Results for 'Paul E. Dux'

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  1.  18
    Getting back from the basics: What is the role for attention and fronto-parietal circuits in consciousness?Paul E. Dux - 2016 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 39.
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  2.  20
    On the fate of distractor stimuli in rapid serial visual presentation.Paul E. Dux, Veronika Coltheart & Irina M. Harris - 2006 - Cognition 99 (3):355-383.
  3.  32
    Viewpoint costs occur during consolidation: Evidence from the attentional blink.Paul E. Dux & Irina M. Harris - 2007 - Cognition 104 (1):47-58.
    Do the previous termviewpoint costsnext term incurred when naming rotated familiar objects arise during initial identification or during previous termconsolidation?next term To answer this question we employed an attentional blink (AB) task where two target objects appeared amongst a rapid stream of distractor objects. Our assumption was that while both targets and distractors undergo initial identification only targets are consolidated in a form that allows overt report. We presented line drawings of objects with a usual upright canonical orientation, and separately (...)
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  4.  22
    Task instructions and implicit theory of mind.Dana Schneider, Zoie E. Nott & Paul E. Dux - 2014 - Cognition 133 (1):43-47.
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  5.  82
    Orientation-invariant object recognition: evidence from repetition blindness.Irina M. Harris & Paul E. Dux - 2005 - Cognition 95 (1):73-93.
    The question of whether object recognition is orientation-invariant or orientation-dependent was investigated using a repetition blindness (RB) paradigm. In RB, the second occurrence of a repeated stimulus is less likely to be reported, compared to the occurrence of a different stimulus, if it occurs within a short time of the first presentation. This failure is usually interpreted as a difficulty in assigning two separate episodic tokens to the same visual type. Thus, RB can provide useful information about which representations are (...)
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  6.  37
    Understanding recovery from object substitution masking.Stephanie C. Goodhew, Paul E. Dux, Ottmar V. Lipp & Troy A. W. Visser - 2012 - Cognition 122 (3):405-415.
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  7.  17
    Attentional asymmetries in a visual orienting task are related to temperament.Kelly G. Garner, Paul E. Dux, Joe Wagner, Tarrant D. R. Cummins, Christopher D. Chambers & Mark A. Bellgrove - 2012 - Cognition and Emotion 26 (8):1508-1515.
  8.  44
    Attentional asymmetries in a visual orienting task are related to temperament.Kelly G. Garner, Paul E. Dux, Joe Wagner, D. R. Tarrant, Christopher D. Chambers & A. Mark - 2012 - Cognition and Emotion 26 (8):1508-1515.
    Spatial asymmetries are an intriguing feature of directed attention. Recent observations indicate an influence of temperament upon the direction of these asymmetries. It is unknown whether this influence generalises to visual orienting behaviour. The aim of the current study was therefore to explore the relationship between temperament and measures of spatial orienting as a function of target hemifield. An exogenous cueing task was administered to 92 healthy participants. Temperament was assessed using Carver and White's (1994) Behavioural Inhibition System and Behavioural (...)
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  9.  16
    Current evidence for automatic Theory of Mind processing in adults.Dana Schneider, Virginia P. Slaughter & Paul E. Dux - 2017 - Cognition 162 (C):27-31.
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  10.  57
    A temporally sustained implicit theory of mind deficit in autism spectrum disorders.Dana Schneider, Virginia P. Slaughter, Andrew P. Bayliss & Paul E. Dux - 2013 - Cognition 129 (2):410-417.
    Eye movements during false-belief tasks can reveal an individual's capacity to implicitly monitor others' mental states (theory of mind - ToM). It has been suggested, based on the results of a single-trial-experiment, that this ability is impaired in those with a high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD), despite neurotypical-like performance on explicit ToM measures. However, given there are known attention differences and visual hypersensitivities in ASD it is important to establish whether such impairments are evident over time. In addition, investigating implicit (...)
