15 found
Order:
  1.  15
    The Human Glance, the Experience of Environmental Distress and the “Affordance” of Nature: Toward a Phenomenology of the Ecological Crisis.Payam Moula & Per Sandin - 2015 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 28 (5):925-938.
    The problem we face today is that there is a huge gap between our ethical judgments about the ecological crisis on the one hand and our ethical behavior according to these judgments on the other. In this article, we ask to what extent a phenomenology of the ecological crisis enables us to bridge this gap and display more ethical or pro-environmental behavior. To answer this question, our point of departure is the affordance theory of the American psychologist and founding father (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  2.  15
    Moral “Lock-In” in Responsible Innovation: The Ethical and Social Aspects of Killing Day-Old Chicks and Its Alternatives.Payam Moula & Per Sandin - 2015 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 28 (5):939-960.
    The aim of this paper is to provide a conceptual framework that will help in understanding and evaluating, along social and ethical lines, the issue of killing day-old male chicks and two alternative directions of responsible innovations to solve this issue. The following research questions are addressed: Why is the killing of day-old chicks morally problematic? Are the proposed alternatives morally sound? To what extent do the alternatives lead to responsible innovation? The conceptual framework demonstrates clearly that there is a (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  3.  26
    Evaluating Ethical Tools.Payam Moula & Per Sandin - 2015 - Metaphilosophy 46 (2):263-279.
    This article reviews suggestions for how ethical tools are to be evaluated and argues that the concept of ethical soundness as presented by Kaiser et al. is unhelpful. Instead, it suggests that the quality of an ethical tool is determined by how well it achieves its assigned purpose. Those are different for different tools, and the article suggests a categorization of such tools into three groups. For all ethical tools, it identifies comprehensiveness and user-friendliness as crucial. For tools that have (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  4.  16
    Ethics of Dissent: A Plea for Restraint in the Scientific Debate About the Safety of GM Crops.Payam Moula & Per Sandin - 2015 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 28 (5):903-924.
    Results of studies that cast doubt on the safety of genetically modified crops have been published since the first GM crop approval for commercial release. These ‘alarming studies’ challenge the dominant view about the adequacy of current risk assessment practice for genetically modified organisms. Subsequent debates follow a similar and recurring pattern, in which those involved cannot agree on the significance of the results and the attached consequences. The standard response from the government—a reassessment by scientific advisory bodies—seems insufficient to (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  5.  15
    Empirical Methods in Animal Ethics.Payam Moula & Per Sandin - 2015 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 28 (5):853-866.
    In this article the predominant, purely theoretical perspectives on animal ethics are questioned and two important sources for empirical data in the context of animal ethics are discussed: methods of the social and methods of the natural sciences. Including these methods can lead to an empirical animal ethics approach that is far more adapted to the needs of humans and nonhuman animals and more appropriate in different circumstances than a purely theoretical concept solely premised on rational arguments. However, the potential (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  6.  18
    GM Crops, the Hubris Argument and the Nature of Agriculture.Payam Moula - 2015 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 28 (1):161-177.
    In this paper, I investigate the moral status of agricultural biotechnology and, more specifically, genetically modified crops by employing the hubris argument. The old notion of hubris, given to us by the ancient Greeks, provides a narrative from which we can understand ourselves and technology. Ronald Sandler offers us an understanding of hubris he claims gives us a prima facie reason and a presumption against the use of GM crops. I argue that Sandler’s hubris argument fails for several reasons: Sander (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  7.  15
    Modern Biotechnology, Agriculture, and Ethics.Per Sandin & Payam Moula - 2015 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 28 (5):803-806.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  8.  12
    Are Farmers in Alternative Food Networks Social Entrepreneurs? Evidence From a Behavioral Approach.Payam Moula & Per Sandin - 2015 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 28 (5):885-902.
    Social entrepreneurship, individual activities with a social objective, is used in this study as a conceptual tool for empirically examining farmers’ participation in alternative food networks. This study verifies whether their participation is driven by the social entrepreneurship dimension to satisfy social and environmental needs. We develop a more inclusive view of how social entrepreneurship is present among farmers participating in AFNs by using a behavioural approach based on three main psychological constructs: attitude, objective, and behaviour. The empirical results show (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  9.  46
    Is Genetically Modified Food Unnatural?Payam Moula & Per Sandin - 2015 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 28 (5):807-816.
