Web legal information retrieval systems need the capability to reason with the knowledge modeled by legal ontologies. Using this knowledge it is possible to represent and to make inferences about the semantic content of legal documents. In this paper a methodology for applying NLP techniques to automatically create a legal ontology is proposed. The ontology is defined in the OWL semantic web language and it is used in a logic programming framework, EVOLP+ISCO, to allow users to query the semantic content (...) of the documents. ISCO allows an easy and efficient integration of declarative, object-oriented and constraint-based programming techniques with the capability to create connections with external databases. EVOLP is a dynamic logic programming framework allowing the definition of rules for actions and events. An application of the proposed methodology to the legal web information retrieval system of the Portuguese Attorney General’s Office is described. (shrink)
This article questions the continued use and application of EVA® (economic value added) because it is epistemologically a non-sequitur, fails to satisfy the requirements of sound research methodology in terms of being a reliable and valid metric, and is unlikely to satisfy the requirements of Rule 702 of the Federal Rules of Evidence. In the light of these insufficiencies, the continued use of EVA® is ethically questionable, and moreover in time is likely to result in class actions.
In several enigmatic passages, Paulo Freire describes the pedagogy of the oppressed as a 'pedagogy of laughter'. The inclusion of laughter alongside problem-posing dialogue might strike some as ambiguous, considering that the global exploitation of the poor is no laughing matter. And yet, laughter seems to be an important aspect of the pedagogy of the oppressed. In this paper, I examine the role of laughter in Freire's critical pedagogy through a series of questions: Are all forms of laughter equally (...) emancipatory? Certainly a revolutionary pedagogue can laugh, but should he or she, and what are the political (if not revolutionary) implications of this laughter? In order to shed new light on Freire's fleeting yet provocative comments, I turn to Jacques Rancière for his emphasis on the aesthetics of politics, and Paulo Virno who connects joke telling with critical theory. Overall, I argue that we need to take Freire's gesture toward a pedagogy of laughter seriously in order to understand the aesthetics of critical pedagogy and the fundamental need for a redistribution of the sensible that underlies educational relations between masters and pupils. (shrink)
Paulo Freire's major work, Pedagogy of the Oppressed, owes adebt to psychoanalysis. In particular, as this paper argues,Freire's account of teacher authority needs to be understoodthrough psychoanalytic sensibilities. Paulo Freire maintains thatteacher authority can be ``on the side of freedom.'' This is ahighly charged claim given that liberalist traditions generallycast authority as the enemy of freedom. Breaking with liberalunderstandings of authority, Freire's ``authority on the sideof freedom'' is a matter of maintaining the delicate psychicbalance that leads neither to (...) domination nor to submission.This paper investigates how such an authoritative balance functions. (shrink)
RESUMO: Este ensaio investiga um conceito que tem origem entre os gregos - o diálogo – e se desloca para o campo educacional brasileiro. O trabalho pedagógico de Paulo Freire e o pensamento do hermeneuta Hans Georges Gadamer constituem nossa base teórica. Deseja-se demonstrar que a dialogicidade é um elemento relevante e emancipatório e interfere na formação dos sujeitos e na construção de saberes de forma significativa. Paulo Freire na obra Pedagogia do oprimido realiza uma análise fenomenológica do (...) cotidiano educacional e uma reflexão refinada desse processo e vai além da compreensão quando recomenda o diálogo como alternativa para um fazer pedagógico vivo e transformador. Há uma dissonância entre o que foi validado por Freire e a realidade escolar no Brasil em diferentes níveis e modalidades. Outra perspectiva que tem chamado atenção de estudiosos do campo educacional e que trata do diálogo é a Hermenêutica Filosófica de Gadamer; discute-se a possibilidade compreensiva da hermenêutica, nos moldes como fora pensado pelo hermeneuta, poder auxiliar nas bases de justificação da educação, favorecendo o debate acerca das racionalidades envolvidas no fazer pedagógico que nessa trilha parece superar os modelos de normatividade da modernidade técnico-científica, que declara o poderio da objetividade. Este estudo quer compreender a noção de diálogo vivo nesses autores e discutir sobre sua efetividade em nossos dias. (shrink)
