Results for 'Paula Abrams'

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  1. The Bad Mother: Stigma, Abortion and Surrogacy.Paula Abrams - 2015 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (2):179-191.
    Stigma taints individuals with a spoiled identity and loss of status or discrimination. This article is the first to examine the stigma attached to abortion and surrogacy and consider how law may stigmatize women for failing to conform to social expectations about maternal roles. Courts should consider evidence of stigma when evaluating laws regulating abortion or surrogacy to determine whether these laws are based on impermissible gender stereotyping.
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  2. The Mirror and the Lamp: Romantic Theory and the Critical Tradition.M. H. Abrams - 1953 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 12 (4):527-527.
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  3. Mechanistic probability.Marshall Abrams - 2012 - Synthese 187 (2):343-375.
    I describe a realist, ontologically objective interpretation of probability, "far-flung frequency (FFF) mechanistic probability". FFF mechanistic probability is defined in terms of facts about the causal structure of devices and certain sets of frequencies in the actual world. Though defined partly in terms of frequencies, FFF mechanistic probability avoids many drawbacks of well-known frequency theories and helps causally explain stable frequencies, which will usually be close to the values of mechanistic probabilities. I also argue that it's a virtue rather than (...)
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  4. What determines biological fitness? The problem of the reference environment.Marshall Abrams - 2009 - Synthese 166 (1):21-40.
    Organisms' environments are thought to play a fundamental role in determining their fitness and hence in natural selection. Existing intuitive conceptions of environment are sufficient for biological practice. I argue, however, that attempts to produce a general characterization of fitness and natural selection are incomplete without the help of general conceptions of what conditions are included in the environment. Thus there is a "problem of the reference environment"—more particularly, problems of specifying principles which pick out those environmental conditions which determine (...)
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  5. How Do Natural Selection and Random Drift Interact?Marshall Abrams - 2007 - Philosophy of Science 74 (5):666-679.
    One controversy about the existence of so called evolutionary forces such as natural selection and random genetic drift concerns the sense in which such “forces” can be said to interact. In this paper I explain how natural selection and random drift can interact. In particular, I show how population-level probabilities can be derived from individual-level probabilities, and explain the sense in which natural selection and drift are embodied in these population-level probabilities. I argue that whatever causal character the individual-level probabilities (...)
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  6. Natural Supernaturalism: Tradition and Revolution in Romantic Literature.M. H. Abrams - 1972 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 31 (1):132-132.
  7. The unity of fitness.Marshall Abrams - 2009 - Philosophy of Science 76 (5):750-761.
    It has been argued that biological fitness cannot be defined as expected number of offspring in all contexts. Some authors argue that fitness therefore merely satisfies a common schema or that no unified mathematical characterization of fitness is possible. I argue that comparative fitness must be relativized to an evolutionary effect; thus relativized, fitness can be given a unitary mathematical characterization in terms of probabilities of producing offspring and other effects. Such fitnesses will sometimes be defined in terms of probabilities (...)
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  8.  51
    Altered vision near the hands.Richard A. Abrams, Christopher C. Davoli, Feng Du, William H. Knapp & Daniel Paull - 2008 - Cognition 107 (3):1035-1047.
  9. Fitness and Propensity’s Annulment?Marshall Abrams - 2007 - Biology and Philosophy 22 (1):115-130.
    Recent debate on the nature of probabilities in evolutionary biology has focused largely on the propensity interpretation of fitness (PIF), which defines fitness in terms of a conception of probability known as “propensity”. However, proponents of this conception of fitness have misconceived the role of probability in the constitution of fitness. First, discussions of probability and fitness have almost always focused on organism effect probability, the probability that an organism and its environment cause effects. I argue that much of the (...)
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  10.  17
    The Role of a Hospital Ethics Consultation Service in Decision-Making for Unrepresented Patients.Andrew M. Courtwright, Joshua Abrams & Ellen M. Robinson - 2017 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 14 (2):241-250.
    Despite increased calls for hospital ethics committees to serve as default decision-makers about life-sustaining treatment for unrepresented patients who lack decision-making capacity or a surrogate decision-maker and whose wishes regarding medical care are not known, little is known about how committees currently function in these cases. This was a retrospective cohort study of all ethics committee consultations involving decision-making about LST for unrepresented patients at a large academic hospital from 2007 to 2013. There were 310 ethics committee consultations, twenty-five of (...)
