Donation after cardiac death (DCD) is associated with many problems, including ischemic injury, high rates of delayed allograft function, and frequent organ discard. Furthermore, many potential DCD donors fail to progress to asystole in a manner that would enable safe organ transplantation and no organs are recovered. DCD protocols are based upon the principle that the donor must be declared dead prior to organ recovery. A new protocol is proposed whereby after a donor family agrees to withdrawal of life-sustaining treatments, (...) premortem nephrectomy is performed in advance of end-of-life management. Since nephrectomy should not cause the donor's death, this approach satisfies the dead donor rule. The donor family's wishes are best met by organ donation, successful outcomes for the recipients, and a dignified death for the deceased. This proposal improves the likelihood of achieving these objectives. (shrink)
The apolipoprotein E gene plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease , and amyloid plaque comprised mostly of the amyloid-beta peptide ) is one of the major hallmarks of AD. However, the relationship between these two important molecules is poorly understood. We examined how A treatment affects APOE expression in cultured cells and tested the role of the transcription factor NF-B in APOE gene regulation. To delineate NF-B's role, we have characterized a 1098 nucleotide segment containing the (...) 5'-flanking region of the human APOE gene . Sequence analysis of this region suggests the presence of two potential NF-B elements. To demonstrate promoter activity, the region was cloned upstream of a promoterless luciferase gene. This segment was able to drive expression of luciferase in transient transfections of human fetal glial cells. Promoter activity was stimulated twofold by A treatment. Pretreatment with double-stranded DNA decoy oligonucleotides against NF-B reduced A stimulation. Deletion and mutagenetic analyses demonstrated that the distal NF-B element was functional and showed a strong DNA-protein complex band in gel shift analysis, similar to that from control NF-B consensus element. An anti-inflammatory and anti-NF-B drug, sodium salicylate, significantly blocked A-induced APOE promoter function. Our data provide evidence that upregulation of APOE by A in astroglial cells is mediated by an NF-B-element present in the 5'-flanking region of the APOE gene. (shrink)
Written over the last 18 months of his life and inspired by his interest in G. E. Moore's defence of common sense, this much discussed volume collects Wittgenstein's reflections on knowledge and certainty, on what it is to know a proposition for sure.
One philosophical approach to causation sees counterfactual dependence as the key to the explanation of causal facts: for example, events c (the cause) and e (the effect) both occur, but had c not occurred, e would not have occurred either. The counterfactual analysis of causation became a focus of philosophical debate after the 1973 publication of the late David Lewis's groundbreaking paper, "Causation," which argues against the previously accepted "regularity" analysis and in favor of what he called the "promising alternative" (...) of the counterfactual analysis. Thirty years after Lewis's paper, this book brings together some of the most important recent work connecting--or, in some cases, disputing the connection between--counterfactuals and causation, including the complete version of Lewis's Whitehead lectures, "Causation as Influence," a major reworking of his original paper. Also included is a more recent essay by Lewis, "Void and Object," on causation by omission. Several of the essays first appeared in a special issue of the Journal of Philosophy, but most, including the unabridged version of "Causation as Influence," are published for the first time or in updated forms.Other topics considered include the "trumping" of one event over another in determining causation; de facto dependence; challenges to the transitivity of causation; the possibility that entities other than events are the fundamental causal relata; the distinction between dependence and production in accounts of causation; the distinction between causation and causal explanation; the context-dependence of causation; probabilistic analyses of causation; and a singularist theory of causation. (shrink)
Doctors have been placed in an anomalous position by abortion laws which sanction the termination of a fetus while in a woman's womb, yet call it murder when a physician attempts to end the life of a fetus which has somehow survived such a procedure. This predicament, the doctors' dilemma, can be resolved by adopting a strategy which posits the right to ownership of one's own body for human beings. Such an approach will generate a consistent policy prescription, one that (...) sanctions the right of all pregnant women to abortions, yet grants the fetus, after it becomes viable as a potentially independent person, a right to its own body. The doctors' dilemma is surmounted, then, by requiring that abortions of viable fetuses be performed in a manner that will produce a live delivery. Hence, infanticide and termination of viable fetuses are proscribed. (shrink)
