_Care of the Self: Ancient Problematizations of Life and Contemporary Thought_, by Lívia Flachbartová, Pavol Sucharek, and Vladislav Suvák, focus on different manifestations of “taking care of the self” present in ancient and contemporary thought.
The main aim of my paper is to analyse Aristotle’s theory of language in the context of his Physics I.1 and via an analysis and an interpretation of this part of his Physics I try to show that (i) the study of human language (logos) significantly falls within the competence of Aristotle’s physics (i.e. natural philosophy), (ii) we can find the results of such (physical) inquiry in Aristotle’s zoological writings, stated in the forms of the first principles, causes and elements (...) of the human speech (logos) and (iii) the analogies (Phys. 184b13-14) made by Aristotle at the very end of the first chapter make better sense if we consider them in the broader context in which Aristotle recognizes language as a complex natural phenomenon we are born into and which has to be not only biologically, but also socially developed through our lives. Hence, I aim towards a more naturalistic reading of Aristotle’s views on language. (shrink)
There is an increasing amount of research focusing on the origin of the human fear of animals. However, other dimensions of human views of frightening animals have been largely neglected. This study investigated attitudes toward snakes. The Snake Attitude Questionnaire , which consisted of 58 Likert-type items , was administered in a sample of students from two countries . Students showed negative attitudes toward snakes, especially within the Negativistic and Naturalistic dimensions. Turkish students showed more positive Scientistic and Naturalistic attitudes (...) than Slovakian students, and females showed more negative attitudes toward snakes than males. Although biology majors had more positive attitudes, compared with nonbiology majors, knowledge of snakes and beliefs about untrue myths were similar between these two subgroups. Our research indicates that fear of snakes negatively influences other attitudinal dimensions although no students had been injured by a snake. Keeping various pets at home was associated with less fear of snakes. Nature protection actions should combine direct contact with these controversial animals with interventions against belief in untrue myths about snakes. (shrink)
On the Nature of Philosophy: A Historical-Pragmatist Point of View. The aim of the paper is to examine the nature of philosophy from the historical-pragmatist point of view. In the first part, the paper deals with the meaning holism and family resemblance of various exemplifications of philosophy, which are taken as presuppositions of our approach to define philosophy as an activity. In the second part, the paper criticizes those approaches which define philosophy as a quasi-science or a super-science. In the (...) third part, the paper finally offers a definition of philosophy as a two-way intellectual activity consisting in outsourcing and insourcing of open questions and solutions. (shrink)
We introduce constructive and classical systems for nonstandard arithmetic and show how variants of the functional interpretations due to Gödel and Shoenfield can be used to rewrite proofs performed in these systems into standard ones. These functional interpretations show in particular that our nonstandard systems are conservative extensions of E-HAω and E-PAω, strengthening earlier results by Moerdijk and Palmgren, and Avigad and Helzner. We will also indicate how our rewriting algorithm can be used for term extraction purposes. To conclude the (...) paper, we will point out some open problems and directions for future research, including some initial results on saturation principles. (shrink)
We will apply the methods developed in the field of ‘proof mining’ to the Bolzano-Weierstraß theorem BW and calibrate the computational contribution of using this theorem in proofs of combinatorial statements. We provide an explicit solution of the Gödel functional interpretation as well as the monotone functional interpretation of BW for the product space Πi ∈ℕ[–ki, ki] . This results in optimal program and bound extraction theorems for proofs based on fixed instances of BW, i.e. for BW applied to fixed (...) sequences in Πi ∈ℕ[–ki, ki]. (shrink)
The Beginnings and Nature of Science in Archaic Greece: The aim of the paper is to examine the beginnings and nature of science in the archaic period of ancient Greece. The method of research is historicalphilosophical. It is historical because the interpretation of the birth of science suggested by our approach corresponds with text evidence. And it is philosophical because our reconstruction of the birth of science is able to explain the dynamic nature of the stratification of science. In the (...) first part of the paper we deal with the methodological analysis of the issue of the beginnings of science. In the second part we analyse particular manifestations of ancient investigations that, based on the diversity of their aims and the variety of methods, gradually emancipated to become separate disciplines. In the third part of the paper we argue in favour of the thesis that disciplines emerged from philosophy in such a manner that various disciplines stemmed from the diversity of philosophy. In the conclusion we state that in Archaic Greece of the 6th-5th centuries BC science emerged from the wealth of various research approaches by gradual separation, i.e. stratification of aims and stabilization of research methods. However, not a single science but a number of disciplines appeared. They did not emerge from one philosophy but from the abundance of research approaches and aims. Only later the umbrella term “science” began to be used. (shrink)