This article presents the recent literature about Cathedral of See considered from the History of Arts perspective in São Paulo. After highlight some functional, stylistic and historical data about the building idealized by Brazilian Archbishop Dom Duarte Leopoldo e Silva and designed by German engineer Maximilian Emil Hehl , will be highlighted the most important artistic aspects of architecture and Works of Art gathered in the paulist sacred buildings. The article also highlights the Cathedral in its connection with the (...) history of the city and the Archdiocese of São Paulo. (shrink)
O objetivo desse texto é levantar algumas questões sobre as raízes do judaísmo de Paulo, ou dos referenciais judaicos que sustentam a sua visão de mundo - no decorrer de suas jornadas após a visão da estrada de Damasco. Há elementos para afirmar que além do seu farisaísmo assumido, Paulo recolheu concepções teóricas de outros movimentos judaicos do período. Tendo lido ou conhecido elementos das principais tendências do pensamento apocalíptico. Utilizou esses conceitos no sentido de atuar não só (...) junto aos judeus influenciados pelo farisaísmo como também junto àqueles outros inseridos na tradição apocalíptica. Acreditamos que Paulo expressa, além do mais, a culminância de uma tradição judaica consistente. Tradição que vinha, literariamente, do terceiro Isaías e que culminou, talvez, no Livro dos Jubileus, que defendia a necessária universalização messiânica da experiência religiosa judaica. Paulo ultima essa tradição e a transforma de experiência meramente teórica em prática concreta realizada numa perspectiva messiânica. (shrink)
The identity of the historical Jesus has been object of a constant study and investigation. Throughout history new discoveries and statements have been made, some to cooperate and assist with the Christian faith, which profess Jesus as Lord and Savior; others, however, in order to extricate the Christ of faith presented by the Gospels, from the historical Jesus. This issue is so old that takes theologians and scholars to deeply dig in search for information, having as one of the references, (...) the Apostle Paul, author of many letters compiled to the New Testament. The apostle is notorious, being recognized, among other things, through his writings, as one of the most outstanding works on the interpretation of Jesus' life; but they are scarce about mentioning the Historical Jesus. This fact is explained by some theologians by the foreknowledge that Pauline recipients had about Jesus. So Paul is not interested in explore this question, since there were already other works making references on the subject, as the gospels, and their goals are different, although some elements are highlighted in Paul, as the passion, crucifixion and resurrection of Christ. This article briefly discusses the problem of the Historical Jesus and highlights the elements that make reference to this matter, through the Apostle Paul, highlighting the second letter to the Corinthians. (shrink)
By studying the new perspectives offered on Paul, this article proposes to revise some of them emphasizing Jewish information on the Torah, rescuing to the great Greek-Roman theologian native of Tarsus, how much there is of Judaism on Paul, overcoming a forensic unilateral view to understand his thoughts about the Torah. The Torah is good, holy and leads to the Christ!
This paper is an attempt to connect the Brazilian Paulo Freire’s well known educational thinking with the “philosophy for children” movement. It considers the relationship between the creator of philosophy for children, Matthew Lipman and Freire through different attempts to establish a relationship between these two educators. The paper shows that the relationship between them is not as close as many supporters of P4C have claimed, especially in Latin America. It also considers the context of Educational Policies in our (...) time and why Freire’s understanding of the politics of education makes it impossible to be Freirean and at the same time be neutral or favorable to the actual status quo. Finally, after presenting Lipman’s understanding of the relationship between philosophy, education and democracy and their connection to capitalism, it proposes ways to begin the political path of philosophizing with children inspired by Paulo Freire’s educational thinking. As a result, a more politically committed path to doing philosophy with children is offered. (shrink)
Paulo Freire : the educator, his oeuvre, and changing contexts -- Holistic interpretations of Freire's work : a critical review -- Critical literacy, praxis, and emancipatory politics -- "Remaining on the same side of the river" : neo-liberalism, party movements, and the struggle for greater coherence -- Reinventing Freire in a Southern context : the Mediterranean -- Engaging with practice : a Freirean reflection on different pedagogical sites.