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  11.  14
    Evidence for distinct contributions of form and motion information to the recognition of emotions from body gestures.Wataru Sato, Sakiko Yoshikawa, Edouard Machery, Paul E. Dux, Irina M. Harris, Anthony P. Atkinson, Mary L. Tunstall, Winand H. Dittrich, Francesco Pavani & Giovanni Galfano - 2007 - Cognition 104 (1):59-72.
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  12.  41
    Implicit semantic perception in object substitution masking.Stephanie C. Goodhew, Troy A. W. Visser, Ottmar V. Lipp & Paul E. Dux - 2011 - Cognition 118 (1):130-134.
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  13.  12
    7 The Fearless Vampire Conservator: Philip Kitcher, Genetic Determinism, and the Informational Gene.Paul E. Griffiths - 2006 - In Eva M. Neumann-Held, Christoph Rehmann-Sutter, Barbara Herrnstein Smith & E. Roy Weintraub (eds.), Genes in Development: Re-reading the Molecular Paradigm. Duke University Press. pp. 175-198.
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  14.  6
    Hermann Cohen and the crisis of liberalism: the enchantment of the public sphere.Paul E. Nahme - 2019 - Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, Office of Scholarly Publishing, Herman B Wells Library.
    Religion, reason, and the enchanted public sphere -- Minor protest(ant)s: Cohen and German-Jewish liberalism -- The dialectic of enchantment: science, religion, and secular reasoning -- Rights, religion, and race: Cohen's ethical socialism and the specter of anti-Semitism -- Enchanted reasoning: self-reflexive religion and minority -- Some minor reflections of enchantment.
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  15.  14
    Epistles of the Brethren of Purity: Sciences of the soul and intellect.Paul E. Walker, Ismail K. Poonawala, David Simonowitz & Godefroid de Callataÿ (eds.) - 2015 - Oxford: Oxford University Press, in association with the Institute of Ismaili Studies.
    The Ikhwan al-Safa (Brethren of Purity), the anonymous adepts of a tenth-century esoteric fraternity based in Basra and Baghdad, hold an eminent position in the history of science and philosophy in Islam due to the wide reception and assimilation of their monumental encyclopaedia, the Rasa'il Ikhwan al-Safa (Epistles of the Brethren of Purity). This compendium contains fifty-two epistles offering synoptic accounts of the classical sciences and philosophies of the age; divided into four classificatory parts, it treats themes in mathematics, logic, (...)
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  16. Virtue Habituation and the Skill of Emotion Regulation.Paul E. Carron - 2021 - In Tom P. S. Angier & Lisa Ann Raphals (eds.), Skill in Ancient Ethics: The Legacy of China, Greece and Rome. New York: Bloomsbury Academic. pp. pp. 115-140.
    In Nicomachean Ethics 2.1, Aristotle draws a now familiar analogy between aretai ('virtues') and technai ('skills'). The apparent basis of this comparison is that both virtue and skill are developed through practice and repetition, specifically by the learner performing the same kinds of actions as the expert: in other words, we become virtuous by performing virtuous actions. Aristotle’s claim that “like states arise from like activities” has led some philosophers to challenge the virtue-skill analogy. In particular, Aristotle’s skill analogy is (...)
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  17.  5
    On Politics and Ethics.Paul E. Thomas & Sigmund - 1988
  18.  35
    Kitab al-Iftikhar.Paul E. Walker, Abu Yaqub Ishaq B. Ahmad Al-Sijistani & Ismail K. Poonawala - 2002 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 122 (3):659.
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  19. Theory-testing in psychology and physics: A methodological paradox.Paul E. Meehl - 1967 - Philosophy of Science 34 (2):103-115.
    Because physical theories typically predict numerical values, an improvement in experimental precision reduces the tolerance range and hence increases corroborability. In most psychological research, improved power of a statistical design leads to a prior probability approaching 1/2 of finding a significant difference in the theoretically predicted direction. Hence the corroboration yielded by "success" is very weak, and becomes weaker with increased precision. "Statistical significance" plays a logical role in psychology precisely the reverse of its role in physics. This problem is (...)
