Results for 'Pauline Sc Kouwenhoven'

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  1.  71
    News Media Coverage of Euthanasia: A Content Analysis of Dutch National Newspapers.Judith Ac Rietjens, Natasja Jh Raijmakers, Pauline Sc Kouwenhoven, Clive Seale, Ghislaine Jmw van Thiel, Margo Trappenburg, Johannes Jm van Delden & Agnes van der Heide - 2013 - BMC Medical Ethics 14 (1):11.
    The Netherlands is one of the few countries where euthanasia is legal under strict conditions. This study investigates whether Dutch newspaper articles use the term ‘euthanasia’ according to the legal definition and determines what arguments for and against euthanasia they contain.
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  2.  28
    Opinions About Euthanasia and Advanced Dementia: A Qualitative Study Among Dutch Physicians and Members of the General Public.Pauline S. C. Kouwenhoven, Natasja J. H. Raijmakers, Johannes J. M. van Delden, Judith A. C. Rietjens, Donald G. Van Tol, Suzanne van de Vathorst, Nienke de Graeff, Heleen A. M. Weyers, Agnes van der Heide & Ghislaine J. M. W. van Thiel - 2015 - BMC Medical Ethics 16 (1):7.
    The Dutch law states that a physician may perform euthanasia according to a written advance euthanasia directive when a patient is incompetent as long as all legal criteria of due care are met. This may also hold for patients with advanced dementia. We investigated the differing opinions of physicians and members of the general public on the acceptability of euthanasia in patients with advanced dementia.
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  3.  28
    Assistance in Dying for Older People Without a Serious Medical Condition Who Have a Wish to Die: A National Cross-Sectional Survey.Natasja J. H. Raijmakers, Agnes van der Heide, Pauline S. C. Kouwenhoven, Ghislaine J. M. W. van Thiel, Johannes J. M. van Delden & Judith A. C. Rietjens - 2015 - Journal of Medical Ethics 41 (2):145-150.
  4.  10
    Algebraic Set Theory and the Effective Topos.Claire Kouwenhoven-Gentil & Jaap van Oosten - 2005 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 70 (3):879 - 890.
    Following the book Algebraic Set Theory from André Joyal and leke Moerdijk [8], we give a characterization of the initial ZF-algebra, for Heyting pretoposes equipped with a class of small maps. Then, an application is considered (the effective topos) to show how to recover an already known model (McCarty [9]).
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  5.  4
    Dutch Physicians on the Role of the Family in Continuous Sedation.Donald G. van Tol, Pauline Kouwenhoven, Bea van der Vegt & Heleen Weyers - 2015 - Journal of Medical Ethics 41 (3):240-244.
  6. Kant and Cosmopolitanism: The Philosophical Ideal of World Citizenship.Pauline Kleingeld - 2011 - Cambridge University Press.
    This is the first comprehensive account of Kant’s cosmopolitanism, highlighting its moral, political, legal, economic, cultural, and psychological aspects. Contrasting Kant’s views with those of his German contemporaries, and relating them to current debates, Pauline Kleingeld sheds new light on texts that have been hitherto neglected or underestimated. In clear and carefully argued discussions, she shows that Kant’s philosophical cosmopolitanism underwent a radical transformation in the mid 1790s and that the resulting theory is philosophically stronger than is usually thought. (...)
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  7. On Dealing with Kant's Sexism and Racism.Pauline Kleingeld - 2019 - SGIR Review 2 (2):3-22.
    Kant is famous for his universalist moral theory, which emphasizes human dignity, equality, and autonomy. Yet he also defended sexist and (until late in his life) racist views. In this essay, I address the question of how current readers of Kant should deal with Kant’s sexism and racism. I first provide a brief description of Kant’s views on sexual and racial hierarchies, and of the way they intersect. I then turn to the question of whether we should set aside Kant’s (...)
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  8. The Principle of Autonomy in Kant's Moral Theory: Its Rise and Fall.Pauline Kleingeld - 2018 - In Eric Watkins (ed.), Kant on Persons and Agency. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 61-79.