Disgust and fear are basic emotions that protect humans against pathogens and/or predators. Natural selection favored individuals who successfully escaped or avoided harmful animals; thus animals who pose a disease threat activate aversive responses in humans. However, all these animals who are generally disliked have rights to their own existence and play important roles in ecosystems. Here, we used three unpopular live animals in practical biology work with 11-13-year-old children . The control group had no opportunity to work with animals. (...) Reported disgust and fear of these animals significantly decreased during the study in the experimental group but not in the control group. This study experimentally supports the idea that attitudes toward animals are positively influenced by physical contact with them. (shrink)
During the last decade, Central Europe became a cynosure for the world for its unparalleled public support for renewable energy. For instance, the production of electricity from purpose-grown biomass received approximately twice the amount in subsidies as that produced from biowaste. Moreover, the guaranteed purchase price of electricity from solar panels was set approximately five times higher than that from conventional sources. This controversial environmental donation policy led to the devastation of large areas of arable land, a worsening of food (...) availability, unprecedented market distortions, and serious threats to national budgets, among other things. Now, the first proposals to donate the purchase price of electric vehicles from national budgets have appeared for public debate. Advocates of these ideas argue that they can solve the issue of electricity overproduction, and that electric vehicles will reduce emissions in cities. However, our analysis reveals that, as a result of previous scandals, environmental issues have become less significant to local citizens. Given that electric cars are not yet affordable for most people, in terms of local purchasing power, this action would further undermine national budgets. Furthermore, while today’s electromobiles produce zero pollution when operated, their sum of emissions remains much higher than that of conventional combustion engines. Therefore, we conclude that the mass usage of electromobiles could result in the unethical improvement of a city environment at the expense of marginal regions. (shrink)
The aim of the paper is to give an outline of the development of Feyerabend´s thought through four basic periods: the realist-empiricistic, intermediate, relativist and, finally, process-realistic periods. The ideas Feyerabend presents in his papers are often misunderstood and misinterpreted. The author attempts at revaluation of his work within the philosophy of science and to show the applicability of his ideas in problem solving in contemporary philosophy, epistemology and methodology of science as well as in other areas of sciences – (...) e. g. anthropology or cognitive sciences. In his view Feyerabend´s ideas are still valid especially in analyses concerning different approaches to the problems of scientific realism, connections between perception and cognition, and comparability of radically different scientific conceptions. (shrink)
The objective of this study is to explore factors that affect the decisions single-child parents make when considering whether to have a second child applying the psychological theory of planned behaviour. Quantitative survey data from a sample of parents with a single child selected from a Slovak representative sample was used to perform regression analysis assessing effects of attitudes, subjective norms and perceived control on intention to have a second child within the next three years. Results largely confirm the model (...) captured in TPB. All three components of the TPB have a significant effect on intentions to have a second child. A particular set of liberal and conservative attitudes facilitate plans to have a second child. The strongest predictors, however, are the perceived pressure from the social environment and subjective desire to have a child. The study concludes that, along with demographic and sociological variables, psychological factors play a significant role in decision-making processes concerning reproductive planning. (shrink)
Let X be an infinite internal set in an ω1-saturated nonstandard universe. Then for any coloring of [X] k , such that the equivalence E of having the same color is countably determined and there is no infinite internal subset of [X] k with all its elements of different colors (i.e., E is condensating on X), there exists an infinite internal set Z⊆X such that all the sets in [Z] k have the same color. This Ramsey-type result is obtained as (...) a consequence of a more general one, asserting the existence of infinite internal Q-homogeneous sets for certain Q ⊆ [[X] k ] m , with arbitrary standard k≥ 1, m≥ 2. In the course of the proof certain minimal condensating countably determined sets will be described. (shrink)
This paper discusses what kind of quantitative information one can extract under which circumstances from proofs of convergence statements in analysis. We show that from proofs using only a limited amount of the law-of-excluded-middle, one can extract functionals , where L is a learning procedure for a rate of convergence which succeeds after at most B-many mind changes. This -learnability provides quantitative information strictly in between a full rate of convergence and a rate of metastability in the sense of Tao (...) . In fact, it corresponds to rates of metastability of a particular simple form. Moreover, if a certain gap condition is satisfied, then B and L yield a bound on the number of possible fluctuations. We explain recent applications of proof mining to ergodic theory in terms of these results. (shrink)