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  20. The compleat autocerebroscopist: A thought-experiment on professor Feigl's mind-body identity thesis.Paul E. Meehl - 1966 - In Paul K. Feyerabend & Grover Maxwell (eds.), Mind, Matter, and Method: Essays in Philosophy and Science in Honor of Herbert Feigl. University of Minnesota Press. pp. 184-248.
     
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  21.  9
    The Degradation of Ethics Through the Holocaust.Paul E. Wilson - 2023 - Springer Nature Switzerland.
    This book discusses ethical behavior through the genocidal stages of the Holocaust. Paul E. Wilson first looks at the antisemitism in Germany and Europe beginning in the decades preceding the Nazis reign of terror, and goes on to discuss the ethical decisions made in the initial stages that moved society toward genocide. The author maintains that the stages of genocide represent subtle changes that can be happening within a society in response to the moral choices made by actors. By (...)
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  22. Comte et Saint-Simon.Paul Émile] Dubuisson - 1906 - Paris,: Au siège de la Société positiviste internationale.
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  23. La finalité de fait en biologie.Paul Émile Pilet - 1963 - Torino,: Edizioni di filosofia.
     
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  24. The concept of emergence.Paul E. Meehl & Wilfrid S. Sellars - 1956 - In Herbert Feigl & Michael Scriven (eds.), Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science. , Vol. pp. 239--252.
  25. What Emotions Really Are: The Problem of Psychological Categories.Paul E. Griffiths - 1997 - University of Chicago Press.
    Paul E. Griffiths argues that most research on the emotions has been as misguided as Aristotelian efforts to study "superlunary objects" - objects...
  26. Unto Others: The Evolution and Psychology of Unselfish Behavior.Paul E. Griffiths - 2002 - Mind 111 (441):178-182.
  27.  60
    The Miracle Argument for realism: An important lesson to be learned by generalizing from Carrier’s counter-examples.Paul E. Meehl - 1991 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 23 (2):267-282.
  28.  91
    Specific etiology and other forms of strong influence: Some quantitative meanings.Paul E. Meehl - 1977 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 2 (1):33-53.
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  29.  98
    Cliometric metatheory III: Peircean consensus, verisimilitude, and asymptotic method.Paul E. Meehl - 2004 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 55 (4):615-643.
    Statistical procedures can be applied to episodes in the history of science in order to weight attributes to predict short-term survival of theories; an asymptotic method is used to show that short-term survival is a valid proxy for ultimate survival; and a theoretical argument is made that ultimate survival is a valid proxy for objective truth. While realists will appreciate this last step, instrumentalists do not need it to benefit from the actuarial procedures of cliometric metatheory. Introduction A plausible proxy (...)
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  30. On the logic of the ontological argument.Paul E. Oppenheimer & Edward N. Zalta - 1991 - Philosophical Perspectives 5:509-529.
    In this paper, the authors show that there is a reading of St. Anselm's ontological argument in Proslogium II that is logically valid (the premises entail the conclusion). This reading takes Anselm's use of the definite description "that than which nothing greater can be conceived" seriously. Consider a first-order language and logic in which definite descriptions are genuine terms, and in which the quantified sentence "there is an x such that..." does not imply "x exists". Then, using an ordinary logic (...)
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  31. Functional analysis and proper functions.Paul E. Griffiths - 1993 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 44 (3):409-422.
    The etiological approach to ‘proper functions’ in biology can be strengthened by relating it to Robert Cummins' general treatment of function ascription. The proper functions of a biological trait are the functions it is assigned in a Cummins-style functional explanation of the fitness of ancestors. These functions figure in selective explanations of the trait. It is also argued that some recent etiological theories include inaccurate accounts of selective explanation in biology. Finally, a generalization of the notion of selective explanation allows (...)