    In this essay, “The Principle of Autonomy in Kant’s Moral Theory: Its Rise and Fall,” Pauline Kleingeld notes that Kant’s Principle of Autonomy, which played a central role in both the Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals and the Critique of Practical Reason, disappeared by the time of the Metaphysics of Morals. She argues that its disappearance is due to significant changes in Kant’s political philosophy. The Principle of Autonomy states that one ought to act as if one were (...)
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  9.  27
    Luigi Alici, Remo Piccolomini, and Antonio Pieretti, Eds., Esistenza E Libertà: Agostino Nella Filosofia Del Novecento/1, Rome: Città Nuova, 2000. Pauline Allen, Raymond Canning, and Lawrence Cross, Eds., Prayer and Spiritu-Ality in the Early Church (First Conference on Prayer and Spirituality, 1996), Brisbane: Centre for Early Christian Studies, 1998. [REVIEW]Pauline Allen & Wendy Mayer - 2004 - Augustinian Studies 35 (2).
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  10. Kant's Second Thoughts on Colonialism.Pauline Kleingeld - 2014 - In Katrin Flikschuh & Lea Ypi (eds.), Kant and Colonialism: Historical and Critical Perspectives. Oxford University Press. pp. 43-67.
    Kant is widely regarded as a fierce critic of colonialism. In Toward Perpetual Peace and the Metaphysics of Morals, for example, he forcefully condemns European conduct in the colonies as a flagrant violation of the principles of right. His earlier views on colonialism have not yet received much detailed scrutiny, however. In this essay I argue that Kant actually endorsed and justified European colonialism until the early 1790s. I show that Kant’s initial endorsement and his subsequent criticism of colonialism are (...)
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  11. Towards a Variable-Free Semantics.Pauline Jacobson - 1999 - Linguistics and Philosophy 22 (2):117-185.
    The Montagovian hypothesis of direct model-theoretic interpretation of syntactic surface structures is supported by an account of the semantics of binding that makes no use of variables, syntactic indices, or assignment functions & shows that the interpretation of a large portion of so-called variable-binding phenomena can dispense with the level of logical form without incurring equivalent complexity elsewhere in the system. Variable-free semantics hypothesizes local interpretation of each surface constituent; binding is formalized as a type-shifting operation on expressions that denote (...)
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  12. Kantian Patriotism.Pauline Kleingeld - 2000 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 29 (4):313-341.
    In this essay, I examine the compatibility of Kantian cosmopolitanism and patriotism. In response to recent literature, I first argue that in order to discuss this issue fruitfully, one should distinguish between three different forms of patriotism and be careful to make clear when patriotism is obligatory, permissible, or prohibited. I then show that Kantians can defend the view that civic patriotism is a duty, but that attempts to also establish nationalist patriotism and trait-based patriotism as Kantian duties fail. Showing (...)
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  13. Kant's Second Thoughts on Race.Pauline Kleingeld - 2007 - Philosophical Quarterly 57 (229):573–592.
    During the 1780s, as Kant was developing his universalistic moral theory, he published texts in which he defended the superiority of whites over non-whites. Whether commentators see this as evidence of inconsistent universalism or of consistent inegalitarianism, they generally assume that Kant's position on race remained stable during the 1780s and 1790s. Against this standard view, I argue on the basis of his texts that Kant radically changed his mind. I examine his 1780s race theory and his hierarchical conception of (...)
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  14. Leibniz and the Environment.Pauline Phemister - 2016 - Routledge.
    The work of seventeenth-century polymath Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz has proved inspirational to philosophers and scientists alike. In this thought-provoking book, Pauline Phemister explores the ecological potential of Leibniz’s dynamic, pluralist, panpsychist, metaphysical system. She argues that Leibniz’s philosophy has a renewed relevance in the twenty-first century, particularly in relation to the environmental change and crises that threaten human and non-human life on earth. Drawing on Leibniz’s theory of soul-like, interconnected metaphysical entities he termed 'monads', Phemister explains how an individual’s (...)