Medium- and high-spin states of Pr-134 were populated using the Cd-116(Na-23, 5n) reaction and studied with the GAMMASPHERE spectrometer. Several new bands have been found in this nucleus, one of them being linked to the previously observed chiral-candidate twin-band structure. The ground state of Pr-134 could be determined through establishing a level structure that connects the two previously known long-lived isomeric states. Unambiguous spin-parity assignments for the excited states could be performed based on the known 2(-) spin-parity of the ground (...) state combined with the present experimental data. Intrinsic single-particle configurations have been assigned to the newly observed bands on the basis of the measured B(M1)/B(E2) ratios, alignments, band-crossing frequencies, bandhead spins, the observed single-particle configurations in the neighboring nuclei, and taking into account the predictions of total Routhian surface and tilted-axis cranking calculations. (shrink)
High-spin states have been studied in Pr-135(59), populated through the Cd-116(Na-23,4n) reaction at 115 MeV, using the Gammasphere gamma-ray spectrometer. The negative-parity yrast band has been significantly extended to spin similar to 45 (h) over bar and excitation energy 21.5 MeV, showing evidence for several rotational alignments. The positive-parity yrast band of Ce-135(58), populated through the p4n channel of this reaction, was also populated to spin similar to 38 (h) over bar and excitation energy 18 MeV. Cranking calculations indicate that (...) these nuclei are soft with respect to the triaxiality parameter gamma and that several competing nuclear shapes occur at high spin. (shrink)
Starting from the antagonism represented by the concurrent projects of JeanPaul Sartre and Michel Foucault in the context of the “sixties”, this article aims to discern the impasses and dilemmas of the theory and the political action in the scope of the contemporary French thought, highlighting the role of intellectuals in the contemporary philosophical time.
According to the distinguished philosopher Richard Wollheim, an emotion is an extended mental episode that originates when events in the world frustrate or satisfy a pre-existing desire. This leads the subject to form an attitude to the world which colours their future experience, leading them to attend to one aspect of things rather than another, and to view the things they attend to in one light rather than another. The idea that emotions arise from the satisfaction or frustration of desires—the (...) ‘match-mismatch’ view of emotion aetiology—has had several earlier incarnations in the psychology of emotion. Early versions of this proposal were associated with the attempt to replace the typology of emotion found in ordinary language with a simpler theory of drives and to define new emotion types in terms of general properties such as the frustration of a drive. The match-mismatch view survived the demise of that revisionist project and is found today in theories that accept a folk-psychological-style taxonomy of emotion types based on the meaning ascribed by the subject to the stimulus situation. For example, the match-mismatch view forms part of the subtle and complex model of emotion episodes developed over many years by Nico Frijda. According to Frijda, information about the ‘situational antecedents’ of an emotion—the stimulus in its context, including the ongoing goals of the organism—is evaluated for its relevance to the multiple concerns of the organism. Evaluation of match-mismatch—the degree of compatibility between the situation and the subject's goals—forms part of this process. (shrink)
Este trabalho pretende acompanhar o trajeto ricoeuriano em O si- mesmo como um outro em busca de uma interpretação ontológica dos resultados alcançados com a hermenêutica do si-mesmo. A ontologia de Paul Ricoeur possui como centro o agir humano, ainda que pretenda preservar a polissemia do ser, isto é, manter-se plural em meio aos muitos modos de dizer o si. Acompanhamos, deste modo, a proposta ontológica de Paul Ricoeur dotada de um caráter fragmentário que passa por filosofias como (...) as de Aristóteles, Heidegger, Spinoza, Lévinas e Husserl. O declarado caráter especulativo de sua proposta ontológica se direciona principalmente ao entendimento da manutenção de si a partir da relação com a alteridade. (shrink)
Andocidis Orationes edidit Iustus Hermann Lipsius; pp. xxxii, 67. B. Tauchnitz, Leipzig, 1888. M. 1. 20. Andocidis de Mysteriis et de Reditu; edited by E. C. Marchant, B.A., late scholar of Peter house, Cambridge; Assistant Master at St. Paul's School. Rivingtons, London, 1889. 5s.