The extent to which superstitious consciousness is prevalent in students, professors and administrators in university culture is no less alarming than the extent to which Cassirer proposed mythic consciousness is prevalent within a totalitarian state. These are the connections I wish to explore: superstitious and mythic consciousness, and, pedagogic and political overlaps in the context of higher education and, in particular, in the processes of teaching, learning, scholarship, and curriculum development. Through examples drawn from my earlier and more recent years (...) in higher education contexts, I examine, interrogate, and puzzle over the tensions, paradoxes, risks, and choices which characterize working from a Freirian orientation. In this analysis, I also engage the resonances between Paulo Freire and Ernst Cassirer. I refer to the works in Ira Shor’s 1987 collection devoted to applications of Paulo Freire’s theorizing and praxis and comment on their ongoing relevance. Last, I employ post-colonial and semiotic phenomenological modes of analyses and explication in my attempt to work through issues of power, pedagogy, and praxis in the increasingly urgent and intolerant politics of contemporary academic culture at the universities. (shrink)
Although it is commonly assumed that Paulo Freire was widely influential in the field of education in the United States immediately upon publication of his classic work, Pedagogy of the Oppressed, in 1970, the historical evidence indicates otherwise. In fact, Freire's work only began to gain wide reception in the field in the mid- and late 1980s. In the process of charting a new history of the reception of Freire's work in the field, this historical article illuminates contemporary issues (...) with the use of Freire's ideas in educational conversations about social structure and agency. In particular, the article seeks to renew a close, contextual read of Freire's texts, especially Pedagogy of the Oppressed, and invigorate discussion about Freire's primary claim?that education must be the central feature of building movements for radical social change. Similarly, the article seeks to renew attention to the structural concerns that initiated the turn towards critical Marxist scholarship in the field?concerns about the relationship between school and society in the United States that the initial wave of critical scholars knew must be addressed before fully engaging ideas about the ways in which schools may participate in the push for social change. (shrink)
In this article, I argue that Paulo Freire?s liberatory conception of education is interesting, challenging, even transforming because central to it are important aspects of education which other philosophers marginalise. I also argue that Freire?s critics are right when they claim that he paid insufficient attention to another important aspect of education. Finally, I argue for a conception of education which takes account of the strengths and at the same time overcomes the limitations of Freire?s liberatory conception.
In this article I re-examine the role that aesthetics play in Paulo Freire's pedagogy of the oppressed. As opposed to the vast majority of scholarship in this area, I suggest that aesthetics play a more centralised role in pedagogy above and beyond arts-based curricula. To help clarify Freire's position, I will argue that underlying the linguistic resolution of the student/teacher dialectic in the problem-posing classroom is an accompanying shift in the very aesthetics of recognition. In order to demonstrate the (...) always already aesthetic nature of all education, I will turn to the aesthetic philosophy of Jacques Rancière. Through Rancière we can begin to understand how the pedagogy of the oppressed is predicated on an aesthetic redistribution of the sensible, of what can be seen and what can be heard. As Rancière will confirm, if we truly want to understand the aesthetics of pedagogy, we cannot simply see aesthetics as external to teaching and learning. Rather, education as an aesthetic event has to be taken seriously, and aesthetics should regain primacy in discussions of critical pedagogy. (shrink)