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  11.  48
    Populations and pigeons: Prosaic pluralism about evolutionary causes.Marshall Abrams - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (3):294-301.
    and was correct to conclude that the way a biological population is described should affect conclusions about whether natural selection occurs, but wrong to conclude that natural selection is therefore not a cause. After providing a new argument that ignored crucial biological details, I give a biological illustration that motivates a fairly extreme dependence on description. I argue that contrary to an implication of , biologists allow much flexibility in describing populations, as contemporary research on recent human evolution shows. Properly (...)
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  12.  14
    Disability at the Limits of Phenomenology.Thomas Abrams - 2020 - Puncta 3 (2):15-18.
    Musing for Puncta special issue on "Critically Sick: New Phenomenologies Of Illness, Madness, And Disability.".
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  13. Infinite populations and counterfactual frequencies in evolutionary theory.Marshall Abrams - 2006 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 37 (2):256-268.
    One finds intertwined with ideas at the core of evolutionary theory claims about frequencies in counterfactual and infinitely large populations of organisms, as well as in sets of populations of organisms. One also finds claims about frequencies in counterfactual and infinitely large populations—of events—at the core of an answer to a question concerning the foundations of evolutionary theory. The question is this: To what do the numerical probabilities found throughout evolutionary theory correspond? The answer in question says that evolutionary probabilities (...)
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  14.  58
    Cognitive Structuralism: Explaining the Regularity of the Natural Numbers Progression.Paula Quinon - 2022 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 13 (1):127-149.
    According to one of the most powerful paradigms explaining the meaning of the concept of natural number, natural numbers get a large part of their conceptual content from core cognitive abilities. Carey’s bootstrapping provides a model of the role of core cognition in the creation of mature mathematical concepts. In this paper, I conduct conceptual analyses of various theories within this paradigm, concluding that the theories based on the ability to subitize (i.e., to assess anexactquantity of the elements in a (...)
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  15.  45
    Don’t Mention the Marble! The Role of Attentional Processes in False-Belief Tasks.Paula Rubio-Fernández & Bart Geurts - 2016 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 7 (4):835-850.
    In the last 30 years, the key issue in developmental Theory of Mind has been if and when children are capable of representing false beliefs. Moving away from this research question, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of attentional processes in false-belief tasks. We focused on the design of the test phase and investigated two factors that may be critical for 3-year-old children’s success: the form of the wh-question and the salience of the target object. The (...)
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  16.  50
    Can Church’s thesis be viewed as a Carnapian explication?Paula Quinon - 2019 - Synthese 198 (Suppl 5):1047-1074.
    Turing and Church formulated two different formal accounts of computability that turned out to be extensionally equivalent. Since the accounts refer to different properties they cannot both be adequate conceptual analyses of the concept of computability. This insight has led to a discussion concerning which account is adequate. Some authors have suggested that this philosophical debate—which shows few signs of converging on one view—can be circumvented by regarding Church’s and Turing’s theses as explications. This move opens up the possibility that (...)
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  17. A God that could be real in the new scientific universe.Nancy Ellen Abrams - 2015 - Zygon 50 (2):376-388.
    We are living at the dawn of the first truly scientific picture of the universe-as-a-whole, yet people are still dragging along prescientific ideas about God that cannot be true and are even meaningless in the universe we now know we live in. This makes it impossible to have a coherent big picture of the modern world that includes God. But we don't have to accept an impossible God or else no God. We can have a real God if we redefine (...)
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  18. Understanding students' explanations of biological phenomena: Conceptual frameworks or p‐prims?Sherry A. Southerland, Eleanor Abrams, Catherine L. Cummins & Julie Anzelmo - 2001 - Science Education 85 (4):328-348.
     
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  19.  13
    A taxonomy of deviant encodings.Paula Quinon - 2018 - In F. Manea, R. Miller & D. Nowotka (eds.), Sailing Routes in the World of Computation. CiE 2018. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 10936. Springer. pp. 338-348.
    The main objective of this paper is to design a common background for various philosophical discussions about adequate conceptual analysis of “computation”.
