Results for 'Peer Christensen'

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  1.  42
    Environmental Constraints Shaping Constituent Order in Emerging Communication Systems: Structural Iconicity, Interactive Alignment and Conventionalization.Peer Christensen, Riccardo Fusaroli & Kristian Tylén - 2016 - Cognition 146 (C):67-80.
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  2.  9
    Habitual Reappraisal in Context: Peer Victimisation Moderates its Association with Physiological Reactivity to Social Stress.Kara A. Christensen, Amelia Aldao, Margaret A. Sheridan & Katie A. McLaughlin - 2017 - Cognition and Emotion 31 (2).
  3. Epistemology of Disagreement: The Good News.David Christensen - 2007 - Philosophical Review 116 (2):187-217.
    How should one react when one has a belief, but knows that other people—who have roughly the same evidence as one has, and seem roughly as likely to react to it correctly—disagree? This paper argues that the disagreement of other competent inquirers often requires one to be much less confident in one’s opinions than one would otherwise be.
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  4. Disagreement as Evidence: The Epistemology of Controversy.David Christensen - 2009 - Philosophy Compass 4 (5):756-767.
    How much should your confidence in your beliefs be shaken when you learn that others – perhaps 'epistemic peers' who seem as well-qualified as you are – hold beliefs contrary to yours? This article describes motivations that push different philosophers towards opposite answers to this question. It identifies a key theoretical principle that divides current writers on the epistemology of disagreement. It then examines arguments bearing on that principle, and on the wider issue. It ends by describing some outstanding questions (...)
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  5. Conciliation, Uniqueness, and Rational Toxicity.David Christensen - 2016 - Noûs 50 (3):584-603.
    Conciliationism holds that disagreement of apparent epistemic peers often substantially undermines rational confidence in our opinions. Uniqueness principles say that there is at most one maximally rational doxastic response to any given batch of total evidence. The two views are often thought to be tightly connected. This paper distinguishes two ways of motivating conciliationism, and two ways that conciliationism may be undermined by permissive accounts of rationality. It shows how conciliationism can flourish under certain strongly permissive accounts of rationality. This (...)
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  6.  46
    Disagreement as Evidence: The Epistemology of Controversy.David Christensen - 2009 - Philosophy Compass 4 (5):754-767.
    How much should your confidence in your beliefs be shaken when you learn that others – perhaps ‘epistemic peers’ who seem as well-qualified as you are – hold beliefs contrary to yours? This article describes motivations that push different philosophers towards opposite answers to this question. It identifies a key theoretical principle that divides current writers on the epistemology of disagreement. It then examines arguments bearing on that principle, and on the wider issue. It ends by describing some outstanding questions (...)
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  7.  14
    A Diachronic Perspective on Peer Disagreement in Veritistic Social Epistemology.Erik J. Olsson - 2018 - Synthese:1-19.
    The main issue in the epistemology of peer disagreement is whether known disagreement among those who are in symmetrical epistemic positions undermines the rationality of their maintaining their respective views. Douven and Kelp have argued convincingly that this problem is best understood as being about how to respond to peer disagreement repeatedly over time, and that this diachronic issue can be best approached through computer simulation. However, Douven and Kelp’s favored simulation framework cannot naturally handle Christensen’s famous (...)
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  8.  2
    A diachronic perspective on peer disagreement in veritistic social epistemology.Erik J. Olsson - 2018 - Synthese 197 (10):4475-4493.
    The main issue in the epistemology of peer disagreement is whether known disagreement among those who are in symmetrical epistemic positions undermines the rationality of their maintaining their respective views. Douven and Kelp have argued convincingly that this problem is best understood as being about how to respond to peer disagreement repeatedly over time, and that this diachronic issue can be best approached through computer simulation. However, Douven and Kelp’s favored simulation framework cannot naturally handle Christensen’s famous (...)
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  9.  38
    Nonrational Belief Paradoxes as Byzantine Failures.Ryan Miller - forthcoming - Logos and Episteme.