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  15. Cosmopolitanism.Pauline Kleingeld & Eric Brown - 2013 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    The word ‘cosmopolitan’, which derives from the Greek word kosmopolitês (‘citizen of the world’), has been used to describe a wide variety of important views in moral and socio political philosophy. The nebulous core shared by all cosmopolitan views is the idea that all human beings, regardless of their political affiliation, do (or at least can) belong to a single community, and that this community should be cultivated. Different versions of cosmopolitanism envision this community in different ways, some focusing on (...)
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  16.  74
    How to Use Someone ‘Merely as a Means’.Pauline Kleingeld - 2020 - Kantian Review 25 (3):389-414.
    The prohibition on using others ‘merely as means’ is one of the best-known and most influential elements of Immanuel Kant’s moral theory. But it is widely regarded as impossible to specify with precision the conditions under which this prohibition is violated. On the basis of a re-examination of Kant’s texts, the article develops a novel account of the conditions for using someone ‘merely as a means’. It is argued that this account has not only strong textual support but also significant (...)
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  17. Contradiction and Kant’s Formula of Universal Law.Pauline Kleingeld - 2017 - Kant-Studien 108 (1):89-115.
    Kant’s most prominent formulation of the Categorical Imperative, known as the Formula of Universal Law (FUL), is generally thought to demand that one act only on maxims that one can will as universal laws without this generating a contradiction. Kant's view is standardly summarized as requiring the 'universalizability' of one's maxims and described in terms of the distinction between 'contradictions in conception' and 'contradictions in the will'. Focusing on the underappreciated significance of the simultaneity condition included in the FUL, I (...)
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  18. The Problematic Status of Gender-Neutral Language in the History of Philosophy: The Case of Kant.Pauline Kleingeld - 1993 - Philosophical Forum 25:134-150.
    The increasingly common use of inclusive language (e.g., "he or she") in representing past philosophers' views is often inappropriate. Using Immanuel Kant's work as an example, I compare his use of terms such as "human race" and "human being" with his views on women to show that his use of generic terms does not prove that he includes women. I then discuss three different approaches to this issue, found in recent Kant-literature, and show why each of them is insufficient. I (...)
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  19. Approaching Perpetual Peace: Kant’s Defence of a League of States and His Ideal of a World Federation.Pauline Kleingeld - 2004 - European Journal of Philosophy 12 (3):304-325.
    There exists a standard view of Kant’s position on global order and this view informs much of current Kantian political theory. This standard view is that Kant advocates a voluntary league of states and rejects the ideal of a federative state of states as dangerous, unrealistic, and conceptually incoherent. This standard interpretation is usually thought to fall victim to three equally standard objections. In this essay, I argue that the standard interpretation is mistaken and that the three standard objections miss (...)
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  20. Kant, History, and the Idea of Moral Development.Pauline Kleingeld - 1999 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 16 (1):59-80.
    I examine the consistency of Kant's notion of moral progress as found in his philosophy of history. To many commentators, Kant's very idea of moral development has seemed inconsistent with basic tenets of his critical philosophy. This idea has seemed incompatible with his claims that the moral law is unconditionally and universally valid, that moral agency is noumenal and atemporal, and that all humans are equally free. Against these charges, I argue not only that Kant's notion of moral development is (...)
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  21. Kant’s Theory of Peace.Pauline Kleingeld - 2006 - In Paul Guyer (ed.), Cambridge Companion to Kant and Modern Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.
  22.  38
    Paycheck Pronouns, Bach-Peters Sentences, and Variable-Free Semantics.Pauline Jacobson - 2000 - Natural Language Semantics 8 (2):77-155.
    This paper argues for the hypothesis of direct compositionality (as in, e.g., Montague 1974), according to which the combinatory syntactic rules specify a set of well-formed expressions while the semantic combinatory rules work in tandem to directly supply a model-theoretic interpretation to each expression as it is "built" in the syntax. (This thus obviates the need for any level like LF and, concomitantly, for any rules mapping surface structures to such a level.) I focus here on one related group of (...)
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  23.  22
    Leibniz and the Elements of Compound Bodies.Pauline Phemister - 2014 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 22 (1):57-78.
    Editor’s Choice for 21st Anniversary Special Edition. Originally published in British Journal for the History of Philosophy, 7(1) (1999), 57-78.
