of its thesis—that perceivers seek in works of art experiences of "discontinuity" and "disorientation," as a kind of "rehearsal" for "real life" situations in which they must negotiate intellectual tensions, resulting from a disparity between what they expect and what actually happens. Art-perceiving, the author asserts, is a "biological, adaptive" mechanism characteristic of the human organism. Peckham, like most thoughtful readers of art history, is irritated by the preposterous assertions that (...) man's perceptions are a mad, disorderly blizzard of phenomena, and the artist alone can bring "order" to the mess. Of course, it is obvious that neither of these notions is very sensible, but the unfortunate truth about the lay psychology of most criticism is that Dr. Peckham's assertions in this connection will probably be regarded as controversial in many departments of literature and fine arts. The author is at his best when barbedly [[sic]] criticizing his colleagues; he is at less than his best, however, when he assumes the mantle of philosophical psychology in order to bring authority to his arguments. Intent upon finding confirmation in both the fashionable and passe schools of behavioral science and philosophy, he masses gluts of aphorisms from Gestalt psychology, Husserl, Heidegger, Susanne Langer, and Paul Ziff (the last pair being very indiscreetly aligned to form notions which are no less intuitive than those of the various art-historians he is admonishing. In the area of psychology, Peckham ignores all of the current approaches, and in the area of philosophy he refers to linguistic analysis or philosophy of science as though each were substantively and methodologically unified, and possessed clear-cut views about the universe. Peckham's central thesis, moreover, leaves one unable to distinguish a work of creative physics from a novel.—E. H. W. (shrink)
These commemorative papers on different aspects of Dewey's philosophy vary in quality. The essay by Paul Henle on "Dewey's Views on Truth and Verification" is excellent; and Gardner Murphy's reflections on Dewey's psychology are noteworthy. --E. S. C.
Doctors have been placed in an anomalous position by abortion laws which sanction the termination of a fetus while in a woman's womb, yet call it murder when a physician attempts to end the life of a fetus which has somehow survived such a procedure. This predicament, the doctors' dilemma, can be resolved by adopting a strategy which posits the right to ownership of one's own body for human beings. Such an approach will generate a consistent policy prescription, one that (...) sanctions the right of all pregnant women to abortions, yet grants the fetus, after it becomes viable as a potentially independent person, a right to its own body. The doctors' dilemma is surmounted, then, by requiring that abortions of viable fetuses be performed in a manner that will produce a live delivery. Hence, infanticide and termination of viable fetuses are proscribed. (shrink)
Starting from the antagonism represented by the concurrent projects of JeanPaul Sartre and Michel Foucault in the context of the “sixties”, this article aims to discern the impasses and dilemmas of the theory and the political action in the scope of the contemporary French thought, highlighting the role of intellectuals in the contemporary philosophical time.
Paul E. Meehl and B. F. Skinner, two of the foremost psychological theorists of the 20th century, overlapped at the University of Minnesota in the early 1940s when Skinner was a faculty member and Meehl was a graduate student. Though Skinner was well aware of, and influenced by, early 20th century physiology, he eschewed reductionism, developing his analysis of behavior without reference to concepts at another level of analysis. Meehl's theoretical approach transcended levels of analysis, drawing upon data and (...) concepts from genetics, neuroscience, and psychology. In this paper the functional components of Meehl's (1990) "Toward an Integrated Theory of Schizotaxia, Schizotypy, and Schizophrenia" paper are re-formulated substituting autism as the condition of interest. Skinner's and Meehl's theoretical frameworks are integrated with recent findings in genetics and neuroscience in an attempt to better understand the reasons why Intensive Early Behavior Therapy (IEBT) provided to children with Autism Spectrum Disorders produces enduring improvements in social, language, and cognitive functioning. (shrink)
According to the distinguished philosopher Richard Wollheim, an emotion is an extended mental episode that originates when events in the world frustrate or satisfy a pre-existing desire. This leads the subject to form an attitude to the world which colours their future experience, leading them to attend to one aspect of things rather than another, and to view the things they attend to in one light rather than another. The idea that emotions arise from the satisfaction or frustration of desires—the (...) ‘match-mismatch’ view of emotion aetiology—has had several earlier incarnations in the psychology of emotion. Early versions of this proposal were associated with the attempt to replace the typology of emotion found in ordinary language with a simpler theory of drives and to define new emotion types in terms of general properties such as the frustration of a drive. The match-mismatch view survived the demise of that revisionist project and is found today in theories that accept a folk-psychological-style taxonomy of emotion types based on the meaning ascribed by the subject to the stimulus situation. For example, the match-mismatch view forms part of the subtle and complex model of emotion episodes developed over many years by Nico Frijda. According to Frijda, information about the ‘situational antecedents’ of an emotion—the stimulus in its context, including the ongoing goals of the organism—is evaluated for its relevance to the multiple concerns of the organism. Evaluation of match-mismatch—the degree of compatibility between the situation and the subject's goals—forms part of this process. (shrink)
