Este trabajo se inserta en un proyecto mayor consistente en la evaluación moral de las políticas de seguridad a la luz del ideal político republicano de libertad como no dominación. Los razonamientos en torno al poder punitivo desde la Ilustración hasta nuestros días han tomado mayoritariamente como punto de partida la concepción de libertad hobbesiana. Según esta concepción un individuo es libre sí y sólo sí no padece interferencias provocadas por otros individuos. La interferencia es entendida aquí como una intervención (...) más o menos intencional. El Estado aparece como una institución que causa la libertad y, en particular, el derecho penal es una interferencia tan mala en sí misma como la coerción procedente de otras direcciones, pero justificada en la medida que disminuye el nivel general de coerción.• Si el nivel de interferencia producido por el derecho es menor que el nivel de interferencia privada que el aparato estatal evita que se produzca, entonces los individuos son más libres. La concepción hobbesiana de libertad se presenta así, utilizando la distinción introducida por Isaiah Berlin3 como un tipo de libertad negativa. A diferencia de la concepción clásica de libertad, presente por ejemplo en Aristóteles, no requiere de la existencia de autodominio o control -ya sea personal o político- por parte del individuo. (shrink)
This anthology of the very latest research on truth features the work of recognized luminaries in the field, put together following a rigorous refereeing process. Along with an introduction outlining the central issues in the field, it provides a unique and unrivaled view of contemporary work on the nature of truth, with papers selected from key conferences in 2011 such as Truth Be Told (Amsterdam), Truth at Work (Paris), Paradoxes of Truth and Denotation (Barcelona) and Axiomatic Theories of Truth (Oxford).
According to Pablo Oyarzun, Benjamin’s concept of history “is not about a war over the representation of history, but a war over history itself. Only in so far as this is its field, there can also be a struggle for its representation”. While Oyarzun’s observation refers to the first “thesis” of Benjamin’s «On the Concept of history», in this article I argue that it can be productively used to shed light onto a broader understanding of the Benjamin’s concept of history. (...) To that end, I elaborate on Oyarzun’s comment in order to analyze and to render explicit the relationship between 'Truth' and 'presentation' in Benjamin’s thought. In doing so, I highlight the relevance of this relationship for the concept of 'History' that Benjamin elaborated in the late ‘30s. (shrink)
Gricean pragmatics has often been criticised for being implausible from a psychological point of view. This line of criticism is never backed up by empirical evidence, but more importantly, it ignores the fact that Grice never meant to advance a processing theory, in the first place. Taking our lead from Marr, we distinguish between two levels of explanation: at the W-level, we are concerned with what agents do and why; at the H-level, we ask how agents do whatever it is (...) they do. Whereas pragmatics is pitched at the W-level, processing theories are at the H-level. This is not to say that pragmatics has no implications for psychology at all, but it is to say that its implications are less direct than is often supposed. (shrink)
The essays in this book engage the original and controversial claims from Michael Boylan's A Just Society. Each essay discusses Boylan's claims from a particular chapter and offers a critical analysis of these claims. Boylan responds to the essays in his lengthy and philosophically rich reply.