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  24.  41
    Fortschritt und Vernunft: Zur Geschichtsphilosophie Kants.Pauline Kleingeld - 1995 - Königshausen und Neumann.
    The goal of this study is to reconstruct and evaluate the systematic role of Kant's views on history within his ‛critical' philosophy. Kant's philosophy of history has been neglected in the literature, largely due to the widespread though mistaken perception that it is at odds with central assumptions of Kant’s ‘critical’ thought. I discuss Kant's most important texts on history and examine the relationship between Kant's view of history and the central tenets of his Critiques (in particular, Kant's conception of (...)
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  25. Consistent Egoists and Situation Managers: Two Problems for Situationism.Pauline Kleingeld - 2015 - Philosophical Explorations 18 (3):344-361.
    According to philosophical “situationism”, psychological evidence shows that human action is typically best explained by the influence of situational factors and not by “global” and robust character traits of the agent. As a practical implication of their view, situationists recommend that efforts in moral education be shifted from character development to situation management. Much of the discussion has focused on whether global conceptions of virtue and character, and in particular Aristotelian virtue ethics, can be defended against the situationist challenge. After (...)
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  26. Six Varieties of Cosmopolitanism in Late Eighteenth-Century Germany.Pauline Kleingeld - 1999 - Journal of the History of Ideas 60 (3):505-524.
    Cosmopolitanism is not a single encompassing idea but rather comes in at least six different varieties, which have often been conflated in previous literature. This is shown on the basis of the discussion in late eighteenth-century Germany (roughly, 1780-1800). The six varieties are: (1) moral cosmopolitanism, the view that all humans belong to a single moral community; political cosmopolitanism, which advocates (2) reform of the international political and legal order or (3) a strong notion of human rights; (4) cultural cosmopolitanism, (...)
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  27. Kant's Cosmopolitan Law: World Citizenship for a Global Order.Pauline Kleingeld - 1998 - Kantian Review 2:72-90.
    Kant's unduly neglected concept of cosmopolitan law suggests a third sphere of public law -- in addition to constitutional law and international law -- in which both states and individuals have rights, and where individuals have these rights as ‛citizens of the earth' rather than as citizens of particular states. I critically examine Kant's view of cosmopolitan law, discussing its addressees, content, justification, and institutionalization. I argue that Kant's conception of ‛world citizenship' is neither merely metaphorical nor dependent on an (...)
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  28.  29
    The Moral Self.Pauline Chazan - 1998 - Routledge.
    The Moral Self addresses the question of how morality enters into our lives. Pauline Chazan draws upon psychology, moral philosophy, and literary interpretation to rebut the view that morality's role is to limit desire and control self-love. Preserving the ancients' connection between what is good for the self and what is morally good, Chazan argues that a certain kind of care for the self is central to moral agency. This book offers a dynamic interdisciplinary slant on the discussion of (...)
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  29.  20
    14. On the Quantificational Force of English Free Relatives.Pauline Jacobson - 1995 - In Emmon Bach, Eloise Jelinek, Angelika Kratzer & Barbara Partee (eds.), Quantification in Natural Languages. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 2--451.
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  30.  39
    He Was My Son, Not a Dying Baby.Pauline Thiele - 2010 - Journal of Medical Ethics 36 (11):646-647.
    Conversing happily with my son we had been driving home when my mobile phone rang. Startled at the sound of my obstetrician's voice I had pulled off to the side of the road. At 18 weeks gestation I was told in a factual tone that the results from my serum screen had come back, indicating that our baby was at increased risk of Trisomy 18. Gripping the steering wheel my head had spun as he talked, explaining that Trisomy 18 was (...)
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  31. Autonomy Without Paradox: Kant, Self-Legislation and the Moral Law.Pauline Kleingeld & Marcus Willaschek - 2019 - Philosophers' Imprint 19 (6):1-18.
    Within Kantian ethics and Kant scholarship, it is widely assumed that autonomy consists in the self-legislation of the principle of morality. In this paper, we challenge this view on both textual and philosophical grounds. We argue that Kant never unequivocally claims that the Moral Law is self-legislated and that he is not philosophically committed to this claim by his overall conception of morality. Instead, the idea of autonomy concerns only substantive moral laws, such as the law that one ought not (...)