John Dewey adopted a child-centered point of view to illuminate aspects of education he believed teacher-centered educators were neglecting, but he did so self-consciously and self-critically, because he also believed that ‘a new order of conceptions leading to new modes of practice’ was needed. Dewey introduced his new conceptions in The Child and the Curriculum and later and more fully in Democracy and Education. Teachers at his Laboratory School in Chicago developed the new modes of practice. In this article, I (...) explore Dewey’s new conception of education and compare it with the apparently opposed views of R. S. Peters and Paulo Freire. In doing so, I show that, despite their criticisms of Dewey, whether explicit or implicit, these influential philosophers, representing quite different traditions in philosophy of education were in substantial agreement with him. I also show that, despite our own differences, as important as they are, seeing teachers and learners at work in a rapidly changing society, now on a global scale, in classrooms which are also changing, driven largely by new technologies, the conception of education Dewey, Peters, and Freire developed can provide us with the foundation we need to understand the changing teacher–learner relationship and the purposes their shared activities serve. (shrink)
Trata-se de uma contextualização filosófica que perpassa os limites e as fronteiras do pensamento reducionista: que fragmenta e exclui a subjetividade humana em nome da objetividade racionalista. Volta-se ao pressuposto de que tanto a subjetividade quanto a objetividade são legítimas fontes do pensar e do agir humanos e, por isto mesmo, fontes primárias da religação ética entre o eu e o outro. Debruçar-se sobre o conceito de amorosidade, em Paulo Freire, remete à discussão acerca da ética como campo ontológico (...) das relações entre humanos e humanos, e entre humanos e não humanos. A proposta que tangencia o estudo tem por objetivo principal compreender o conceito de amorosidade e seus desdobramentos dentro e fora da pedagogia freireana, sobretudo incorporada ao ethos e à racionalidade prática, nesta contemporaneidade. Almeja-se, com isto, oferecer algumas reflexões sobre o sentido e o sentir da amorosidade como modo de acolhimento do outro no eu, uma possibilidade de reconhecimento de um eu no outro. Palavras-chave: Paulo Freire. Amorosidade. Ética. Formação humana. (shrink)
Recent years have witnessed a renewed interest in utopianism within educational theory. In this essay, Darren Webb explores the utopian pedagogy of Paulo Freire in the context of what one commentator has dubbed “the educational comeback of utopia.” Webb argues that Freire's significance lies in the way he embraced both “utopia as process” and “utopia as system.” This is significant because the contemporary rejuvenation of utopianism has extended only so far, embracing utopia conceived as an open‐ended process of becoming (...) but shying away from utopia conceived as the delineation of a normative vision to be struggled for and won. Webb outlines the pedagogical operation of utopia as process, cognitive‐affective orientation, and system, and he argues that Freire was right in insisting that each is constitutive of effective educational practice. (shrink)
Although social justice is an integral component of medical professionalism, there is little discussion in medical education about how to teach it to future physicians. Using adult learning theory and the work of Brazilian educator Paulo Freire, medical educators can teach a socially-conscious professionalism through educational content and teaching strategies. Such teaching can model non-hierarchical relationships to learners, which can translate to their clinical interactions with patients. Freirian teaching can additionally foster professionalism in both teachers and learners by ensuring (...) that they are involved citizens in their local, national and international communities. (shrink)
Paulo Freire Paulo Freire was one of the most influential philosophers of education of the twentieth century. He worked wholeheartedly to help people both through his philosophy and his practice of critical pedagogy. A native of Brazil, Freire's goal was to eradicate illiteracy among people from previously colonized countries and continents. His insights were … Continue reading Paulo Freire →.