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  20.  37
    An illustrated guide to the methods of meta‐analysis.Alexander J. Sutton, Keith R. Abrams & David R. Jones - 2001 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 7 (2):135-148.
  21. Flawed by Dasein? Phenomenology, Ethnomethodology, and the Personal Experience of Physiotherapy.Thomas Abrams - 2014 - Human Studies 37 (3):431-446.
    This paper applies a hybrid Heideggerian-ethnomethodological approach to physiotherapy practice. Unlike previous studies written by and for practitioners, this paper uses my personal experience receiving physical therapy as its point of departure. By combining Heidegger’s [Being and time (trans: Stambaugh J). State University of New York Press, New York 1996] notion of the ‘ontological difference’ with Garfinkel’s (Studies in ethnomethodology, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs 1967) concept of ‘accountability,’ I argue that in physical therapy practice, both client and practitioner actively shape the (...)
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  22. Doing Things with Texts: Essays in Criticism and Critical Theory.M. H. Abrams - 1991 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 49 (2):173-175.
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  23. Implications of Use of Wright’s FST for the Role of Probability and Causation in Evolution.Marshall Abrams - 2012 - Philosophy of Science 79 (5):596-608.
    Sewall Wright ’s FST is a mathematical test widely used in empirical applications to characterize genetic and other differences between subpopulations, and to identify causes of those differences. Cockerham and Weir’s popular approach to statistical estimation of FST is based on an assumption sometimes formulated as a claim that actual populations tested are sampled from.
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  24.  65
    Controlling the Experiment: Rhetoric, Court Patronage and the Experimental Method of Francesco Redi.Paula Findlen - 1993 - History of Science 31 (1):35-64.
  25.  7
    Clinical Care and Research in AIDS.Paul Volberding & Donald Abrams - 1985 - Hastings Center Report 15 (4):16-18.
  26.  23
    Emotional processing is enhanced in peri-hand space.Feng Du, Xiaotao Wang, Richard A. Abrams & Kan Zhang - 2017 - Cognition 165 (C):39-44.
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  27.  40
    Interview: Hans R. Jauss.Hans R. Jauss, M. H. Abrams, Herbert Dieckmann, D. I. Grossvogel, W. Wolfgang Holdheim, Philip E. Lewis, Ciriaco Moron-Arroyo & Jacques Roger - 1975 - Diacritics 5 (1):53.
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  28. Feminist philosophies of love and work.Julie A. Nelson & Paula England - 2002 - Hypatia 17 (2):1-18.
    : Can work be done for pay, and still be loving? While many feminists believe that marketization inevitably leads to a degradation of social connections, we suggest that markets are themselves forms of social organization, and that even relationships of unequal power can sometimes include mutual respect. We call for increased attention to specific causes of suffering, such as greed, poverty, and subordination. We conclude with a summary of contributions to this Special Issue.
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  29.  43
    Unconscious processing of multiple nonadjacent letters in visually masked words.Richard L. Abrams - 2005 - Consciousness and Cognition 14 (3):585-601.
    The claim that visually masked, unidentifiable words are analyzed at the level of whole word meaning has been challenged by recent findings indicating that instead, analysis occurs mainly at the subword level. The present experiments examined possible limits on subword analysis. Experiment 1 obtained semantic priming from pleasant- and unpleasant-meaning subliminal words in which no individual letter contained diagnostic information about a word’s evaluative valence; thus analysis must operate on information more complex than that contained in individual letters. Experiments 2 (...)
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  30.  27
    Making men into dads: Fatherhood, the state, and welfare reform.Laura S. Abrams & Laura Curran - 2000 - Gender and Society 14 (5):662-678.
    Recent revisions in child support and paternity establishment legislation enacted under the 1996 welfare reform act, the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, significantly alter the American welfare state's relationship to men's fathering. Through a critical review of prior research and social service literature, the authors argue that PRWORA actively constructs fatherhood not only through state policies that maintain males as “breadwinners” but also through state-sponsored social service programs that seek to influence men's identities as fathers. PRWORA's policies and (...)
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  31.  14
    Essentially Ergodic Behaviour.Paula Reichert - 2023 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 74 (1):57-73.
