What is philosophy? How should we do it? Why should we bother to? These are the kinds of questions addressed by metaphilosophy - the philosophical study of the nature of philosophy itself. Students of philosophy today are faced with a confusing and daunting array of philosophical methods, approaches and styles and also deep divisions such as the notorious rift between analytic and Continental philosophy. This book takes readers through a full range of approaches - analytic versus Continental, scientistic versus humanistic, (...) 'pure' versus applied - enabling them to locate and understand these different ways of doing philosophy. Clearly and accessibly written, it will stimulate reflection on philosophical practice and will be invaluable for students of philosophy and other philosophically inclined readers. (shrink)
Over the last half-century, quality control standards have had the perverse effect of restricting the circulation of non-commercially bred vegetable cultivars in Britain. Recent European and British legislation attempts to compensate for this loss of agrodiversity by relaxing genetic purity standards and the cost of seed marketing for designated “Amateur” and “Conservation” varieties. Drawing on fieldwork conducted at a British allotment site, this article cautions against bringing genetically heterogeneous cultivars into the commercial sphere. Such a move may intensify the horticultural (...) “deskilling” of British allotment gardeners, who have come to rely on commercial seed catalogs as sources of germplasm and knowledge. Horticultural deskilling also entails the delegation of seed selection activities to professional breeders and the potential loss of agrodiversity. The activities of dedicated seed savers who save and circulate the seed of genetically heterogeneous “heritage” varieties, in a manner similar to the management of landraces in the global South, may provide a better model for attempts to safeguard vegetable diversity in the global North. (shrink)
One of the traditional requirements of jus in bello is that military action should be proportionate in the loss and injury caused to troops to the military objectives it secures. However, the ?overwhelming force? applied in two Gulf Wars has been criticised as disproportionate. This article suggests a criterion for judging whether force is proportionate by considering what those who enter the profession of arms might be expected to tolerate or to undertake. A tacit agreement between troops on each side (...) is postulated, breaches of which count as unfair conduct, including cases of the disproportionate use of force. (shrink)
If morality concerns the question how to live then can it be a science? Can there be a science of how to live? Hilary Putnam who poses this question answers it thus:1 logically impossible. But, he reassures us, . In the meantime moral reasoning must engage . This is developed through in literature. If the computer takes over, of course, then . So too, he says, may science, not because redundant but because complete in its explanatory and predictive power.
A welcome introduction to one of the most intellectually demanding areas of the undergraduate philosophy curriculum. The authors provide a clear framework within which students can fit contemporary developments in the Anglo-American tradition which provide the core themes of philosophy of mind and which connect to their other work in epistemology and philosophy of language.
_Terrorism, Security and Nationality_ shows how the ideas and techniques of political philosophy can be applied to the practical problems of terrorism, State violence and national identity. In doing so it clarifies a wide range of issues in applied political philosophy including ethics of war; theories of state and nation; the relationship between communities and nationalisms; human rightss and national security. Paul Gilbert identifies conflicting conceptiona of civil strife by different political communities and investigates notions of terrorism both as unjust (...) war and as political crime. He concludes by considering the proper response of the State to political violence. (shrink)
Near the end of someone’s life, or when a chapter in their life closes, they may nurse regrets but no longer be able to act to change the situation they regret having caused. This paper asks what is the point of such vain regrets and contrasts them with the typical case where regret is effectual. Regret usually involves both anger at oneself for what one has done and sadness at having done it. Richard Wollheim takes regret to be an attitude (...) of hostility to oneself resulting from a fall in one’s secure sense of self as an ongoing person. His account is considered and rejected as unable to reveal the point of vain regrets. Sartre’s description of the emotions is adapted to the case of regret with its dual affective character. His idea of anger as a substitute for the suppression of another consciousness is used to show how regret involves a rejection of one’s previous way of seeing the world, by contrast with one’s present view. This enables us to see how regret, even when vain, can reinforce, rather than undermine, one’s sense of self and provide a form of self-understanding. (shrink)