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  32. 'All the Time and Everywhere Everything's the Same as Here': The Principle of Uniformity in the Correspondence Between Leibniz and Lady Masham.Pauline Phemister - 2004 - In Paul Lodge (ed.), Leibniz and His Correspondents. Cambridge: Uk ;Cambridge University Press. pp. 193--213.
  33. Kant on ‘Good’, the Good, and the Duty to Promote the Highest Good.Pauline Kleingeld - 2016 - In Thomas Höwing (ed.), The Highest Good in Kant’s Philosophy. Berlin: De Gruyter. pp. 33-50.
    Many regard Kant’s account of the highest good as a failure. His inclusion of happiness in the highest good, in combination with his claim that it is a duty to promote the highest good, is widely seen as inconsistent. In this essay, I argue that there is a valid argument, based on premises Kant clearly endorses, in defense of his thesis that it is a duty to promote the highest good. I first examine why Kant includes happiness in the highest (...)
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  34. Moral Consciousness and the 'Fact of Reason'.Pauline Kleingeld - 2010 - In Andrews Reath & Jens Timmermann (eds.), Kant's Critique of Practical Reason: A Critical Guide. Cambridge University Press.
    At the heart of the argument of the Critique of Practical Reason, one finds Kant’s puzzling and much-criticized claim that the consciousness of the moral law can be called a ‘fact of reason’. In this essay, I clarify the meaning and the importance of this claim. I correct misunderstandings of the term ‘Factum’, situate the relevant passages within their argumentative context, and argue that Kant’s argument can be given a consistent reading on the basis of which the main questions and (...)
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  35.  8
    Factors Associated with Women’s Health Care Decision-Making Autonomy: Empirical Evidence From Nigeria.Pauline Osamor & Christine Grady - 2018 - Journal of Biosocial Science 50 (1):70-85.
    SummaryWomen’s decision-making autonomy has been poorly studied in most developing countries. The few existing studies suggest that it is closely linked to women’s socio-demographic characteristics and the social settings in which they live. This study examined Nigerian women’s perceived decision-making autonomy about their own health care using nationally representative data from the 2013 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey. The study sample consisted of 27,135 women aged 15–49 years who lived with their husbands/partners. Responses to questions about who usually makes decisions (...)
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  36. Kant on the Unity of Theoretical and Practical Reason.Pauline Kleingeld - 1998 - Review of Metaphysics 52 (2):500-528.
    In his critical works of the 1780's, Kant claims, seemingly inconsistently, that (1) theoretical and practical reason are one and the same reason, applied differently, (2) that he still needs to show that they are, and (3) that theoretical and practical reason are united. I first argue that current interpretations of Kant's doctrine of the unity of reason are insufficient. But rather than concluding that Kant’s doctrine becomes coherent only in the Critique of Judgment, I show that the three statements (...)
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  37. Kant on Historiography and the Use of Regulative Ideas.Pauline Kleingeld - 2008 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 39 (4):523-528.
    In this paper, I examine Kant’s methodological remarks in the ‘Idea for a universal history’ against the background of the Critique of pure reason. I argue that Kant’s approach to the function of regulative ideas of human history as a whole may still be fruitful. This approach allows for regulative ideas that are grand in scope, but modest and fallibilistic in their epistemic status. Kant’s methodological analysis should be distinguished from the specific teleological model of history he developed on its (...)
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  38. Connectionist Models of Cognition.Michael Sc Thomas & James L. McClelland - 2008 - In Ron Sun (ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of Computational Psychology. Cambridge University Press.
  39.  11
    Historical Studies on the Phlogiston Theory.—II. The Negative Weight of Phlogiston.J. R. Partington M. B. E. D. Sc & Douglas McKie D. Sc PhD - 1938 - Annals of Science 3 (1):1-58.
  40.  24
    Approaching Perpetual Peace: Kant's Defence of a League of States and His Ideal of a World Federation.Pauline Kleingeld - 2004 - European Journal of Philosophy 12 (3):304–325.