“Education as a Tool for Combat. From Socrates to Paulo Freire”. In this paper, without seeking to be exhaustive, we intend to take a journey which will enable us to see what a concept of education closely linked to the independence of the “voice of reason” has meant in different historical contexts; we understand this independence, very broadly speaking, as a critical capacity which enables us as human beings to be sufficiently free and, if necessary, to be able to (...) construct autonomously our own judgments in the face of the inertial weight of tradition and the force of the social consensuses which structure the common sense of our time. We can trace this “enlightened tension” through the history of Western thought from Plato to Condorcet, from Kant to Paulo Freire. In this sense, and to conclude, it will be appropriate to assess what role the educational process is taking on in the contemporary era, where the intensive processes of commodification have also come to permeate all aspects of knowledge. (shrink)
In this essay Sarah Galloway considers emancipation as a purpose for education through examining the theories of Paulo Freire and Jacques Rancière. Both theorists are concerned with the prospect of distinguishing between education that might socialize people into what is taken to be an inherently oppressive society and education with emancipation as its purpose. Galloway reconstructs the theories in parallel, examining the assumptions made, the processes of oppression described, and the movements to emancipation depicted. In so doing, she argues (...) that that the two theorists hold a common model for theorizing oppression and emancipation as educational processes, distinguished by the differing assumptions they each make about humanity, but that their theories ultimately have opposing implications for educational practices. Galloway further maintains that Freire and Rancière raise similar educational problems and concerns, both theorizing that the character of the relations among teachers, students, and educational materials is crucial to an emancipatory education. Galloway's approach allows discussion of some of the criticisms that have been raised historically about Freire's theory and how these might be addressed to some degree by Rancière's work. Taking the two theories together, she argues that the possibility for an emancipatory education cannot be ignored if education is to be considered as more than merely a process of passing down the skills and knowledge necessary in order to socialize people into current society. (shrink)
The preceding symposium articles speculate on the psychosocial dynamics of discrimination as reverberating with grief, mourning, melancholia, and denial. They invite a psychoanalytic paradox on the fate of inchoate loss and its complex relation to oppression and depression: constellations of attachment to loss met with its social and psychical disavowal render inexpressible to the other the work of mourning and drive its myriad expressions. A different way of putting the dilemma is that grief calls upon symbolic equation and the pain (...) of symbolization. Deborah Britzman's coda reads the psychoanalyst Melanie Klein's consideration of depression as the origin of the human condition with Paulo Freire's call to educators for a radical humanization to release oppression. Between Freire's Pedagogy of the Oppressed and Klein's Love, Guilt, and Reparation, the coda traces a signifying loss that attests to the entwined roots of the self/other matrix with attention to the needed fluctuations within interiority and exteriority, loss and the depressive position, illness and health, and psychoanalysis with pedagogy. (shrink)
This paper is a critic analysis of a doctorate thesis and a master dissertation, which subjects are the samba and the afro religions in the city of São Paulo. Both consider the samba and the religion as manifestations and cultural expressions through which the black population in afro-diaspora rebuilded and reupdated memories via religiosity, rythm, dance and performan.
Thèse d'histoire, ce livre traite des itinéraires humains dans le réseau ferré qui, au début du XXe siècle, se répand et s'avance de l'Ouest de l'Etat de São Paulo vers celui du Mato Grosso, la Bolivie et le Paraguay, dans un projet d'intégration économique régional et de modernisation de l'intérieur du Brésil. Il existe déjà beaucoup d'études sur le chemin de fer et le rail au Brésil, mais ce livre est le seul à évoquer des expériences féminines. Des documents (...) administratifs de la com.. (shrink)
Historicist and political reflection of Freire, gives us a deep look promising in the world. His conviction that oppressor and oppressed can liberate each other and together build a more just and equal, is embodied in education as an emancipatory praxis, which must be built into a dialogic relationship between teacher and learner. Paulo Freire's postulates it has influence of diverse intellectual currents and in this tour, we find a permanent invocation to Antonio Gramsci's contributions. La reflexión historicista y (...) política de Freire, nos entrega una mirada profundamente esperanzadora del mundo. Su convicción que opresor y oprimido se pueden liberar mutuamente y en conjunto construir una sociedad más justa e igualitaria, se materializa en la educación como una praxis emancipadora, la cual debe construirse en una relación dialógica entre educador y educando. Los postulados de Paulo Freire tienen influencia de diversas corrientes intelectuales y en ese recorrido, encontramos una permanente invocación a los aportes de Antonio Gramsci. (shrink)