A Filosofia francesa foi fortemente influenciada por Heidegger, o que não haveria de acontecer sem algumas polémicas. Uma obra recente de D. Janicaud, Heidegger en France, traça algumas das suas peripécias. O presente artigo debruça-se sobre um ponto particular desta influência. O pensamento está desde há bastante tempo associado em França com o sentido do existir das singularidades, sobretudo pessoais; disso o existencialismo é um sinal evidente. É sem dúvida esta mesma preocupação pela existência que deu lugar a investigações fenomenológicas (...) sobre a essência do evento, palavra que traduz mais ou menos fielmente a expressão heideggeriana Ereignis. O artigo expõe, pois, o modo como o tema do Ereignis evolui na obra de Emmanuel Levinas (o evento cria uma temporalidade irredutível às sistematizações da história; a palavra trocada, dita e escutada, traz consigo uma nova temporalidade), Jean-Luc Marion (o evento não se repete, excede todo o presente e abre possibilidades ao ser humano), e Claude Romano (o evento rompe o tempo linear e instaura um mundo em que o princípio é um começo sempre novo). O artigo apresenta-se, deste modo, como uma reflexão sobre a própria essência da fenomenologia, tal qual ela actualmente se desenvolve em França. O artigo propõe ainda uma crítica de uma visão demasiado estética sobre o evento e convida o pensamento a prosseguir a sua reflexão na direcção da história concreta das liberdades. /// French philosophy has been greatly influenced by Heidegger, but not without polemics. A recent book by Janicaud, Heidegger in France, has traced its itinerary. The present article focuses on a single aspect of its influence: the attention given especially to the sense of existence in terms of personal singularities. Existentialism is a case in point. Such a concern produced phenomenological researches on the essence of the event, a word that more or less translates Ereignis. The article demonstrates how the theme of Ereignis has developed in the work of Levinas as that which creates a temporality that is irreducible to systematized history: the exchanged word carries with it a new temporality. In J.-L. Marion's work, the event does not repeat itself and exceeds the present, opening up new possibilities for humankind. For Cl. Romano, the event disrupts linear time and inaugurates a new world. Thus, the article constitutes a reflection on the very essence of phenomenology as manifested currently in France. It also proposes a critique of the overly aesthetic perspective concerning the theme of event and invites thought to pursue its reflection in the direction of the concrete history of freedoms. (shrink)
Bernard Lonergan não menciona Joseph Maréchal nos seus escritos, apesar de ter sido por ele influenciado no que respeita à estrutura dinâmica do conhecimento. Apesar disso, há que reconhecer que a intenção de Maréchal não era a de Lonergan. Maréchal, formado em biologia e em psicologia, desejava participar no movimento de renovação do tomismo, o qual na sua época era fortemente intelectualista. O seu esforço juntou-se ao do Maurice Blondel afirmando os direitos do acto comprometido nos processos cognitivos. O desejo (...) natural de conhecer Deus não se dá sem um desejo vital que dinamiza também a vontade em que ele se exprime de forma mais pura e genuína. Lonergan, cujo objectivo era a construção de uma epistemologia da teologia, ocupou-se primordialmente dos procedimentos próprios das ciências. Para ele, o desejo de conhecer leva o sujeito cognoscente a ultrapassar todas as ciências particulares, proporcionadas às nossas funções cognitivas, em direcção ao ser, concebido este de forma adequada como a totalidade presente e futura dos conteúdos do saber. Segundo o autor do artigo, Lonergan estaria, assim, mais próximo de Maréchal do que este de Suárez. /// Bernard Lonergan does not mention Joseph Maréchal in his writings, even though he received his influence regarding the dynamic structure of knowledge. However, the intention of Maréchal was not the intention of Lonergan. Maréchal, who had studied biology and psychology, wanted to participate in the movement of renewal of Thomism, which at the time was strongly intellectualist. His effort conjoined with the effort of Maurice Blondel in the recognition of the rights of the act inherent to the cognitive processes. The natural desire to know God does not come to be without a vital desire that also animates the will in which it comes to a better expression of itself. Lonergan, whose aim was the elaboration of an epistemology of theology, occupied himself primordially with the scientific processes. The desire to know leads the knowing subject beyond all the particular sciences, proportioned to our cognitive functions, toward being, which is adequately conceived as the present and future totality of the contents of knowledge. Hence, according to the author or the article, we might think that Lonergan was closer to Marechal than Marechal was to Suárez. (shrink)