Semen Frank (1877–1950) was one of the first and most ardent advocates of the ontological argument in the twentieth century. He proposed an original interpretation of the ontological argument based on its analogy to Descartes’ Cogito. Frank believed that it is possible to develop Cogito ergo sum into Cogito ergo est ens absolutum. In this paper, I analyze his version of the ontological argument. First, I propose a simple reconstruction of his reasoning, paying attention to its hidden premise. Second, departing (...) from the classical logical interpretations of Descartes’ argument, I show that for Frank the claim that God exists had the same logical properties as Cogito. As a result, it seems that his argument was formally correct, though based on a premise which could hardly be convincing for a non-believer. This should not be surprising, however, since Frank, as most Russian religious philosophers, was not interested in the project of philosophical theology. His main concern was rather the development of philosophy based on religious premises, which might be called “theological philosophy”. (shrink)
Essential properties are usually thought as properties that things must always possess, whereas accidental properties are considered as changeable. In this paper, we challenge this traditional view. We argue that in some important cases, such as social or biological development, we face not only the change of accidents, but also the change of essences. To analyze this kind of change we propose an alternative view on the relations between the modalities and time. Some properties might be necessary or possible for (...) a thing in a classical sense throughout its existence, whereas others might be necessary or possible only for some restricted periods. We distinguish therefore absolute, prospective, retrospective, and relative modalities. As we argue, these non-classical concepts of modality are useful in analysis of some puzzling case of seemingly changing essences. (shrink)
Pavel Florensky (1882–1937), a Russian theologian, philosopher, and mathematician, argued that the religious discourse is essentially contradictory and put forward the idea of the logical theory of antinomies. Recently his views raised interesting discussions among logicians who consider him a forerunner of many non-classical logics. In this paper I discuss four interpretations of Florensky’s views: paraconsistent, L-contradictory, non-monotonic and rhetorical. In conclusion I argue for the integral interpretation which unites these four approaches.
Jean-Francois Lyotard is often considered to be the father of postmodernism. Here leading experts in the field of cultural and philosophical studies, including Barry Smart, John O' Neill and Victor J. Seidler, tackle many of the questions still being asked about this controversial figure.
RELIGIOUS RATIONALISM OF WISZOWATY AND LEIBNIZ The purpose of this article is to show that religious rationalism presented by Polish Socinian Andrzej Wiszowaty is different from Leibniz’s religious rationalism. At the beginning of the article the author analyzed the dispute between Wiszowaty and Leibniz about Trinity. While comparing religious and philosophical concept of Wiszowaty and Leibniz the author has proved that both philosophers presented different views related to the nature of God, perception of the truths of faith, predestination and miracles. (...) Wiszowaty in a dispute about the Trinity represented Socinian ideas and believed the dogma of the Trinity is contrary to the reason and inconsistent with the Bible, while Leibniz defended the Christian dogma against the alleged contradictions. (shrink)
For a fixed q ℕ and a given Σ1 definition φ(d,x), where d is a parameter, we construct a model M of 1 Δ0 + ¬ exp and a non standard d M such that in M either φ has no witness smaller than d or phgr; is equivalent to a formula ϕ(d,x) having no more than q alternations of blocks of quantifiers.
It has been widely recognized that Wittgenstein's theory of family resemblance solved the problem of universals. This theory may be considered in two ways, however. (1) Family resemblance may be understood in a manner of abstract universals theory. Most commentators accept this interpretation. Though in this case, I would argue, Wittgenstein's contribution to the problem of universals seems to be overestimated. (2) Wittgenstein's theory may also be considered, following one of contemporary Polish philosophers J. Szymura, as a view connected with (...) the Hegelian theory of concrete universals. The article is devoted to put forward some arguments for this interpretation. Firstly, it is coherent with all Wittgenstein's theses on family resemblance and states that there is literally nothing common in things. Secondly, it fits to Wittgenstein's language (terms such as "family", "Ähnlichkeit" and so on). Thirdly, there are some biographical pieces of evidence that Wittgenstein was inspired by Goethe's concept of "Urpflanze", which is very close to concrete universal. (shrink)
Universals are usually considered to be universal properties. Since tropes are particular properties, if there are only tropes, there are no universals. However, universals might be thought of not only as common properties, but also as common aspects (“determinable universals”) and common wholes (“concrete universals”). The existence of these two latter concepts of universals is fully compatible with the assumption that all properties are particular. This observation makes possible three different trope theories, which accept tropes and no universals, tropes and (...) determinable universals and tropes and concrete universals. (shrink)
The category of trope, i.e. an individual property, usually functions in theories that reject the existence of universals. It may, however, be argued that the acknowledgment of properties as individual need not entail the rejection of universals. It merely requires the rejection of a certain fairly extreme realist position. The existence of tropes can be reconciled with the position of determinative realism and with the theory of concrete universals.