We analyze the prestige of 1,500 scholars in economics, sociology, and management who have Spanish and French institutional affiliations operationalized by their h-index in Scopus and Google Scholar. We use a negative binomial count model to examine how some individual factors affect the h-index from both databases. The results show a non-monotonic relationship between the researchers’ career length and their h-index. There is a positive and statistically significant relationship between total research output and the h-index. The share of publications in (...) English over total publications has also a positive and statistically significant effect on the h-index, except in a single case, while the share of publications in other foreign languages does not have such effect. Finally, we found that the effects of the number of citations received by documents in English and by those in the vernacular language on the h-index vary according to the database, the country, and the discipline in question. (shrink)
A well known theorem proved by J. Paris and H. Friedman states that BΣn +1 is a Πn +2-conservative extension of IΣn . In this paper, as a continuation of our previous work on collection schemes for Δn +1-formulas , we study a general version of this theorem and characterize theories T such that T + BΣn +1 is a Πn +2-conservative extension of T . We prove that this conservativeness property is equivalent to a model-theoretic property relating Πn-envelopes and (...) Πn-indicators for T . The analysis of Σn +1-collection we develop here is also applied to Σn +1-induction using Parsons' conservativeness theorem instead of Friedman-Paris' theorem.As a corollary, our work provides new model-theoretic proofs of two theorems of R. Kaye, J. Paris and C. Dimitracopoulos : BΣn +1 and IΣn +1 are Σn +3-conservative extensions of their parameter free versions, BΣ–n +1 and IΣ–n +1. (shrink)
The relevance of the research topic is that various approaches are analyzed on the essence of globalization, which is represented as an objective, qualitatively new process of internationalization and integration of all fields of activity of the modern civilizational structure. Analysis of the literature. The works of A. Appadarui, Z. Bauman, U. Beck, Z. Bzezhinski, F. Braudel, I. Wallerstein, E. Giddens, P. Drucker, M. Castells, T. Levitt, I. Tirikyan, K. Waite, F. Fernandez-Armestro, S. Huntington. In the post-Soviet space, the ideas (...) of globalization were developed in the works of V. Inozemtsev, V. Stepin, A. Chumakov, P. Vodopyanova, V. Voronkova, O. Punchenko, A. Zelenkova, C. Kirvel, A. Lazarevich, V. Nikitenko, A. Sosnin, A.Utkin and many others. The aim of the article is to concretize the concept of “globalization”, and also through the analysis of tectonic shifts in the world sociological system, to represent the main socio-political, cultural and civilizational dimensions of this concept. Research objectives - in the context of the stated goal, the essence of the social dynamics of a globalizing world is revealed. Research Methodology. The methodology is based on an integrated approach, due to its interdisciplinary nature. The result of the study. Sociodynamics is revealed as the process of its deployment in time and space in conjunction with the social organization of social organization, as well as with social changes and upheavals affecting the progressive course of its development. The contradictory nature of globalization has been proved, its brilliance and poverty are revealed with specific examples. The whole range of problems of globalization as a multidimensional phenomenon is actualized. The reasons that prevented the implementation of the concept of Western ideologists about building a unipolar world and the creation of a single governing body under the auspices of the United States are revealed. Sociodynamics of the global world, in the context of the goal set, is reflected through the prism of the financial and economic dimension; through the formation of frontiers, fraught with the charge of aggravation, instability, risks, dynamic chaos. Conclusions. The mechanisms of regulation of the emerging chaos in social relations - threats, sanctions, crisis fluctuations, the use of “soft power”, conflicts, etc. are substantiated. Such dimensions of sociodynamics as environmental and demographic are described, the negativity of their development at the present stage is revealed. (shrink)
La idea de utopía tiene una larga historia en América y un vasto conjunto de significados. En este trabajo se interpreta a las utopías a partir de un enfoque utopológico basado en las reflexiones principalmente de M. R. Ramírez Fierro, A. A. Roig, H. Cerutti Guldberg y E. Fernández Nadal. Desde ese marco teórico se analiza una utopía concreta contemporánea de la Patagonia argentina. Se trata del barrio intercultural proyectado en San Martín de los Andes por la comunidad mapuche (...) “Curruhuinca” y la Asociación Vecinos Sin Techo de esa ciudad. Aquí, describo el carácter utópico de dicho proyecto tomando como categorías de análisis los conceptos de función y tensión utópicas en relación a los distintos aspectos que ponen en juego la interculturalidad y la emergencia de nuevas subjetividades. The idea of utopia has a long history in America and a vast array of meanings. This paper interprets utopias from a utopological approach primarily based on the reflections of M. R. Ramirez Fierro, A. A. Roig, H. Cerutti Guldberg and E. Fernández Nadal. From this theoretical framework a contemporary concrete utopia of Argentine Patagonia is analyzed. It is an intercultural neighborhood in San Martin de los Andes projected by the Mapuche community “Curruhuinca” and the Homeless Neighbors Association of that city. Here, I describe the utopian character of the project taking the concepts of function and utopian tension as categories of analysis in relation to the different aspects that involve interculturality and the emergence of new subjectivities. (shrink)
How do we know our current states of mind--what we want, and believe in? Jordi Fernández proposes a new theory of self-knowledge, challenging the traditional view that it is a matter of introspection. He argues that we know what we believe and desire by 'looking outward', towards the states of affairs which those beliefs and desires are about.