    David Christensen and others argue that Dutch Strategies are more like peer disagreements than Dutch Books, and should not count against agents’ conformity to ideal rationality. I review these arguments, then show that Dutch Books, Dutch Strategies, and peer disagreements are only possible in the case of what computer scientists call Byzantine Failures—uncorrected Byzantine Faults which update arbitrary values. Yet such Byzantine Failures make agents equally vulnerable to all three kinds of epistemic inconsistencies, so there is no (...)
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  10.  30
    From Independence to Conciliationism: An Obituary.Errol Lord - 2014 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 92 (2):365-377.
    Conciliationists about peer disagreement hold that when one disagrees with an epistemic peer about some proposition p, one should significantly change one's view about p. Many arguments for conciliationism appeal to a principle Christensen [2011] dubs Independence. Independence says that evaluations of the beliefs of those with whom one disagrees should not be made on the basis of one's initial reasoning about p. In this paper, I show that this principle is false. I also show that two (...)
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  11. Doubts About Philosophy? The Alleged Challenge From Disagreement.Thomas Grundmann - 2013 - In Tim Henning & David Schweikard (eds.), Knowledge, Virtue, and Action. Essays on Putting Epistemic Virtues to Work. Routledge. pp. 72-98.
    In philosophy, as in many other disciplines and domains, stable disagreement among peers is a widespread and well-known phenomenon. Our intuitions about paradigm cases, e.g. Christensen's Restaurant Case, suggest that in such controversies suspension of judgment is rationally required. This would prima facie suggest a robust suspension of judgment in philosophy. But we are still lacking a deeper theoretical explanation of why and under what conditions suspension is rationally mandatory. In the first part of this paper I will focus (...)
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  12. A Vindication of the Equal Weight View.Thomas Bogardus - 2009 - Episteme 6 (3):324-335.
    Some philosophers believe that when epistemic peers disagree, each has an obligation to accord the other's assessment the same weight as her own. I first make the antecedent of this Equal-Weight View more precise, and then I motivate the View by describing cases in which it gives the intuitively correct verdict. Next I introduce some apparent counterexamples – cases of apparent peer disagreement in which, intuitively, one should not give equal weight to the other party's assessment. To defuse these (...)
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  13.  27
    The Conciliatory View and the Charge of Wholesale Skepticism.Christopher Bobier - 2012 - Logos and Episteme 3 (4):619-627.
    If I reasonably think that you and I enjoy the same evidence as well as virtues and vices, then we are epistemic peers. What does rationality require of usshould we disagree? According to the conciliatory view, I should become less confident in my belief upon finding out that you, whom I take to be my peer, disagree with me. Question: Does the conciliatory view lead to wholesale skepticism regarding areas of life where disagreement is rampant? After all, people focusing (...)
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  14.  51
    Kate Christensen Speaks with Pat Matheny, a Recipient of Lethal Medication Under Oregon's Death with Dignity Act.Kate Christensen - 1999 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 8 (4):564-568.
    Oregon is the only state in the United States where a physician may legally prescribe a lethal dose of barbiturate for a patient intending suicide. The Oregon Death with Dignity Act was passed by voters in 1994 and came into effect after much legal wrangling in October of 1997. At the same time, a cabinetmaker named Pat Matheny was struggling with progressive weakness from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or ALS. I met with Pat and his family for a lengthy interview in (...)
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  15. Ralph Christensen. Wie Juristen wissen, was Recht ist.Ralph Christensen - 2010 - Archiv für Rechts- und Sozialphilosophie 96 (4):586-593.
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  16. Wortlautgrenze: Spekulativ oder pragmatisch? (Hans Kudlich/Ralph Christensen).Hans Kudlich & Ralph Christensen - 2007 - Archiv für Rechts- und Sozialphilosophie 93 (1):128-142.
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  17. Chapter Teal : Re-Searching Research : Troubling Lines as a Worlding Practice.Joanne Peers - 2023 - In Karin Murris & Vivienne Bozalek (eds.), In conversation with Karen Barad: doings of agential realism. Routledge.
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  18. Epistemic Akrasia: No Apology Required.David Christensen - 2022 - Noûs 1 (online first):1-22.
