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Paul M. Näger
University of Münster
  1. A Taxonomy for the Mereology of Entangled Quantum Systems.Paul M. Näger & Niko Strobach - manuscript
    The emerging field of quantum mereology considers part-whole relations in quantum systems. Entangled quantum systems pose a peculiar problem in the field, since their total states are not reducible to that of their parts. While there exist several established proposals for modelling entangled systems, like monistic holism or relational holism, there is considerable unclarity, which further positions are available. Using the lambda operator and plural logic as formal tools, we review and develop conceivable models and evaluate their consistency and distinctness. (...)
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  2. The Mereological Problem of Entanglement.Paul M. Näger - manuscript
    It is well-known that the entangled quantum state of a composite object cannot be reduced to the states of its parts. This quantum holism provides a peculiar challenge to formulate an appropriate mereological model: When a system is in an entangled state, which objects are there on the micro and macro level, and which of the objects carries which properties? This paper chooses a modeling approach to answer these questions: It proceeds from a systematic overview of consistent mereological models for (...)
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  3. Physical Composition by Bonding.Julian Husmann & Paul M. Näger - 2018 - In Ludger Jansen & Paul M. Näger (eds.), Peter van Inwagen. Materialism, Free Will and God. Cham: Springer. pp. 65-96.
    Van Inwagen proposes that besides simples only living organisms exist as composite objects. This paper suggests expanding van Inwagen’s ontology by also accepting composite objects in the case that physical bonding occurs (plus some extra conditions). Such objects are not living organ-isms but rather physical bodies. They include (approximately) the complete realm of inanimate ordinary objects, like rocks and tables, as well as inanimate scientific objects, like atoms and mol-ecules, the latter filling the ontological gap between simples and organisms in (...)
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  4.  27
    Causal Graphs for EPR Experiments.Paul M. Näger - 2013 - Preprint.
    We examine possible causal structures of experiments with entangled quantum objects. Previously, these structures have been obscured by assuming a misleading probabilistic analysis of quantum non locality as 'Outcome Dependence or Parameter Dependence' and by directly associating these correlations with influences. Here we try to overcome these shortcomings: we proceed from a recent stronger Bell argument, which provides an appropriate probabilistic description, and apply the rigorous methods of causal graph theory. Against the standard view that there is only an influence (...)
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  5.  40
    A Stronger Bell Argument for Quantum Non-Locality.Paul M. Näger - unknown
    It is widely accepted that the violation of Bell inequalities excludes local theories of the quantum realm. In this paper I present a stronger Bell argument which even forbids certain non-local theories. The remaining non-local theories, which can violate Bell inequalities, are characterised by the fact that at least one of the outcomes in some sense probabilistically depends both on its distant as well as on its local parameter. While this is not to say that parameter dependence in the usual (...)
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  6.  7
    Philosophy of Quantum Physics.Cord Friebe, Meinard Kuhlmann, Holger Lyre, Paul M. Näger, Oliver Passon & Manfred Stöckler (eds.) - 2018 - Springer International.
    This book provides a thorough and up-to-date introduction to the philosophy of quantum physics. Although quantum theory is renowned for its spectacular empirical successes, controversial discussion about how it should be understood continue to rage today. In this volume, the authors provide an overview of its numerous philosophical challenges: Do quantum objects violate the principle of causality? Are particles of the same type indistinguishable and therefore not individual entities? Do quantum objects retain their identity over time? How does a compound (...)
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  7.  12
    Peter van Inwagen: Materialism, Free Will and God.Ludger Jansen & Paul M. Näger (eds.) - 2018 - Springer.
    This book discusses the philosophy of influential contemporary philosopher Peter van Inwagen. Looking at perennial philosophical problems from a modern point of view, Peter van Inwagen’s philosophy masterfully combines positions that have been considered irreconcilable: incompatibilism concerning free will, materialism, organicism, theism and realism concerning fictional entities. As readers will discover, his arguments are witty, surprising and deep. -/- The book includes Peter van Inwagen’s Münster Lecture of 2015 on free will, as well as eleven papers from the Münster colloquium (...)
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  8. Entanglement and Non-Locality: EPR, Bell and the Consequences.Paul M. Näger & Manfred Stöckler - 2018 - In Cord Friebe, Meinard Kuhlmann, Holger Lyre, Paul Näger, Oliver Passon & Manfred Stöckler (eds.), Philosophy of Quantum Physics. Springer International.
    Entangled states are a specific feature of quantum physics that neither have a counterpart in classical physics nor in the realm of our ordinary experiences. In this chapter we outline the debate about these particular states both historically and systematically. We delineate how the debate originated in an argument for the incompleteness of quantum mechanics by Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen, and we show why, on the one hand, the argument is not considered convincing today, on the other hand, however, still (...)