Purpose of the article is to present the way of application of methodology of environmental metrics within the total environmental assessment framework. An inevitable part of sustainable development initiatives is sustainable measurement metrics. This kind of metrics is being represented by three sets of indicators: Environmental, Social and Economic. Sustainability measurement metrics tends to measure environmental safety, social responsibility and economic efficiency. Studying behaviour of companies in sustainability measurement metrics application, using another scientific method is well welcomed. Methods used in (...) article are synthesis, analysis, deduction and comparative analysis. We are synthesizing those methods in a presented model which examines quality of environmental improvements across departments of selected organization. In other words, the model is able to quantify an extent how individual managerial decision contributed towards overall improvement in environmental performance of whole organization. Model works with and additive elements. In order to derive results using multiplicative elements, we are using logarithmic method in a model. Scientific aim of the article is to synthesize scientific methods aimed at environmental performance measurement into unified and universal model usable by managements of small and medium-sized enterprises. The background of this mission is to ensure that environmental performance will be correctly reported, data delivered by various companies will be benchmarkable and consequently, Corporate Social Responsibility concepts worked out by individual organizations will be trustable. In the article, we are discovering that use of proposed universal model has marketable outcomes. Thanks to an existence of thriving markets valuating triple bottom line of sustainability, results delivered by the model helped to a company PintInox, S. p. A. to succeed at such kind of market. Conclusions the article delivers are pointing out an importance of interdisciplinary cooperation within field of sustainable development. (shrink)
The essay deals with the problem of historical incorporation of Greek metaphysics into Christian theology. The approach adopted is inspired by Martin Heidegger’s ideas. Heidegger identified the platform for the incorporation of Greek metaphysics into Christian theology with the understanding of thinking as uncovering of being as being. According to Heidegger, every reductive understanding of thinking has a common source, which is the objectification of thinking. In Western tradition it leads to the hegemony of logic. Logical basis of metaphysics gave (...) rise to onto-theological structure in both: in the thought of ancient Greeks as well as in Christian theology. Through the presentation of Heidegger’s analysis, the essay calls for re-thinking the nature of metaphysics and theology, as well as for re-thinking the relations between modern philosophical and theological conceptions. (shrink)
Referring to a passage from Blanchot’s novel Thomas l’Obscure, the paper questions the clear contours between literature and philosophy as disciplines. The point where the clear distinction breaks down is the phenomenon of reading. In a decisive moment of each authentic reading, the author tries to introduce a “phenomenology of reading”, in which we ourselves as readers are being transformed to the ones who are read. Light, truth, clarity – all these are notions, which in Blanchot are opposed by passivity, (...) night, and absence. Underlined in particular is the absence of meaning, of any light in perpetuated occidental theoretical discourse, which is nothing more than one’s apology of oneself. Not to betray Blanchot means to abandon pure commentaries of his philosophy and to find another ways of its interpretation. Thus the questions of reading, interpretation, and translation might become the questions of life and death. To articulate this alternative approach is one of the aims of the paper. (shrink)
The essay compares Ricœur’s and Levinas’s conceptions of the constitution of conscience in the sense of German Gewissen. Beginning with Ricœur’s basic distinction between “identity-idem” and “identity-ipse” it shows the proper place of conscience in his conception. For Ricœur conscience is a finite category of otherness as related to the self, i.e. its most interior, intrinsic otherness. For Levinas, on the other hand, conscience – the other in the same – is an initiatory category, which is described in terms of (...) absolute passivity, persecution and substitution. In conclusion Ricœur´s critique of Levinas’ category of “the Other” is examined on the background of Levinas’ conception of subjectivity as a vocation for Good. (shrink)
The paper examines the Slovak folk-tales collected and written by Slovak Renaissance writer Pavol Dobšinský. In his work the author of the paper does not see only an implicit philosophy, symptomatic for literary works or reflections, but also explicit philosophical formulations and attitudes. The author thinks, that Dobšinský followed Hegel’s explanation of history as well as his vocabulary, strictly dividing his own work into several parts corresponding given problems. The result of his rigorous work corresponds his objectives. His work (...) is valuable also from another point of view: it brings many findings and inspirations concerning this type of folklore even for a contemporary reader. (shrink)
The paper offers an examination of Pato?ka’s attempt to clear a difficulty of Husserl´s transcendental phenomenology and to develop a non-subjective conception of phenomenology. The author gives a thorough analysis of two fundamental wri- tings, compiled by Pato?ka in German in 1970 – 1971. The aim of the paper is to follow Pato?ka´s way of gradually developing his idea in various articles, mainly in his lecture Plato and Europe.
The ontological proof of the existence of God from Gödel´s heritage is presented and analysed in regard to the classical ontological proofs, due to Descartes and Spinoza, and their criticism by Leibnitz and Kant. Some recent works are taken into account as well, mainly the criticism of Descartes´proof by R. M. Smullyan, the emendations to Gödel´s proof by C. A. Anderson and the analysis of the metaphysical presuppositions and biases behind the proof assumed from scholastic, due to P. Vopěnka.
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