    It is natural to think that rationality imposes some relationship between what a person believes, and what she believes about what she’s rational to believe. Epistemic akrasia—for example, believing P while believing that P is not rational to believe in your situation—is often seen as intrinsically irrational. This paper argues otherwise. In certain cases, akrasia is intuitively rational. Understanding why akratic beliefs in those case are indeed rational provides a deeper explanation how typical akratic beliefs are irrational—an explanation that does (...)
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  19. Peer Disagreement Under Multiple Epistemic Systems.Rogier De Langhe - 2013 - Synthese 190 (13):2547-2556.
    In a situation of peer disagreement, peers are usually assumed to share the same evidence. However they might not share the same evidence for the epistemic system used to process the evidence. This synchronic complication of the peer disagreement debate suggested by Goldman (In Feldman R, Warfield T (eds) (2010) Disagreement. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 187–215) is elaborated diachronically by use of a simulation. The Hegselmann–Krause model is extended to multiple epistemic systems and used to investigate the (...)
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  20. Moral Philosophy and Moral Life.Anne-Marie Søndergaard Christensen - 2020 - Oxford University Press.
    Anne-Marie Søndergaard Christensen presents a new account of the role of moral philosophy and its relationship to our ordinary moral lives. She challenges the idea that moral theories have an authoritative explanatory or action-guiding role, and develops instead a descriptive, pluralistic, and elucidatory conception of moral philosophy.
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  21. Is Peer Review a Good Idea?Remco Heesen & Liam Kofi Bright - 2021 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 72 (3):635-663.
    Prepublication peer review should be abolished. We consider the effects that such a change will have on the social structure of science, paying particular attention to the changed incentive structure and the likely effects on the behaviour of individual scientists. We evaluate these changes from the perspective of epistemic consequentialism. We find that where the effects of abolishing prepublication peer review can be evaluated with a reasonable level of confidence based on presently available evidence, they are either positive (...)
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  22.  30
    Peer-Review Practices of Psychological Journals: The Fate of Published Articles, Submitted Again.Douglas P. Peters & Stephen J. Ceci - 1982 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 5 (2):187-255.
  23. Peer Disagreement and Higher Order Evidence.Thomas Kelly - 2010 - In Alvin I. Goldman & Dennis Whitcomb (eds.), Social Epistemology: Essential Readings. Oxford University Press. pp. 183--217.
    My aim in this paper is to develop and defend a novel answer to a question that has recently generated a considerable amount of controversy. The question concerns the normative significance of peer disagreement. Suppose that you and I have been exposed to the same evidence and arguments that bear on some proposition: there is no relevant consideration which is available to you but not to me, or vice versa. For the sake of concreteness, we might picture.
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  24.  30
    David Christensen and Jennifer Lackey, Eds. , The Epistemology of Disagreement: New Essays . Reviewed By.Dustin Olson - 2015 - Philosophy in Review 35 (1):4-6.
  25.  16
    Mybraveface.Carol Christensen, Jose Manuel Prieto Gonzalez & Thomas Christensen - 2003 - Common Knowledge 9 (1):169-175.
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  26. Moral Peer Disagreement and the Limits of Higher-Order Evidence.Marco Tiozzo - 2020 - In Michael Klenk (ed.), Higher-Order Evidence and Moral Epistemology. Routledge.
    Abstract. This paper argues that the “Argument from Moral Peer Disagreement” fails to make a case for widespread moral skepticism. The main reason for this is that the argument rests on a too strong assumption about the normative significance of peer disagreement (and higher-order evidence more generally). In order to demonstrate this, I distinguish two competing ways in which one might explain higher-order defeat. According to what I call the “Objective Defeat Explanation” it is the mere possession of (...)
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  27. Critical Review of 'Practicing Perfection: Memory & Piano Performance'.Wayne Christensen, Doris McIlwain, John Sutton & Andrew Geeves - 2008 - Empirical Musicology Review 3 (3).