    This paper argues for the following four claims: the terms “natural” and “unnatural” are ambiguous. Genetically modified food is unnatural in some senses of the term “unnatural”. Natural food should be favored over unnatural food in some senses of the terms “natural” and “unnatural”. Genetically modified food is not necessarily unnatural in a sense that would offer a good reason for favoring food that is not genetically modified. The claims are defended by distinguishing four different senses of the terms “natural” (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  10.  24
    Public Perceptions of the Ethics of In-Vitro Meat: Determining an Appropriate Course of Action.Payam Moula & Per Sandin - 2015 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 28 (5):991-1009.
    While in vitro animal meat is not yet commercially available, the public has already begun to form opinions of IVM as a result of news stories and events drawing attention to its development. As such, we can discern public perceptions of the ethics of IVM before its commercial release. This affords advocates of environmentally sustainable, healthy, and just diets with a unique opportunity to reflect on the social desirability of the development of IVM. This work draws upon an analysis of (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  11.  13
    Of Mice and Men: European Precautionary Standards Challenged by Uncertainty.Payam Moula & Per Sandin - 2015 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 28 (5):867-883.
    For several years, the official European method for deciding whether or not shellfish were fit for human consumption was the mouse bioassay, which was eventually replaced by chemical testing. In this paper, we examine the process of this change, looking at how devices of social, technical, and organisational risk management were re-negotiated locally, nationally, and across the continent. We also show how the political decision to replace a precautionary standard with a management-vigilance device was the result of various dynamics. These (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  12.  13
    Pragmatist Philosophical Reflections on GMOs.Payam Moula & Per Sandin - 2015 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 28 (5):817-836.
    This essay examines the public debate about the agricultural biotechnologies known as genetically modified organisms, as that debate is being carried out in its most dichotomizing forms in the United States. It attempts to reveal the power of sharply dichotomous thinking, as well as its limits. The essay draws on the work of Michel Serres, who uses the concept of the parasite to reconstruct or reframe fundamental dichotomies in western philosophy; it attempts a similar reframing of the public debates about (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  13.  12
    Citizens, Consumers and Animals: What Role Do Experts Assign to Public Values in Establishing Animal Welfare Standards?Payam Moula & Per Sandin - 2015 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 28 (5):961-976.
    The public can influence animal welfare law and regulation. However what constitutes ‘the public’ is not a straightforward matter. A variety of different publics have an interest in animal use and this has implications for the governance of animal welfare. This article presents an ethnographic content analysis of how the concept of a public is mobilized in animal welfare journals from 2003 to 2012. The study was undertaken to explore how experts in the discipline define and regard the role of (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  14.  11
    Freedom of Cropping and the Good Life: Political Philosophy and the Conflict Between the Organic Movement and the Biotech Industry Over Cross-Contamination.Payam Moula & Per Sandin - 2015 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 28 (5):837-852.
    This paper begins by describing recent controversies over cross-contamination of crops in the United States and European Union. The EU and US are both applying the principle of freedom of cropping to resolve these conflicts, which is based on an individualistic philosophy. However, despite the EU and the US starting with the principle of freedom of cropping they have very dissimilar regulatory regimes for coexistence. These contradictory policies based upon the same principle are creating different sets of winners and losers. (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  15.  6
    A Means-End Chain Approach to Explaining the Adoption of Good Agricultural Practices Certification Schemes: The Case of Malaysian Vegetable Farmers.Payam Moula & Per Sandin - 2015 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 28 (5):977-990.
    Good agricultural practices certification schemes have been promoted to enhance agricultural sustainability. This study seeks to explain the adoption of GAP certification schemes through an analysis of the role of personal values in guiding such choice. It is a departure from approaches taken in previous studies in the area. Through the laddering interview technique of means-end chain analysis, a hierarchical value map was systematically schematized to illustrate the relationship between adoption of GAP, outcomes, and personal values driving the choice. The (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark