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  1.  64
    Microessentialism: What is the Argument?Paul Needham - 2011 - Noûs 45 (1):1-21.
    According to microessentialism, it is necessary to resort to microstructure in order to adequately characterise chemical substances such as water. But the thesis has never been properly supported by argument. Kripke and Putnam, who originally proposed the thesis, suggest that a so-called stereotypical characterisation is not possible, whereas one in terms of microstructure is. However, the sketchy outlines given of stereotypical descriptions hardly support the impossibility claim. On the other hand, what naturally stands in contrast to microscopic description is description (...)
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  2.  49
    The Discovery That Water is H2O.Paul Needham - 2002 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 16 (3):205 – 226.
    What are the criteria determining the individuation of chemical kinds? Recent philosophical discussion, which puts too much emphasis on microstructure, seems to presuppose a reductionist conception not motivated by the scientific facts. The present article traces the development of the traditional notion of a substance with the rise of modern chemistry from the end of the 18th century with a view to correcting this speculative distortion.
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  3. Macroscopic Mixtures.Paul Needham - 2007 - Journal of Philosophy 104 (1):26-52.
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  4.  10
    Determining Sameness of Substance.Paul Needham - 2017 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 68 (4):953-979.
    ABSTRACT The idea that the extension of a chemical substance is fixed by determining what stands in the relation of being the same substance to a paradigm sample plays a substantial role in chemistry, and procedures of identification that don’t make direct use of the method can be traced back to ones that do. But paradigm samples are not typically selected by ostension, as in Putnam’s version of this procedure. The relevance of ostension is questioned after a discussion of the (...)
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  5.  98
    What is Water?Paul Needham - 2000 - Analysis 60 (1):13–21.
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  6.  57
    Nagel's Analysis of Reduction: Comments in Defense as Well as Critique.Paul Needham - 2010 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 41 (2):163-170.
  7.  64
    Reduction and Emergence: A Critique of Kim.Paul Needham - 2009 - Philosophical Studies 146 (1):93-116.
    In a recent critique of the doctrine of emergentism championed by its classic advocates up to C. D. Broad, Jaegwon Kim (Philosophical Studies 63:31–47, 1999) challenges their view about its applicability to the sciences and proposes a new account of how the opposing notion of reduction should be understood. Kim is critical of the classic conception advanced by Nagel and uses his new account in his criticism of emergentism. I question his claims about the successful reduction achieved in the sciences (...)
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  8.  27
    Is Water a Mixure Bridging the Distinction Between Physical and Chemical Properties.Paul Needham - 2008 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 39 (1):66-77.
    Two inter-linked theses are defended in this paper. One is the Duhemian theme that a rigid distinction between physical and chemical properties cannot be upheld. Duhem maintained this view not because the latter are reducible to the former, but because if physics is to remain consistent with chemistry it must prove possible to expand it to accommodate new features, and a rigid distinction would be a barrier to this process. The second theme is that naturally occurring isotopic variants of water (...)
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  9.  17
    A Revisionist History of Atomism.Rom Harré, Paul Needham, Eric Scerri & Alan Chalmers - 2010 - Metascience 19 (3):349-371.
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  10.  36
    Resisting Chemical Atomism: Duhem's Argument.Paul Needham - 2008 - Philosophy of Science 75 (5):921-931.
    Late nineteenth‐century opponents of atomism questioned whether the evidence required any notion of an atom. In this spirit, Duhem developed an account of the import of chemical formulas that is clearly neutral on the atomic question rather than antiatomistic. The argument is supplemented with specific inadequacies of atomic theories of chemical combination and considerably strengthened by the theory of chemical combination provided by thermodynamics. Despite possible counterevidence available at the time, which should have tempered some of Duhem's concluding remarks, there (...)
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  11.  23
    Natural Kind Thingamajigs.Paul Needham - 2012 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 26 (1):97 - 101.
    I criticize the treatment of natural kinds as some sort of object, advocated in a recent paper by Alexander Bird. The arguments he gives for regimenting an illustrative statement featuring chemical kinds in his preferred manner are not conclusive, and his criticisms of an alternative strategy involving universally quantified sentences fail. This is important because of the widespread but poorly supported assumption that expressions of natural kinds should be treated as singular referring terms.
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  12. Is Water a Mixure? Bridging the Distinction Between Physical and Chemical Properties.Paul Needham - 2008 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 39 (1):66-77.