  41. Virtue, Vice, and Situationism.Tom Bates & Pauline Kleingeld - 2018 - In Nancy E. Snow (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Virtue. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 524-545.
    On the basis of psychological research, a group of philosophers known as 'situationists' argue that the evidence belies the existence of broad and stable (or 'global') character traits. They argue that this condemns as psychologically unrealistic those traditions in moral theory in which global virtues are upheld as ideals. After a survey of the debate to date, this article argues that the thesis of situationism is ill-supported by the available evidence. Situationists overlook the explanatory potential of a large class of (...)
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  42. Kant’s Cosmopolitan Patriotism.Pauline Kleingeld - 2003 - Kant-Studien 94 (3):299-316.
    Patriotism and cosmopolitanism are often presumed to be mutually exclusive, but Immanuel Kant defends both. Although he is best known for his moral and political cosmopolitanism, in several texts he defends the claim that we have a duty of patriotism, claiming that cosmopolitans ought to be patriotic. In this paper, I examine Kant’s different accounts of the duty of patriotism. I argue that Kant’s defense of nationalist patriotism fails, but that his argument for a duty of civic patriotism succeeds.
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  43. Justice as a Family Value: How a Commitment to Fairness is Compatible with Love.Pauline Kleingeld & Joel Anderson - 2014 - Hypatia 29 (2):320-336.
    Many discussions of love and the family treat issues of justice as something alien. On this view, concerns about whether one's family is internally just are in tension with the modes of interaction that are characteristic of loving families. In this essay, we challenge this widespread view. We argue that once justice becomes a shared family concern, its pursuit is compatible with loving familial relations. We examine four arguments for the thesis that a concern with justice is not at home (...)
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  44.  24
    Galileo's Theory of the Tides.E. J. Aiton M. Sc - 1954 - Annals of Science 10 (1):44-57.
  45.  51
    A Procedural Solution to the Unexpected Hanging and Sorites Paradoxes.SC Shapiro - 1998 - Mind 107 (428):751-762.
    The paradox of the Unexpected Hanging, related prediction paradoxes, and the Sorites paradoxes all involve reasoning about ordered collections of entities: days ordered by date in the case of the Unexpected Hanging; men ordered by the number of hairs on their heads the case of the bald man version of the Sorites. The reasoning then assigns each entity a value that depends on the previously assigned value of one of the neighboring entities. The final result is paradoxical because it conflicts (...)
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  46.  20
    Morten Wormskiold: Botanist: (1783–1845).Jessie M. Sweet M. B. E. B. Sc - 1972 - Annals of Science 28 (3):293-305.
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  47.  20
    Distorted Communications: Feminism’s Dispute with Habermas.Pauline Johnson - 2001 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 27 (1):39-62.
    The paper reviews the extent to which main formulations in Habermas's recent major work, Between Facts and Norms, make ground against feminist objections to the Habermasian project. Although the later work does not tamper with the core project of Habermas's theory of modernity, the terms in which the procedural norms of democratic interaction are now conceived clarify the sympathetic relevance of Habermas's project to feminism's own vital concerns. There is reason to suppose Habermas's construction of the motivations that prompt and (...)
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  48. The Disintegration of Natural Law Theory: Aquinas to Finnis.Pauline C. Westerman - 1998 - Brill.
  49. The (Dis)Organization of the Grammar: 25 Years. [REVIEW]Pauline Jacobson - 2002 - Linguistics and Philosophy 25 (5-6):601-626.
  50.  8
    Autonomy and Couples’ Joint Decision-Making in Healthcare.Pauline E. Osamor & Christine Grady - 2018 - BMC Medical Ethics 19 (1):1-8.
    Background Respect for autonomy is a key principle in bioethics. However, respecting autonomy in practice is complex because most people define themselves and make decisions influenced by a complex network of social relationships. The extent to which individual autonomy operates for each partner within the context of decision-making within marital or similar relationships is largely unexplored. This paper explores issues related to decision-making by couples for health care and the circumstances under which such a practice should be respected as compatible (...)
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