Este trabalho aborda a narração de Deus como fonte de sentido para vida no contexto das tradições religiosas que se fundam na leitura e apropriação de textos tidos como sagrados. A partir da hipótese de que a fé monoteísta é fundamentalmente uma “fé textual”, o presente trabalho toma por referencial teórico o pensamento do filósofo francês Paul Ricoeur. O objetivo a que me proponho é apresentar de forma sintética traços de sua hermenêutica bíblica a partir da articulação entre interpretação, (...) tradição e tradução. O percurso deste ensaio conduz inicialmente à teoria do texto de Ricoeur, em seguida aborda sua fenomenologia hermenêutica da consciência religiosa da falta, para enfim buscar a articulação entre tradição e tradução em uma leitura filosófica da bíblia. A articulação entre as hermenêuticas bíblica e filosófica aponta para a possibilidade do desenvolvimento de uma filosofia da religião que tem por propósito pensar mais e de maneira diferente a contribuição da leitura dos textos religiosos para a busca de sentido da existência humana. Para tanto, se faz necessário o respeito pela pluralidade de crenças e práticas no interior e fora das diversas tradições religiosas. Palavras-chave: Hermenêutica. Texto. Tradição. Tradução.This paper approaches the narration of God as a source of meaning to life in the context of religious traditions that are based on reading and appropriation of texts considered sacred. From the hypothesis that the monotheistic faith is fundamentally a "textual faith", this paper takes as a theoretical framework the thought of the French philosopher Paul Ricoeur. I intend to present in a synthetic trace his biblical hermeneutics from the relationship between interpretation, translation and tradition. This paper initially gets to the theory of Ricoeur’s texts, and then approaches his hermeneutic phenomenology of the religious consciousness of fault; finally it searches for the relationship between tradition and translation in a philosophical reading of the Bible. The articulation between the biblical and philosophical hermeneutics points to the possibility of developing a philosophy of religion that wants to think in a different way the contribution of reading religious texts in the search for meaning of human existence. Therefore, it is necessary to respect the diversity of beliefs and practices inside and outside of the various religious traditions. Keywords: Hermeneutics. Text. Tradition. Translation. (shrink)
A respectiva pesquisa procurou estabelecer a relação de influência da filosofia de Søren Kierkegaard sobre a construção teológica de Paul Tillich. Para tanto, utilizamos como pano de fundo ou estrutura argumentativa o conceito de Desespero humano de Kierkegaard, comparando-o ao conceito de Alienação do ser de Tillich. Objetivamos com isso, demonstrar o entrelaçamento dialogal composto no desenvolvimento da chamada doutrina do pecado original em ambos os autores. Isto é, como o desdobramento da antropologia kierkegaardiana problematizou os fundamentos da teologia (...) sistemática, sobretudo, na questão da harmatiologia, e, como esta mesma problematização, foi capaz de padronizar o modus operandi que determinou a elaboração feita por Tillich sobre o mesmo assunto. Obviamente, que, no decorrer dessa investigação, não se pretendeu “desqualificar” ou “eliminar” a originalidade dos autores, nem tampouco transformar seus argumentos em uma espécie de amálgama conceitual. Assim, antes de uma suposta crítica de ter se proposto uma “fusão arbitrária de ideias”, buscamos, mais uma vez apontar soluções de dialéticas e centros comuns, que apontem para aqueles elementos de convergência, aonde de fato, o diálogo é possível. (shrink)