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  9.  5
    Evidence for interactive common causes. Resuming the Cartwright-Hausman-Woodward debate.Paul M. Näger - 2022 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 12 (1):1-33.
    The most serious candidates for common causes that fail to screen off and thus violate the causal Markov condition refer to quantum phenomena. In her seminal debate with Hausman and Woodward, Cartwright early on focussed on unfortunate non-quantum examples. Especially, Hausman and Woodward’s redescriptions of quantum cases saving the CMC remain unchallenged. This paper takes up this lose end of the discussion and aims to resolve the debate in favour of Cartwright’s position. It systematically considers redescriptions of ICC structures, including (...)
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  10.  33
    A Stronger Bell Argument for (Some Kind of) Parameter Dependence.Paul M. Näger - 2020 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 72:1-28.
    It is widely accepted that the violation of Bell inequalities excludes local theories of the quantum realm. This paper presents a stronger Bell argument which even forbids certain non-local theories. The conclusion of the stronger Bell argument presented here provably is the strongest possible consequence from the violation of Bell inequalities on a qualitative probabilistic level. Since among the excluded non-local theories are those whose only non-local probabilistic connection is a dependence between the space-like separated measurement outcomes of EPR/B experiments, (...)
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  11.  5
    Philosophie der Quantenphysik: Zentrale Begriffe, Probleme, Positionen.Cord Friebe, Meinard Kuhlmann, Holger Lyre, Paul M. Näger, Oliver Passon & Manfred Stöckler - 2018 - Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
    Dieses Buch liefert dem Leser eine aktuelle und fundierte Einführung in die Philosophie der Quantenphysik. Obwohl sich die Quantentheorie durch spektakuläre empirische Erfolge auszeichnet, wird bis heute kontrovers diskutiert, wie sie zu verstehen ist. In diesem Werk geben die Autoren einen Überblick über die zahlreichen philosophischen Herausforderungen: Verletzen Quantenobjekte das Prinzip der Kausalität? Sind gleichartige Teilchen ununterscheidbar und daher keine Individuen? Behalten Quantenobjekte in der zeitlichen Entwicklung ihre Identität? Wie verhält sich ein zusammengesetztes Quantensystem zu seinen Teilen? Diese Fragen werden (...)
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  12. Review Of: Fuchs, C.A., Coming of Age With Quantum Information. [REVIEW]Paul M. Näger - 2012 - Physik Journal 11 (3).
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  13. Verschränkung und Nicht-Lokalität: EPR, Bell und die Folgen.Paul M. Näger & Manfred Stöckler - 2018 - In Cord Friebe, Meinard Kuhlmann, Holger Lyre, Paul Näger, Oliver Passon & Manfred Stöckler (eds.), Philosophie der Quantenphysik. Springer Spektrum. pp. 117-200.
    Verschränkte Zustände sind einer der charakteristischen Züge der Quantenphysik, für die es weder eine Entsprechung in der klassischen Physik noch in der alltäglichen Erfahrungswelt gibt. In diesem Kapitel umreißen wir historisch und systematisch die Debatte um diese besonderen Zustände. Wir stellen ihren Ursprung in einem Argument von Einstein, Podolsky und Rosen für die Unvollständigkeit der Quantenmechanik dar und zeigen, warum dieses Argument einerseits heute nicht mehr als überzeugend betrachtet wird, andererseits dennoch bis in aktuelle Debatten hinein nachwirkt. In einem zweiten (...)
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    Impact of Loop Statistics on the Thermodynamics of RNA Folding.Thomas R. Einert, Paul M. Näger, Henri Orland & Roland R. Netz - 2008 - Physical Review Letters 101 (4):048103.
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  15.  2
    Verschränkung und Nicht-Lokalität: EPR, Bell und die Folgen.Paul M. Näger & Manfred Stöckler - 2018 - In Cord Friebe, Meinard Kuhlmann, Holger Lyre, Paul M. Näger, Oliver Passon & Manfred Stöckler (eds.), Philosophie der Quantenphysik: Zentrale Begriffe, Probleme, Positionen. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. pp. 107-185.
    Verschränkte Zustände sind einer der charakteristischen Züge der Quantenphysik, für die es weder eine Entsprechung in der klassischen Physik noch in unserer alltäglichen Erfahrungswelt gibt. In diesem Kapitel umreißen wir historisch und systematisch die Debatte um diese besonderen Zustände. Wir stellen ihren Ursprung in einem Argument von Einstein, Podolsky und Rosen für die Unvollständigkeit der Quantenmechanik dar und zeigen, warum dieses Argument einerseits heute nicht mehr als überzeugend betrachtet wird, andererseits dennoch bis in aktuelle Debatten hinein nachwirkt. In einem zweiten (...)
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