This essential reference is a handy guide to the often confusing world of cultural theory. Its entries provide accessible introductions to the key cultural theorists of the 19th and 20th centuries, their central concepts and main arguments, and their major works and formative influences. An extensive introduction sets these figures in their appropriate intellectual and historical contexts, and the explanation for each thinker offers links to other seminal minds in the study of culture, as well as a guide to further (...) reading. (shrink)
In Russian culture, there was neither Scholasticism nor Renaissance, and the problem of faith and reason was formulated, most of all, on the ground of Patristic tradition. This collection of essays explores various dimensions of this alternative Russian account. The book shows the peculiarities of the Orthodox interpretation of faith. It traces the interrelations between Eastern and Western thinkers, and it investigates the heritage of Russian religious philosophy, with a special attention to Pavel Florensky, Sergius Bulgakov, and Georges Florovsky. *** (...) Librarians: ebook available on ProQuest and EBSCO [Subject: Philosophy, Religious Studies, Russian Studies]. (shrink)
In this paper, we try to confront Robert Audis moral epistemology, namely his intuitionism, based on the concept of a self-evident moral proposition, with two main problems: disagreement and dogmatism within moral discourse. Although Audi can meet those classical objections in his theory, we think that some problems remain. We proceed – after an introduction – in five sections in order to pursue this end. After a short introductory section, we first reconstruct the classical intuitionist moral epistemology. We then discuss (...) the dogmatism and the disagreement objection and, in doing so, introduce Audi’s own version of a moral epistemology. After having proposed that the disagreement objection concerns an explanatory problem, we discuss a second version, namely disagreement as a problem of rationality. In the fourth section we present a third version, disagreement as a problem of moral discourse, understood as an intersubjective enterprise. In the fifth section we propose a solution to disagreement situations of this kind. (shrink)
In der Literatur tritt die Rede von Anerkennung als Kategorie oder Prinzip, als Konzeption, als Anerkennungstheorie oder als Name für eine Theoriefamilie unreguliert auf. In diesem Artikel werden die verschiedenen Verwendungsweisen von „Anerkennung“ inhaltlich bestimmt und es wird expliziert, worin die mit ihnen einhergehenden Geltungsansprüche jeweils bestehen.
Our life in this broken world requires tools to own and express our grief in ways that are connected to our faith in God. We find that the biblical genre of lament is appropriate to the task. However, we do not come to lament without baggage, and we sometimes require additional help in the form of symbolic capital borrowed from stories and songs. In this case, The Chronicles of Narnia provide such capital. As we reflect on these stories, we can (...) see lament in a new way that helps us bring our pain to God. As we engage in the discipline of lament, we are spiritually formed into the image of Jesus. (shrink)
Die vorliegende Monographie untersucht Hegels Philosophie der Weltgeschichte erstmals quellenkritisch reflektiert und ausführlich aus wissenschaftstheoretischer Perspektive. Anhand der Rekonstruktion von Hegels Wissenschaftssystematik wird gezeigt, wie sich seine materiale Geschichtsphilosophie zur nicht-philosophischen Geschichtswissenschaft verhält. Hegels formale Geschichtsphilosophie erlaubt es demgegenüber, die Geschichte der Geschichtsschreibung und deren Geltungsansprüche zu explizieren und Kriterien für die materiale Geschichtsphilosophie zu etablieren. Letztere wird als spezifisch philosophische Begriffsgeschichte der ‚Freiheit‘ rekonstruiert, mit Blick auf praktische und theoretische philosophische Ansprüche systematisch verortet und als wichtiger Beitrag für eigenständiges (...) Philosophieren verteidigt. Die Arbeit weist Hegel als methodisch reflektierten Geschichtsphilosophen aus, der gerade hinsichtlich der wissenschaftssystematischen Grundlagen über eine attraktive Theorie der Geschichte verfügt, die nicht nur von historischem, sondern auch von systematischem Interesse für die Ausarbeitung einer modernen Geschichtsphilosophie ist. (shrink)
In this paper I take a closer look at Fr. Georges Florovsky’s original view on the relation between philosophy and theology. I argue that he tried to formulate an approach based on patristic experience and opposed to the dominating secular paradigm of philosophy. In some sense he wanted to reverse the traditional account. As Teresa Obolevitch aptly suggested, he wanted to replace the principle fides quaerens intellectum by the rule intellectus quaerens fidem. In that first default case the faith needs (...) to be justified or proved by the reason, in the second, unobvious one, the faith has an absolute priority and illuminates itself the natural thought. According to Florovsky, philosophy should not attempt to ground the theology, formulating arguments for the existence of God or proving the coherence of theism, but rather should accept theology as a fundamental premise and then develop a new, non-secular account for the old philosophical topics. (shrink)
Spengler’s The Decline of the West was a major publishing success in Weimar Germany. The study presents the end of Western civilization as an inevitable process of birth, maturity and death. Civilization is conceived as an inflexible ‘morphology’. Spengler’s thinking was influenced by a profound distaste with the optimism of the Belle Epoque, which he found to be complacent. The argument had a good deal of attraction to readers, especially German readers, who were suffering under the ‘Carthaginian Peace’ of the (...) Treaty of Versailles of 1919. Adorno and others were critical of Spengler’s thesis. The article examines Spengler’s thesis and its implications for the West today. (shrink)
One of Darwin’s purposes in writing The Origin of Species was to rebut the doctrine of separate creations. Moreover, the argument he was chiefly concerned with—which was both his target and the model of his own argument—was the familiar argument from design.