    I prove a theorem on the precise connection of the time and phase-space average of the Boltzmann equilibrium showing that the behaviour of a dynamical system with a stationary measure and a dominant equilibrium state is qualitatively ergodic. Explicitly, I show that given a dynamical system with a stationary measure and a region of overwhelming phase-space measure, almost all trajectories spend almost all of their time in that region. Conversely, given that almost all trajectories spend almost all of their time (...)
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  32.  12
    Feminist Philosophies of Love and Work.Julie A. Nelson & Paula England - 2002 - Hypatia 17 (2):1-18.
    Can work be done for pay, and still be loving? While many feminists believe that marketization inevitably leads to a degradation of social connections, we suggest that markets are themselves forms of social organization, and that even relationships of unequal power can sometimes include mutual respect. We call for increased attention to specific causes of suffering, such as greed, poverty, and subordination. We conclude with a summary of contributions to this Special Issue.
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  33.  11
    Recruitment of newly acquired category exemplars into unconscious processing systems is rapid and durable.Reed M. Morgan & Richard L. Abrams - 2021 - Consciousness and Cognition 95 (C):103205.
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  34.  18
    Clarice Lispector’s Philosophy of Time.Paula Marchesini - 2023 - Angelaki 28 (2):125-135.
    Clarice Lispector puts forth nothing less than a complete philosophy of time in her writings, that is, a cohesive philosophical examination of what time is, of its physics and metaphysics, of how humans and animals perceive time, and even an innovative aesthetic theory in which time is the inspiring force giving rise to literary and artistic creation. Her view of time is unique in the Western philosophical canon, offering original solutions to many of time’s classic difficulties. For Lispector, time is (...)
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  35.  49
    Braidotti, Spinoza and disability studies after the human.Thomas Abrams - 2017 - History of the Human Sciences 30 (5):86-103.
    Disability studies has begun to employ Rosi Braidotti’s posthumanism, as a means to challenge the exclusionary model of man, dominant both in the academy and in everyday life. Braidotti argues that we must embrace a new form of subjectivity to effectively address the academic, environmental and species challenges characterizing the posthuman condition. This critical posthuman subject is inspired, in part, by Baruch de Spinoza, read as a monistic philosopher of difference. In this article, I compare Braidotti’s posthuman philosophy with Spinoza’s (...)
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  36. Word choice in mathematical practice: a case study in polyhedra.Lowell Abrams & Landon D. C. Elkind - 2019 - Synthese (4):1-29.
    We examine the influence of word choices on mathematical practice, i.e. in developing definitions, theorems, and proofs. As a case study, we consider Euclid’s and Euler’s word choices in their influential developments of geometry and, in particular, their use of the term ‘polyhedron’. Then, jumping to the twentieth century, we look at word choices surrounding the use of the term ‘polyhedron’ in the work of Coxeter and of Grünbaum. We also consider a recent and explicit conflict of approach between Grünbaum (...)
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  37.  34
    The Ergodic Hypothesis: A Typicality Statement.Paula Reichert - 2024 - In Angelo Bassi, Sheldon Goldstein, Roderich Tumulka & Nino Zanghi (eds.), Physics and the Nature of Reality: Essays in Memory of Detlef Dürr. Springer. pp. 285-299.
    This paper analyzes the ergodic hypothesis in the context of Boltzmann’s late work in statistical mechanics, where Boltzmann lays the foundations for what is today known as the typicality account. I argue that, based on the concepts of stationarity (of the measure) and typicality (of the equilibrium state), the ergodic hypothesis, as an idealization, is a consequence rather than an assumption of Boltzmann’s account. More precisely, it can be shown that every system with a stationary measure and an equilibrium state (...)
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  38.  26
    Out of control: Attentional selection for orientation is thwarted by properties of the underlying neural mechanisms.Feng Du & Richard A. Abrams - 2012 - Cognition 124 (3):361-366.
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  39.  25
    Decisions involving patients who have lost the capacity to make decisions and who have not executed an advance directive.Jm Stanley, F. Abrams, Pv Admiraal, Ch Boren, H. Brody, Agm Campbell, Hs Cohen, Bn Colabawalla, Re Cranford & Aj Culyer - 1992 - Journal of Medical Ethics 18 (s):S10 - S12.