    Two inter-linked theses are defended in this paper. One is the Duhemian theme that a rigid distinction between physical and chemical properties cannot be upheld. Duhem maintained this view not because the latter are reducible to the former, but because if physics is to remain consistent with chemistry it must prove possible to expand it to accommodate new features, and a rigid distinction would be a barrier to this process. The second theme is that naturally occurring isotopic variants of water (...)
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  13.  22
    When Did Atoms Begin to Do Any Explanatory Work in Chemistry?Paul Needham - 2004 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 18 (2 & 3):199 – 219.
    During the 19th century atomism was a controversial issue in chemistry. It is an oversimplification to dismiss the critics' arguments as all falling under the general positivist view that what can't be seen can't be. The more interesting lines of argument either questioned whether any coherent notion of an atom had ever been formulated or questioned whether atoms were ever really given any explanatory role. At what point, and for what reasons, did atomistic hypotheses begin to explain anything in chemistry? (...)
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  14. Duhem and Cartwright on the Truth of Laws.Paul Needham - 1991 - Synthese 89 (1):89 - 109.
    Nancy Cartwright has drawn attention to how explanations are actually given in mathematical sciences. She argues that these procedures support an antirealist thesis that fundamental explanatory laws are not true. Moreover, she claims to be be essentially following Duhem's line of thought in developing this thesis. Without wishing to detract from the importance of her observations, it is suggested that they do not necessarily require the antirealist thesis. The antirealist interpretation of Duhem is also disputed. It is argued that Duhemian (...)
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  15.  19
    Has Daltonian Atomism Provided Chemistry with Any Explanations?Paul Needham - 2004 - Philosophy of Science 71 (5):1038-1047.
    Philosophers frequently cite Dalton's chemical atomism, and its nineteenth century developments, as a prime example of inference to the best explanation. This was a controversial issue in its time. But the critics are dismissed as positivist‐inspired antirealists with no interest in explanation. Is this a reasonable assessment?
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  16. Transient Things and Permanent Stuff.Paul Needham - 2010 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 88 (1):147 – 166.
    A view of individuals as constituted of quantities of matter, both understood as continuants enduring over time, is elaborated in some detail. Constitution is a three-place relation which can't be collapsed to identity because of the place-holder for a time and because individuals and quantities of matter have such a radically different character. Individuals are transient entities with limited lifetimes, whereas quantities are permanent existents undergoing change in physical and chemical properties from time to time. Coincidence, considered as a matter (...)
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  17. Introduction.Theresa Smith, Nicholas Pickwoad, Paul Needham, Manfred Mayer, Oliver Hahn, Irene Brückle & Horst Bredekamp - 2014 - In Paul Needham, Irene Brückle & Horst Bredekamp (eds.), A Galileo Forgery: Unmasking the New York Sidereus Nuncius. De Gruyter. pp. 9-14.
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  18.  30
    Substance and Modality.Paul Needham - 2006 - Philosophy of Science 73 (5):829-840.
    The Aristotelian distinction between actual and potential presence of a substance in a mixture forms part of a conception of mixture which stands in contrast to atomist and Stoic theories as propounded by the ancients. But the central ideas on which these theories are built need not be combined and opposed to one another in precisely the ways envisaged by these ancient theories. This is well illustrated by Duhem, who maintained the Aristotelian idea that the original ingredients are only potentially, (...)
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  19. Reduction and Abduction in Chemistry-a Response to Scerri.Paul Needham - 1999 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 13 (2):169 – 184.
    Eric Scerri has proposed an account of how reduction might be understood in chemistry. He claims to build on a general aspect of Popper's views which survives his otherwise heavy criticism, namely adherence to actual scientific practice. This is contrasted with Nagel's conception, which Scerri takes to be the philosopher's standard notion. I argue that his proposal, interesting though it is, is not so foreign to ideas in the tradition within which Nagel wrote as Scerri would have us believe. Moreover, (...)
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  20. Ontological Reduction: A Comment on Lombardi and Labarca. [REVIEW]Paul Needham - 2006 - Foundations of Chemistry 8 (1):73-80.
    In a recent article in this journal (Foundations of Chemistry, 7 (2005), 125–148) Lombardi and Labarca call into question a thesis of ontological reduction to which several writers on reduction subscribe despite rejecting a thesis of epistemological reduction. Lombardi and Labarca advocate instead a pluralistic ontology inspired by Putnam’s internal realism. I suggest that it is not necessary to go so far, and that a more critical view of the ontological reduction espoused by the authors they criticise circumvents the need (...)
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  21.  28
    Duhem and Quine.Paul Needham - 2000 - Dialectica 54 (2):109–132.