    How do concert pianists commit to memory the structure of a piece of music like Bach’s Italian Concerto, learning it well enough to remember it in the highly charged setting of a crowded performance venue, yet remaining open to the freshness of expression of the moment? Playing to this audience, in this state, now, requires openness to specificity, to interpretation, a working dynamicism that mere rote learning will not provide. Chaffin, Imreh and Crawford’s innovative and detailed research suggests that the (...)
     
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  28. Villads Christensen 16.3. 1883 - 10.10.1969 in Memoriam.Gregor Malantschuk - 1971 - Kierkegaardiana 8.
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  29. Chapter Teal : Re-Searching Research : Troubling Lines as a Worlding Practice.Joanne Peers - 2023 - In Karin Murris & Vivienne Bozalek (eds.), In Conversation with Karen Barad: Doings of Agential Realism. Routledge.
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  30. Arthur Christensen, Politics and Crowd Morality. [REVIEW]Graham Wallas - 1915 - Hibbert Journal 14:224.
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  31. Peer Review — An Insult to the Reader and to Society: Milton's View.Steven James Bartlett - 2017 - Willamette University Faculty Research Website.
    Pre-publication certification through peer review stands in need of philosophical examination. In this paper, philosopher-psychologist Steven James Bartlett recalls the arguments marshalled four hundred years ago by English poet John Milton against restraint of publication by the "gatekeepers of publication," AKA today's peer reviewers.
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  32.  7
    Kate Christensen Speaks with Pat Matheny, a Recipient of Lethal Medication Under Oregon's Death with Dignity Act. Interview by Kate Christensen.P. Matheny - 1998 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 8 (4):564-568.
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  33.  51
    Peer Review and Publication: Lessons for Lawyers.Susan Haack - 2007 - Stetson Law Review 36 (3).
    Peer review and publication is one of the factors proposed in Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc. as indicia of the reliability of scientific testimony. This Article traces the origins of the peer-review system, the process by which it became standard at scientific and medical journals, and the many roles it now plays. Additionally, the Author articulates the epistemological rationale for pre-publication peer-review and the inherent limitations of the system as a scientific quality-control mechanism. The Article explores (...)
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  34. CHRISTENSEN, N. E. - "On the Nature of Meanings". [REVIEW]A. J. Ayer - 1966 - Mind 75:444.
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  35. Epistemology of Disagreement : The Good News.David Christensen - 2019 - In Jeremy Fantl, Matthew McGrath & Ernest Sosa (eds.), Contemporary epistemology: an anthology. Wiley.
     
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  36. The Institutional Framework of Professional Virtue.Anne-Marie Søndergaard Christensen - 2018 - In David Carr (ed.), Cultivating Moral Character and Virtue in Professional Practice. Routledge.
     
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  37. Peer Review System: A Golden Standard for Publications Process.Shamima Parvin Lasker - 2018 - Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics 9 (1):13-23.
    Peer review process helps in evaluating and validating of research that is published in the journals. U.S. Office of Research Integrity reported that data fraudulence was found to be involved in 94% cases of misconduct from 228 identified articles between 1994–2012. If fraud in published article are significantly as high as reported, the question arise in mind, were these articles peer reviewed? Another report said that the reviewers failed to detect 16 cases of fabricated article of Jan Hendrick (...)
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  38. Applying Intelligence to the Reflexes: Embodied Skills and Habits Between Dreyfus and Descartes.John Sutton, Doris McIlwain, Wayne Christensen & Andrew Geeves - 2011 - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 42 (1):78-103.
    ‘There is no place in the phenomenology of fully absorbed coping’, writes Hubert Dreyfus, ‘for mindfulness. In flow, as Sartre sees, there are only attractive and repulsive forces drawing appropriate activity out of an active body’1. Among the many ways in which history animates dynamical systems at a range of distinctive timescales, the phenomena of embodied human habit, skilful movement, and absorbed coping are among the most pervasive and mundane, and the most philosophically puzzling. In this essay we examine both (...)