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  32. Squaring the Circle: Natural Kinds with Historical Essences.Paul E. Griffiths - 1999 - In Robert A. Wilson (ed.), Species: New Interdisciplinary Essays. MIT Press. pp. 209-228.
  33.  90
    The cultural evolution of emergent group-level traits.Paul E. Smaldino - 2014 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 37 (3):243-254.
    Many of the most important properties of human groups – including properties that may give one group an evolutionary advantage over another – are properly defined only at the level of group organization. Yet at present, most work on the evolution of culture has focused solely on the transmission of individual-level traits. I propose a conceptual extension of the theory of cultural evolution, particularly related to the evolutionary competition between cultural groups. The key concept in this extension is the emergent (...)
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  34. What is innateness?Paul E. Griffiths - 2001 - The Monist 85 (1):70-85.
    In behavioral ecology some authors regard the innateness concept as irretrievably confused whilst others take it to refer to adaptations. In cognitive psychology, however, whether traits are 'innate' is regarded as a significant question and is often the subject of heated debate. Several philosophers have tried to define innateness with the intention of making sense of its use in cognitive psychology. In contrast, I argue that the concept is irretrievably confused. The vernacular innateness concept represents a key aspect of 'folkbiology', (...)
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  35. Evolution, Dysfunction, and Disease: A Reappraisal.Paul E. Griffiths & John Matthewson - 2018 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 69 (2):301-327.
    Some ‘naturalist’ accounts of disease employ a biostatistical account of dysfunction, whilst others use a ‘selected effect’ account. Several recent authors have argued that the biostatistical account offers the best hope for a naturalist account of disease. We show that the selected effect account survives the criticisms levelled by these authors relatively unscathed, and has significant advantages over the BST. Moreover, unlike the BST, it has a strong theoretical rationale and can provide substantive reasons to decide difficult cases. This is (...)
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  36. Measuring Causal Specificity.Paul E. Griffiths, Arnaud Pocheville, Brett Calcott, Karola Stotz, Hyunju Kim & Rob Knight - 2015 - Philosophy of Science 82 (4):529-555.
    Several authors have argued that causes differ in the degree to which they are ‘specific’ to their effects. Woodward has used this idea to enrich his influential interventionist theory of causal explanation. Here we propose a way to measure causal specificity using tools from information theory. We show that the specificity of a causal variable is not well-defined without a probability distribution over the states of that variable. We demonstrate the tractability and interest of our proposed measure by measuring the (...)
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  37.  39
    What kind of expert should a system be?Paul E. Johnson - 1983 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 8 (1):77-97.
    Human experts are the source of knowledge required to develop computer systems that perform at an expert level. Human beings are not, however, able to reliably express what they know. As a result, experts often develop non-authentic accounts of their own expertise. These accounts, here termed reconstructed methods of reasoning, lead to computer systems that perform at a high level of proficiency but have the disadvantage that they often do not reflect the heuristics and processing constraints of a system user. (...)
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  38. Genes in the postgenomic era.Paul E. Griffiths & Karola Stotz - 2006 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 27 (6):499-521.
    We outline three very different concepts of the gene—instrumental, nominal, and postgenomic. The instrumental gene has a critical role in the construction and interpretation of experiments in which the relationship between genotype and phenotype is explored via hybridization between organisms or directly between nucleic acid molecules. It also plays an important theoretical role in the foundations of disciplines such as quantitative genetics and population genetics. The nominal gene is a critical practical tool, allowing stable communication between bioscientists in a wide (...)
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  39.  8
    Some methodological comments concerning expectancy theory.Paul E. Meehl & Kenneth MacCorquodale - 1951 - Psychological Review 58 (3):230-233.
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  40. Modularity, and the psychoevolutionary theory of emotion.Paul E. Griffiths - 1990 - Biology and Philosophy 5 (2):175-196.