    The rejection of the idea that the so‐called Duhem‐Quine thesis in fact expresses a thesis upheld by either Duhem or Quine invites a more detailed comparison of their views. It is suggested that the arguments of each have a certain impact on the positions maintained by the other. In particular, Quine's development of his notion of ontological commitment is enlisted in the interpretation of Duhem's position. It is argued that this counts against the instrumentalist construal usually put on what Duhem (...)
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  22.  16
    Macroscopic Objects: An Exercise in Duhemian Ontology.Paul Needham - 1996 - Philosophy of Science 63 (2):205-224.
    Aristotelian ideas are presented in a favorable light in Duhem's historical works surveying the history of the notion of chemical combination (1902) and the development of mechanics (1903). The importance Duhem was later to ascribe to Aristotelian ideas as reflected in the weight he attached to medieval science is well known. But the Aristotelian influence on his own mature philosophical perspective, and more particularly on his concern for logical coherence and the development of his ontological views, is not generally acknowledged. (...)
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  23. New Perspectives on Pierre Duhem's The Aim and Structure of Physical Theory.Anastasios Brenner, Paul Needham, David Stump & Robert Deltete - 2011 - Metascience 20 (1):1-25.
    New perspectives on Pierre Duhem’s The aim and structure of physical theory Content Type Journal Article DOI 10.1007/s11016-010-9467-3 Authors Anastasios Brenner, Department of Philosophy, Paul Valéry University-Montpellier III, Route De Mende, 34199 Montpellier cedex 5, France Paul Needham, Department of Philosophy, University of Stockholm, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden David J. Stump, Department of Philosophy, University of San Francisco, 2130 Fulton Street, San Francisco, CA 94117, USA Robert Deltete, Department of Philosophy, Seattle University, 901 12th Avenue, Seattle, WA 98122-1090, USA Journal Metascience (...)
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  24.  25
    Mixtures and Modality.Paul Needham - 2004 - Foundations of Chemistry 7 (1):103-118.
    Some points are made aboutsubstance properties in their role ofintroducing mass terms. In particular, twoconditions of distributivity and cumulativityof mass predicates expressing these propertiesare not the independent pair they first appearto be. A classification of macroscopicsubstance concepts is developed. This needs tobe complemented in some way by the introductionof a modal qualification reminiscent ofAristotle's distinction between actual andpotential presence of substances in a mixture. Consideration of the latter feature hasprompted Joe Earley to raise the question ofwhether there is any salt (...)
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  25. Substitution: Duhem's Explication of a Chemical Paradigm.Paul Needham - 1996 - Perspectives on Science 4:408-433.
  26.  18
    An Aristotelian Theory of Chemical Substance.Paul Needham - 2009 - Logical Analysis and History of Philosophy 12:149-164.
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  27. The Phase Rule and the Notion of Substance.Paul Needham - unknown
    In response to difficulties in understanding the notion of chemical substance at issue in Gibbs’ phase rule, there is a long tradition of reformulating the simple statement of the rule. The leading idea is to rewrite the rule with a term for the number of substances actually present and to introduce additional terms making explicit the various kinds of restrictions which in the original formulation are taken to be incorporated into Gibbs’ notion of the number of independent substances. Although the (...)
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  28.  46
    Historical and Philosophical Perspectives on Quantum Chemistry.Hasok Chang, Jeremiah James, Paul Needham, Kostas Gavroglu & Ana Simões - 2013 - Metascience 22 (3):523-544.
  29.  32
    Duhem, Pierre-Maurice-Marie.Paul Needham - 2007 - In Noretta Koertge (ed.), New Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Thomson Gale.
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  30.  50
    Philosophy of Chemistry.Michael Weisberg, Paul Needham & Robin Hendry - 2011 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  31.  18
    Critical Notice.Paul Needham - 1979 - Synthese 40 (2):389-408.
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  32.  47
    Matter, Structure, and Change: Aspects of the Philosophy of Chemistry.Michael Weisberg & Paul Needham - 2010 - Philosophy Compass 5 (10):927-937.
  33.  10
    Causation: Relation or Connective?Paul Needham - 1988 - Dialectica 42 (3):201-220.
    SummaryDavidson's account of singular causal statements as expressing relations between events together with his views on event identity lead to inferences involving causal statements which many of his critics find counterintuitive. These are sometimes said to be avoided on Kim's view of events, in terms of which this line of criticism is often formulated. It is argued that neither Davidson nor Kim offer a satisfactory account of events — an essential prerequisit for the relational theory — and an account of (...)