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  39. Hegelian/Whiteheadian Perspectives.Darrel E. CHRISTENSEN - 1989
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  40. The Search for Concreteness: Reflections on Hegel and Whitehead.Darrel E. CHRISTENSEN - 1986
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  41. Das Problem der Verifizierbarkeit historischer Dialektik Le problème de la vérifiabilité de la dialectique historique.Christensen de - 1977 - Philosophisches Jahrbuch 84 (1):126-134.
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  42. Creating Regulatory Harmony: The Participatory Politics of OECD Chemical Testing Standards in the Making.Colleen Lanier-Christensen - 2021 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 46 (5):925-952.
    In recent decades, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development has become a powerful forum for trade liberalization and regulatory harmonization. OECD members have worked to reconcile divergent national regulatory approaches, applying a single framework across sovereign states, in effect determining whose knowledge-making practices would guide regulatory action throughout the industrialized world. Focusing on US regulators, industry associations, and environmental groups, this article explores the participatory politics of OECD chemical regulation harmonization in the late 1970s to early 1980s. These efforts (...)
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  43.  13
    A Hegelian Critique of Peirce.Darrel E. Christensen - 1981 - The Owl of Minerva 13 (1):1-6.
    Darrel E. Christensen presented the following paper to the Charles Sanders Peirce Society meeting held on October 5–7, 1978, at Bloomington, Indiana.
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  44.  13
    David Christensen. Putting Logic in its Place: Formal Constraints on Rational Belief. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2004 Xii + 187 Pp. [REVIEW]Henry E. Kyburg - 2005 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 11 (4):534-535.
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  45.  5
    Two New Dual-Language Editions of Hegel’s Lectures on The Philosophy of Religion.Karl-Heinz Ilting & Darrel E. Christensen - 1972 - The Owl of Minerva 4 (1):5-6.
    A collaboration has been arranged for the preparation and publication in three dual-language volumes within the Hegel series presently in preparation by Fr. Frommanns Verlag of new critical editions of Hegel’s 1821 Lectures on the Philosophy of Religion, to be included in one volume with the up to now unpublished first form of his Encyclopedia, and Hegel’s 1824 Lectures on the Philosophy of Religion, in two volumes. The new German editions are to be prepared by Professor Dr. K.-H. Ilting. The (...)
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  46. Questionable Peers and Spinelessness.Sherman Benjamin - 2015 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 45 (4):425-444.
    The Equal Weight View holds that, when we discover we disagree with an epistemic peer, we should give our peer’s judgment as much weight as our own. But how should we respond when we cannot tell whether those who disagree with us are our epistemic peers? I argue for a position I will call the Earn-a-Spine View. According to this view, parties to a disagreement can remain confdent, at least in some situations, by fnding justifable reasons to think (...)
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  47.  14
    Christensen, Carleton B. (2008). Self and World – From Analytic Philosophy to Henomenology.Jonatan Willian Daniel - 2012 - Natureza Humana 14 (1):134-141.
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  48.  1
    Peer Review, Peer Education, and Modeling in the Practice of Clinical Ethics Consultation: The Zadeh Project.Stuart G. Finder & Mark J. Bliton (eds.) - 2018 - Cham: Springer Verlag.
    This Open Access book about the Zadeh Project demonstrates and explores a core question in clinical ethics: how can ethics consultants be accountable in the face of a robust plurality of ethical standpoints, especially those that underwrite practices and methods for doing ethics consultation as well as those viewpoints and values encountered in daily clinical ethics practice? Underscoring this question is the recognition that the field of clinical ethics consultation has arrived at a crucial point in its maturation. Many efforts (...)
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  49.  2
    Peer Review: A Critical Inquiry.David Shatz - 2004 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    While much literature has sprouted on peer review, this is the first book-length, wide-ranging study that utilizes methods and resources of contemporary philosophy. It covers the tension between peer review and the liberal notion that truth emerges when ideas proliferate in the marketplace of ideas; arguments for and against blind review of submissions; the alleged conservatism of peer review; the anomalous nature of book reviewing; the status of non-peer-reviewed publications; and the future of peer review.
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  50. The Peer-to-Peer Simulation Hypothesis and a New Theory of Free Will.Marcus Arvan - 2015 - Scientia Salon.
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