Este trabalho pretende acompanhar o trajeto ricoeuriano em O si- mesmo como um outro em busca de uma interpretação ontológica dos resultados alcançados com a hermenêutica do si-mesmo. A ontologia de Paul Ricoeur possui como centro o agir humano, ainda que pretenda preservar a polissemia do ser, isto é, manter-se plural em meio aos muitos modos de dizer o si. Acompanhamos, deste modo, a proposta ontológica de Paul Ricoeur dotada de um caráter fragmentário que passa por filosofias como (...) as de Aristóteles, Heidegger, Spinoza, Lévinas e Husserl. O declarado caráter especulativo de sua proposta ontológica se direciona principalmente ao entendimento da manutenção de si a partir da relação com a alteridade. (shrink)
Meu objetivo é refletir sobre a lógica do perdão como manifestação da justiça a partir da contribuição filosófica de Paul Ricoeur. Pretendo igualmente refletir sobre o papel da tradição cristã nas leis e na política a partir da perspectiva da justiça. Para tanto, esse debate será articulado em torno de três pressupostos fundamentais: primeiro, a lógica do perdão está para além do esquecimento e da vingança; segundo, o perdão se insere na perspectiva do dom e da gratuidade; enfim, a (...) ideia de reabilitação do ser humano capaz de ser bom e justo que está presente nas lógicas do perdão e da justiça judiciária. Em minha opinião, esta é uma maneira de dar sentido ao discurso religioso em nossa cultura secular. (shrink)
O objetivo deste artigo é traçar como, no pensamento de Paul Ricœur, a narração e a sua especificidade da linguagem religiosa permeiam um acontecimento in illo tempore que dá ao ser humano uma orientação temporal que carrega um acontecimento passado para um futuro que, em certo sentido, é preenchido pela esperança e, com isto, coroando o esforço do existir do ser humano. O artigo fundamenta-se principalmente nas obras de Ricœur, tais como: O conflito das interpretações, A hermenêutica bíblica, Manifestation (...) et Proclamation e Do texto à ação. Discute-se a questão de, em Ricœur, a linguagem religiosa oferecer a garantia do acolhimento da revelação como palavra inacessível e, com isso, faz com que o ser humano decida por essa como um dom gratuito. Ela redescreve a realidade. Um processo realizado por meio da linguagem metafórica e simbólica. Neste sentido, o símbolo tem um sentido que pode ser reapropriado por quem o interpreta. Por fim, afirma-se que, em Ricœur, o texto sagrado, especificamente o texto bíblico, é uma janela aberta, uma possibilidade tanto do processo ético de nomeação de Deus como também da abertura e da complexidade poética da construção do texto. (shrink)
O texto trata da relação entre hermenêutica e subjetividade, examinando, em particular, a sua configuração no pensamento de Friedrich Schleiermacher e de Paul Ricoeur. A sua discussão situa-se no contexto do giro linguístico, destacando, entretanto, uma concepção diferenciada da linguagem, transformada ela mesma em objeto de interpretação. É uma concepção diferenciada que permite e requer a hermenêutica e a sua relação com a subjetividade. O que orienta toda a discussão é a tese de que a hermenêutica, enquanto arte de (...) compreensão e de interpretação, é produto da modernidade, mas é também a sua superação. (shrink)
Obiettivo della presente indagine è la ricostruzione di una circolarità ermeneutica tra alcune delle categorie più puramente psicologiche dell’elaborazione di Paul Ricoeur e i concetti chiave della sua analisi morale, giuridica e politica. Ciò cercando di evidenziare le ascendenze e i confronti intellettuali del Ricoeur teoretico, ritrovandone gli esiti in sede più esplicitamente giuridico-sociale, in un excursus che mira all’ipotesi di una fondazione categoriale rizomatica del pensiero politico di Paul Ricoeur.
Este trabalho aborda a narração de Deus como fonte de sentido para vida no contexto das tradições religiosas que se fundam na leitura e apropriação de textos tidos como sagrados. A partir da hipótese de que a fé monoteísta é fundamentalmente uma “fé textual”, o presente trabalho toma por referencial teórico o pensamento do filósofo francês Paul Ricoeur. O objetivo a que me proponho é apresentar de forma sintética traços de sua hermenêutica bíblica a partir da articulação entre interpretação, (...) tradição e tradução. O percurso deste ensaio conduz inicialmente à teoria do texto de Ricoeur, em seguida aborda sua fenomenologia hermenêutica da consciência religiosa da falta, para enfim buscar a articulação entre tradição e tradução em uma leitura filosófica da bíblia. A articulação entre as hermenêuticas bíblica e filosófica aponta para a possibilidade do desenvolvimento de uma filosofia da religião que tem por propósito pensar mais e de maneira diferente a contribuição da leitura dos textos religiosos para a busca de sentido da existência humana. Para tanto, se faz necessário o respeito pela pluralidade de crenças e práticas no interior e fora das diversas tradições religiosas. Palavras-chave: Hermenêutica. Texto. Tradição. Tradução.This paper approaches the narration of God as a source of meaning to life in the context of religious traditions that are based on reading and appropriation of texts considered sacred. From the hypothesis that the monotheistic faith is fundamentally a "textual faith", this paper takes as a theoretical framework the thought of the French philosopher Paul Ricoeur. I intend to present in a synthetic trace his biblical hermeneutics from the relationship between interpretation, translation and tradition. This paper initially gets to the theory of Ricoeur’s texts, and then approaches his hermeneutic phenomenology of the religious consciousness of fault; finally it searches for the relationship between tradition and translation in a philosophical reading of the Bible. The articulation between the biblical and philosophical hermeneutics points to the possibility of developing a philosophy of religion that wants to think in a different way the contribution of reading religious texts in the search for meaning of human existence. Therefore, it is necessary to respect the diversity of beliefs and practices inside and outside of the various religious traditions. Keywords: Hermeneutics. Text. Tradition. Translation. (shrink)
As published, the authorship for this article is incorrect. Coauthor Hilda Helena Soares Bentes was omitted due to an editorial error. The correct citation is: Bentes, Hilda and Salles, Sergio. Paul Ricoeur e o humanismo jurídico moderno: O reconhecimento do sujeito de direito. Études Ricoeuriennes / Ricoeur Studies vol. 2, no. 2 : 106–117. The online version reflects these changes.
A respectiva pesquisa procurou estabelecer a relação de influência da filosofia de Søren Kierkegaard sobre a construção teológica de Paul Tillich. Para tanto, utilizamos como pano de fundo ou estrutura argumentativa o conceito de Desespero humano de Kierkegaard, comparando-o ao conceito de Alienação do ser de Tillich. Objetivamos com isso, demonstrar o entrelaçamento dialogal composto no desenvolvimento da chamada doutrina do pecado original em ambos os autores. Isto é, como o desdobramento da antropologia kierkegaardiana problematizou os fundamentos da teologia (...) sistemática, sobretudo, na questão da harmatiologia, e, como esta mesma problematização, foi capaz de padronizar o modus operandi que determinou a elaboração feita por Tillich sobre o mesmo assunto. Obviamente, que, no decorrer dessa investigação, não se pretendeu “desqualificar” ou “eliminar” a originalidade dos autores, nem tampouco transformar seus argumentos em uma espécie de amálgama conceitual. Assim, antes de uma suposta crítica de ter se proposto uma “fusão arbitrária de ideias”, buscamos, mais uma vez apontar soluções de dialéticas e centros comuns, que apontem para aqueles elementos de convergência, aonde de fato, o diálogo é possível. (shrink)
O presente artigo pretende dar sentido à afirmação feita, mais do que uma vez, por Paul Ricoeur, de que a sua filosofia poderia ser vista como um kantismo pós-hege-liano. Nesse contexto, o artigo procura abordar o pensar ricoeuriano mostrando de que modo ele se instaura e se desenvolve no horizonte kantiano de uma filosofia dos limites do saber. Essa abordagem é desenvolvida em dois momentos. O primeiro dirige-se à leitura que Paul Ricoeur faz da Crítica da Razão Pura (...) de Kant. O segundo centrar-se-à em três momentos fulcrais da Filosofia de Paul Ricoeur - a definição do seu projecto Filosofia da Vontade, a figura própria da sua Hermenêutica e o filosofema inovação semântica - evidenciando em cada um deles a ressonância da herança kantiana. /// Aim of this article is to to explore the meaning of Paul Ricoeur's persistent characterization of his own work as a post-Hegelian Kantism. In view of this end, the article demonstrates that Ricoeur's thinking is at once rooted and developed within the horizon of Kant's critical philosophy of limits in regard to knowledge. This can be shown by first considering Ricoeur's reading of the first Critique, and then centering on three decisive moments of Ricoeur's philosophy, to wit, the formulation of the project developed in the Philosophy of Will, the shape of his theory of hermeneutics, and his notion of semantic innovation that can be conceived as a philosophema. The Kantian influence can be seen to resonate in all three instances. (shrink)
Este trabalho foi desenvolvido a partir de uma apresentação feita na IV Semana Didático-Cultural e I Congresso de Pesquisa e Extensão da UEMG – Campus Barbacena. O título deste evento era História: Identidade e memória , e seu símbolo o quadro Angelus Novus de Paul Klee. Nosso objetivo era o de apresentar a relação entre o quadro e a temática do evento, para isso buscamos o apoio de três autores: Benjamin, dono do quadro, que demarcou a sua interpretação do (...) Angelus Novus comparando-o com o Anjo da história; Scholem, herdeiro do mesmo após a morte de seu amigo Benjamin, autor de um poema sobre o quadro de Klee; e Kafka, escritor que sempre povoou o debate epistolar dos dois anteriores, e que, apesar de não ter tido contato com o quadro de Klee, descreve o cenário em que é possível a sua produção. Por fim reavaliamos o quadro a partir do humor judaico que unifica a estes três autores, afim de redimensionar o valor de alerta representado pelo semblante aterrorizado do anjo de Klee. Nesta versão escrita a seqüência dos argumentos foi mantida, mas o texto foi substancialmente alterado para se adaptar ao novo veículo de divulgação. (shrink)