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  34. Hot Stuff.Paul Needham - 2000 - Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 76:421-446.
     
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  35.  38
    Stuff.Paul Needham - 1993 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 71 (3):270-290.
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  36. Duhem’s Theory of Mixture in the Light of the Stoic Challenge to the Aristotelian Conception.Paul Needham - 2002 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 33 (4):685-708.
    The bulk of Duhem’s writing which bears on the understanding of mixtures suggests he adopted an Aristotelian position which he opposed only to the atomic view. A third view from antiquity—that of the Stoics—seems not to be taken into account. But his lines of thought are not always as explicit as could be wished. The Stoic view is considered here from a perspective which Duhem might well have adopted. This provides a background against which his somewhat unorthodox Aristotelianism might be (...)
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  37.  23
    Hydrogen Bonding: Homing in on a Tricky Chemical Concept.Paul Needham - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 44 (1):51-65.
    The history of the hydrogen bond provides a good example of the of an important chemical concept. It illustrates the interplay between empirical and theoretical approaches to the problem of delimiting what has proved to be quite an elusive notion, with chemists whittling away at the particular sorts of case with a view to obtaining a precise, unitary concept. Even though there is a return to a more theoretically inspired notion in more recent research, empirical characterisations remain a feature of (...)
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  38.  40
    Maureen Christie: The Ozone Layer. A Philosophy of Science Perspective. [REVIEW]Paul Needham - 2003 - Foundations of Chemistry 5 (3):253-261.
  39.  8
    Critical Notice: Times, Worlds and Selves.Paul Needham - 1979 - Synthese 40 (2):389-408.
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  40.  16
    The Source of Chemical Bonding.Paul Needham - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 45 (1):1-13.
    Developments in the application of quantum mechanics to the understanding of the chemical bond are traced with a view to examining the evolving conception of the covalent bond. Beginning with the first quantum mechanical resolution of the apparent paradox in Lewis’s conception of a shared electron pair bond by Heitler and London, the ensuing account takes up the challenge molecular orbital theory seemed to pose to the classical conception of the bond. We will see that the threat of delocalisation can (...)
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  41.  32
    Continuants and Processes in Macroscopic Chemistry.Paul Needham - 2004 - Axiomathes 14 (1-3):237-265.
    Chemistry deals with substances and their transformations. School chemistry provides a picture of this in terms of small balls called atoms and ball-and-stick structures called molecules which, despite its crudity, has been taken to justifiably reflect a reductionist conception of macroscopic concepts like the chemical substances and chemical reactions. But with the recent interest in chemistry within the philosophy of science, an extensive and determined criticism has developed of the idea that the macroscopic world has been, or is likely to (...)
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  42. Duhems quineska realism.Paul Needham - 1995 - Norsk Filosofisk Tidsskrift 4.
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  43.  30
    The Speaker's Point of View.Paul Needham - 1976 - Synthese 32 (3-4):309 - 327.
  44.  28
    Atomic Notation and Atomistic Hypotheses Translated by Paul Needham.Paul Needham - 2000 - Foundations of Chemistry 2 (2):127-180.
  45.  15
    Unearthing a Buried Memory.Paul Needham - 2014 - Metascience 23 (1):87-91.
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  46.  14
    Nineteenth-Century Chemical Theory: Correction of a Misunderstanding. [REVIEW]Paul Needham - 2014 - Foundations of Chemistry 16 (2):165-167.
    I reply in this short note to some criticisms that Alan Rocke has recently made in this journal.
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  47.  3
    Tense Logic.Paul Needham, L. Aqvist & F. Guenthner - 1979 - Philosophical Quarterly 29 (117):372.
  48.  26
    Mixture and Chemical Combination and Related Essays: A Response to Robert Deltete and Anastasios Brenner. [REVIEW]Paul Needham - 2004 - Foundations of Chemistry 6 (3):233-245.
  49. Temporal Perspective a Logical Analysis of Temporal Reference in English.Paul Needham - 1975
     
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  50.  6
    Determining Sameness of Substance.Paul Needham - 2015 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science:axv050.
    The idea that the extension of a chemical substance is fixed by determining what stands in the relation of being the same substance to a paradigm sample plays a substantial role in chemistry, and procedures of identification that don’t make direct use of the method can be traced back to ones that do. But paradigm samples are not typically selected by ostension, as in Putnam’s version of this procedure. The relevance of ostension is questioned after a discussion of the establishment (...)
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