  40.  14
    Decisions involving patients who have decision-making capacity or patients who have executed an advance directive before losing this capacity.Jm Stanley, F. Abrams, Pv Admiraal, Ch Boren, H. Brody, Agm Campbell, Hs Cohen, Bn Colabawalla, Re Cranford & Aj Culyer - 1992 - Journal of Medical Ethics 18 (s):S6 - S9.
  41.  2
    Redescribing the Machiavellian prince. The idea of monarchy in Giovani Botero’s Della Ragion di Stato(1589).Silvina Paula Vidal - forthcoming - History of European Ideas.
    Botero’s Della Ragion di Stato has a monarchical character that has been overlooked or taken for granted. This is due to the successful reception of the reason of state formula, which justifies any kind of political regime, including principalities, republics, and monarchies, regardless of the author’s preferences. However, there is a clear distinction between monarchy and reason of state that requires further discussion. Botero not only uses Machiavellian language when referring to a political community (as res publica) or the prince (...)
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  42.  23
    Autoconhecimento e perspectivas externistas: o compatibilismo em debate.Paula Mousinho Martins - 2013 - Scientiae Studia 11 (2):427-435.
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  43.  55
    Equidynamics and reliable reasoning about frequencies: Michael Strevens: Tychomancy: Inferring probability from causal structure. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 265pp, $39.95 HB.Marshall Abrams, Frederick Eberhardt & Michael Strevens - 2015 - Metascience 24 (2):173-188.
    A symposium on Michael Strevens' book "Tychomancy", concerning the psychological roots and historical significance of physical intuition about probability in physics, biology, and elsewhere.
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  44.  13
    The Hungry God: Hindu Tales of Filicide and Devotion.Paula Richman & David Shulman - 1994 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 114 (4):655.
  45.  7
    Structural Principles or Frequency of Use? An ERP Experiment on the Learnability of Consonant Clusters.Richard Wiese, Paula Orzechowska, Phillip M. Alday & Christiane Ulbrich - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  46.  64
    Coherence, Muller’s Ratchet, and the Maintenance of Culture.Marshall Abrams - 2015 - Philosophy of Science 82 (5):983-996.
    I investigate the structure of an argument that culture cannot be maintained in a population if each individual learns only from a single person. This appears to conflict with many models of cultural transmission and real-world cases. I resolve the first problem by showing that one of the models central to the argument is conceptually analogous and mathematically equivalent to one used to investigate the evolution of sexual reproduction. I resolve the second by arguing that probabilistic models of epistemological coherence (...)
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  47.  13
    Cultural variant interaction in teaching and transmission.Marshall Abrams - 2015 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 38:e32.
    Focus on the way in which cultural variants affect other variants' probabilities of transmission in modeling and empirical work can enrich Kline's conceptualization of teaching. For example, the problem of communicating complex cumulative culture is an adaptive problem; teaching methods that manage transmission so that acquisition of some cultural variants increases the probability of acquiring others, provide a partial solution.
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  48.  10
    Applying Positive Psychology to the L2 Classroom: Acknowledging and Fostering Emotions in L2 Writing.David Byrd & Zsuzsanna Abrams - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
    The process of learning a new language can be filled with many emotions, both positive and negative, for the learner. This is particularly true in the area of writing, where students may feel a close connection to their sense of self. Thus far, the foreign language teaching profession has tended to prioritize cognition over emotion in research and classroom practice, with limited attention paid to the role of emotions in language learning. Recently, however, scholars, influenced by psychology, have taken a (...)
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  49.  17
    Why Insurance Companies Should Pay for Medical Cannabis.David Casarett & Donald I. Abrams - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (4):8-10.
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  50.  19
    Accounting for Disability in the Phenomenological Life-World.Thomas Abrams And Deniz Guvenc - 2015 - PhaenEx 10:100-114.
    This paper critically assesses Edmund Husserl's concept of the ‘life-world’, found in his Crisis of European Sciences and Transcendental Phenomenology. We argue that Husserl's phenomenology fails to consider the social and material arrangements that allow subjectivity to emerge in our shared world. We begin by outlining the concept as formulated in Husserl’s Crisis. We then entertain Husserl’s critique by his most famous student, Martin Heidegger. We suggest a reformulation of intersubjectivity, along the lines of Heidegger’s mitdasein, accounts for subjectivity as (...)
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