    It is unreasonable to assume that our pre-scientific emotion vocabulary embodies all and only those distinctions required for a scientific psychology of emotion. The psychoevolutionary approach to emotion yields an alternative classification of certain emotion phenomena. The new categories are based on a set of evolved adaptive responses, or affect-programs, which are found in all cultures. The triggering of these responses involves a modular system of stimulus appraisal, whose evoluations may conflict with those of higher-level cognitive processes. Whilst the structure (...)
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  41. Emotions as natural and normative kinds.Paul E. Griffiths - 2004 - Philosophy of Science 71 (5):901-911.
    In earlier work I have claimed that emotion and some emotions are not `natural kinds'. Here I clarify what I mean by `natural kind', suggest a new and more accurate term, and discuss the objection that emotion and emotions are not descriptive categories at all, but fundamentally normative categories.
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  42.  97
    The historical turn in the study of adaptation.Paul E. Griffiths - 1996 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 47 (4):511-532.
    A number of philosophers and ‘evolutionary psychologists’ have argued that attacks on adaptationism in contemporary biology are misguided. These thinkers identify anti-adaptationism with advocacy of non-adaptive modes of explanation. They overlook the influence of anti-adaptationism in the development of more rigorous forms of adaptive explanation. Many biologists who reject adaptationism do not reject Darwinism. Instead, they have pioneered the contemporary historical turn in the study of adaptation. One real issue which remains unresolved amongst these methodological advances is the nature of (...)
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  43. Function, homology and character individuation.Paul E. Griffiths - 2006 - Philosophy of Science 73 (1):1-25.
    I defend the view that many biological categories are defined by homology against a series of arguments designed to show that all biological categories are defined, at least in part, by selected function. I show that categories of homology are `abnormality inclusive'—something often alleged to be unique to selected function categories. I show that classifications by selected function are logically dependent on classifications by homology, but not vice-versa. Finally, I reject the view that biologists must use considerations of selected function (...)
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  44. What is the developmentalist challenge?Paul E. Griffiths & Robin D. Knight - 1998 - Philosophy of Science 65 (2):253-258.
    Kenneth C. Schaffner's paper is an important contribution to the literature on behavioral genetics and on genetics in general. Schaffner has a long record of injecting real molecular biology into philosophical discussions of genetics. His treatments of the reduction of Mendelian to molecular genetics first drew philosophical attention to the problems of detail that have fuelled both anti-reductionism and more sophisticated models of theory reduction. An injection of molecular detail into discussions of genetics is particularly necessary at the present time, (...)
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  45. Darwinism and Developmental Systems.Paul E. Griffiths & Russell D. Gray - 2001 - In Susan Oyama, Paul Griffiths & Russell D. Gray (eds.), Cycles of Contingency: Developmental Systems and Evolution. MIT Press. pp. 195-218.
     
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  46. Innateness, canalization, and 'biologicizing the mind'.Paul E. Griffiths & Edouard Machery - 2008 - Philosophical Psychology 21 (3):397 – 414.
    This article examines and rejects the claim that 'innateness is canalization'. Waddington's concept of canalization is distinguished from the narrower concept of environmental canalization with which it is often confused. Evidence is presented that the concept of environmental canalization is not an accurate analysis of the existing concept of innateness. The strategy of 'biologicizing the mind' by treating psychological or behavioral traits as if they were environmentally canalized physiological traits is criticized using data from developmental psychobiology. It is concluded that (...)
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  47.  19
    Explaining the evolutionary significance of intellectual play: Are we barking up the wrong tree?Paul E. McGhee - 1982 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 5 (1):166-167.
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  48.  36
    Edmund Spenser and the.Paul E. McLane - 1948 - Thought: Fordham University Quarterly 23 (4):734-735.
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  49.  23
    Drive conditioning as a factor in latent learning.Paul E. Meehl & Kenneth Maccorquodale - 1953 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 45 (1):20.
  50.  39
    Precognitive telepathy II: Some neurophysiological conjectures and metaphysical speculations.Paul E. Meehl - 1978 - Noûs 12 (4):371-395.
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