O presente artigo pretende dar sentido à afirmação feita, mais do que uma vez, por Paul Ricoeur, de que a sua filosofia poderia ser vista como um kantismo pós-hege-liano. Nesse contexto, o artigo procura abordar o pensar ricoeuriano mostrando de que modo ele se instaura e se desenvolve no horizonte kantiano de uma filosofia dos limites do saber. Essa abordagem é desenvolvida em dois momentos. O primeiro dirige-se à leitura que Paul Ricoeur faz da Crítica da Razão Pura (...) de Kant. O segundo centrar-se-à em três momentos fulcrais da Filosofia de Paul Ricoeur - a definição do seu projecto Filosofia da Vontade, a figura própria da sua Hermenêutica e o filosofema inovação semântica - evidenciando em cada um deles a ressonância da herança kantiana. /// Aim of this article is to to explore the meaning of Paul Ricoeur's persistent characterization of his own work as a post-Hegelian Kantism. In view of this end, the article demonstrates that Ricoeur's thinking is at once rooted and developed within the horizon of Kant's critical philosophy of limits in regard to knowledge. This can be shown by first considering Ricoeur's reading of the first Critique, and then centering on three decisive moments of Ricoeur's philosophy, to wit, the formulation of the project developed in the Philosophy of Will, the shape of his theory of hermeneutics, and his notion of semantic innovation that can be conceived as a philosophema. The Kantian influence can be seen to resonate in all three instances. (shrink)
Este trabalho foi desenvolvido a partir de uma apresentação feita na IV Semana Didático-Cultural e I Congresso de Pesquisa e Extensão da UEMG – Campus Barbacena. O título deste evento era História: Identidade e memória , e seu símbolo o quadro Angelus Novus de Paul Klee. Nosso objetivo era o de apresentar a relação entre o quadro e a temática do evento, para isso buscamos o apoio de três autores: Benjamin, dono do quadro, que demarcou a sua interpretação do (...) Angelus Novus comparando-o com o Anjo da história; Scholem, herdeiro do mesmo após a morte de seu amigo Benjamin, autor de um poema sobre o quadro de Klee; e Kafka, escritor que sempre povoou o debate epistolar dos dois anteriores, e que, apesar de não ter tido contato com o quadro de Klee, descreve o cenário em que é possível a sua produção. Por fim reavaliamos o quadro a partir do humor judaico que unifica a estes três autores, afim de redimensionar o valor de alerta representado pelo semblante aterrorizado do anjo de Klee. Nesta versão escrita a seqüência dos argumentos foi mantida, mas o texto foi substancialmente alterado para se adaptar ao novo veículo de divulgação. (shrink)
As published, the authorship for this article is incorrect. Coauthor Hilda Helena Soares Bentes was omitted due to an editorial error. The correct citation is: Bentes, Hilda and Salles, Sergio. Paul Ricoeur e o humanismo jurídico moderno: O reconhecimento do sujeito de direito. Études Ricoeuriennes / Ricoeur Studies vol. 2, no. 2 : 106–117. The online version reflects these changes.
This article attempts to investigate the potential resonances between Paul Ricoeur’s and Julia Kristeva’s theories of otherness as applied to the study of poetry by the Northern-Irish poet Sinéad Morrissey. In all of her five poetry books she explores various forms of otherness and attempts to sketch them in verse. She confronts alterity in many ways, approaching such subjects as the relationship with the body and children, encounters with foreigners, and coming to terms with what is foreign within (...) us. This article engages primarily with her experiences of China, which she recorded in the long poem “China” from her third collection, The State of Prisons. Firstly, this article tackles the question of the body, which is interpreted on the basis of Morrissey’s “post-mortem” poems. Their reading prepares the ground for further explorations of otherness, which Morrissey locates at the very heart of human subjectivity. In this way, she also manages to establish a poetic framework for an ethical consideration of otherness. By investigating the working of the human psyche, Morrissey seems to go along the lines of Kristeva and Ricoeur, who claim that otherness is inextricably linked with the formation of human subjectivity. Taking a cue from their philosophical enquiries, the article also attempts to establish where Kristeva’s and Ricoeur’s philosophies overlap. (shrink)
We extend Smaldino’s approach to collaboration and social organization in cultural evolution to include cognition. By showing how recent work on emergent group-level cognition can be incorporated within Smaldino’s framework, we extend that framework’s scope to encompass collaborative memory, decision-making, and intelligent action. We argue that beneficial effects arise only in certain forms of cognitive interdependence, in surprisingly fragile conditions.