Filozofowie analityczni zwykle uważają, że dyskutowany przez nich problem uniwersaliów jest tym samym problemem, którym zajmowano się w starożytności i średniowieczu. Historycy filozofii pokazują jednak, że dawny spór o uniwersalia dotyczył wielu różnych kwestii i wcale nie skupiał się na dyskutowanym obecnie problemie wspólnych własności. W swojej książce Tropy i uniwersalia przyjmowałem, że pojęcie powszechników miało zawsze mniej więcej to samo znaczenie i interpretowałem stanowisko św. Tomasza z Akwinu jako rodzaj współczesnego realizmu. Moja interpretacja wywołała interesujące polemiki ze strony historyków (...) filozofii, Tomasza Tiuryna i Michała Głowali. W tym artykule staram się zbadać podobieństwa i różnice między współczesnym a średniowiecznym rozumieniem powszechników i odpowiedzieć na niektóre sformułowane przez nich zarzuty. Wygląda na to, że w średniowieczu istniały co najmniej trzy różne pojęcia uniwersaliów. Po pierwsze, rozumiano je jako byty wspólne, ściśle tożsame w wielu swoich realizacjach. To pojęcie uniwersaliów być może zawdzięczamy patrystycznym dyskusjom o Trójcy Świętej w IV wieku. Po drugie, uniwersalia definiowano jako byty orzekane o wielu, to znaczy ogólne pojęcia istniejące w intelekcie. Po trzecie wreszcie, uważano je, zwłaszcza w późnej scholastyce, za byty dzielące się w swoich realizacjach. Tylko to pierwsze pojęcie zgadza się ze współczesnym rozumieniem uniwersaliów. Wynika z tego, że średniowieczny i współczesny spór o powszechniki częściowo pokrywają się ze sobą. Staram się także pokazać, że proponowane przez Tiuryna i Głowalę interpretacje stanowiska św. Tomasza prowadzą do osobliwego poglądu łączącego teorię tropów i strusi nominalizm Quine’a. (shrink)
Is Russia a neoimperial or postimperial state? In this paper, I compare two interpretations proposed by political commentators Marcel Van Herpen and Dmitri Trenin. Van Herpen holds that the Russian empire is literally being rebuilt, whereas Trenin believes that Russia is just ceasing to be an empire. I argue that, contrary to popular belief, the current war against Ukraine cannot be interpreted as an attempt to restore the Russian empire. This is because being an empire requires a universalistic ideology that (...) can be accepted by other nations. Meanwhile, the ideological foundation of the current war is an obviously nationalistic conception of the “Russian world.” Polish historians Andrzej Nowak and Włodzimierz Marciniak brilliantly argued that it was Russian nationalism that had previously led to the collapse of both Imperial Russia and the Soviet Union. Under this interpretation the current war in Ukraine can be seen not as the rebirth but rather as the dramatic end of Russian imperialism. (shrink)
The discussion about internal and external relations usually concerns what kind of relations exist. In this paper, I take up another question, namely whether external relations can become internal and internal relations become external. My starting point is the concept of a “relational collapse” formulated by the Soviet and Ukrainian philosopher Avenir Uemov. I try to develop his idea, distinguishing two senses of internal relation, based on the concepts of ground and essence. As I argue, internalisation may consist either on (...) groundation or essentialisation of relations. Contrary to Uemov, both of these processes seem to be reversible, so we should also introduce the concepts of ungroundation and accidentalisation of relations. These four concepts form a framework for the general theory of internalisation and externalisation of relations. This framework seems to be particularly useful in analysis of some problems in social ontology. (shrink)