This paper examines the impact on Menéndez Pelayo of the events which ocurred in 1898. For this purpose his reactions to the Spanish Disaster are studied, as are his ideas about the decline of Spain, and his disappointment in politics as an instrument which would further the regenerative project that he had designed.
In the last 30 years, the key issue in developmental Theory of Mind has been if and when children are capable of representing false beliefs. Moving away from this research question, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of attentional processes in false-belief tasks. We focused on the design of the test phase and investigated two factors that may be critical for 3-year-old children’s success: the form of the wh-question and the salience of the target object. The (...) results of two experiments confirmed that 3-year olds are able to explicitly choose the correct answer in a false-belief task provided that they are allowed to focus on the protagonist throughout the task. The salience of the target object, however, was a critical factor in the design of the test phase, as increasing it had a negative effect on children’s performance. These results suggest that the experimental record of the last 30 years may be skewed since standard false-belief tasks do not control for the relative salience of the wrong response, potentially hindering the performance of children under 4. We conclude that a careful investigation of performance factors in false-belief tasks has the potential to reveal deep insights into the development of Theory of Mind skills, even if not directly focused on children’s representation of beliefs. (shrink)
In this paper, I propose an account of self-knowledge for desires. According to this account, we form beliefs about our own desires on the basis of our grounds for those desires. First, I distinguish several types of desires and their corresponding grounds. Next, I make the case that we usually believe that we have a certain desire on the basis of our grounds for it. Then, I argue that a belief formed thus is epistemically privileged. Finally, I compare this account (...) to two other similar accounts of self-knowledge. (shrink)
Various accounts of metaphor interpretation propose that it involves constructing an ad hoc concept on the basis of the concept encoded by the metaphor vehicle (i.e. the expression used for conveying the metaphor). This paper discusses some of the differences between these theories and investigates their main empirical prediction: that metaphor interpretation involves enhancing properties of the metaphor vehicle that are relevant for interpretation, while suppressing those that are irrelevant. This hypothesis was tested in a cross-modal lexical priming study adapted (...) from early studies on lexical ambiguity. The different patterns of suppression of irrelevant meanings observed in disambiguation studies and in the experiment on metaphor reported here are discussed in terms of differences between meaning selection and meaning construction. (shrink)
Pragmatic theories and computational models of reference must account for people’s frequent use of redundant color adjectives (e.g., referring to a single triangle as “the blue triangle”). The standard pragmatic view holds that the informativity of a referential expression depends on pragmatic contrast: Color adjectives should be used to contrast competitors of the same kind to preempt an ambiguity (e.g., between several triangles of different colors), otherwise they are redundant. Here we propose an alternative to the standard view, the incremental (...) efficiency hypothesis, according to which the efficiency of a referential expression must be calculated incrementally over the entire visual context. This is the first theoretical account of referential efficiency that is sensitive to the incrementality of language processing, making different cross-linguistic predictions depending on word order. Experiment 1 confirmed that English speakers produced more redundant color adjectives (e.g., “the blue triangle”) than Spanish speakers (e.g., “el triángulo azul”), but both language groups used more redundant color adjectives in denser displays where it would be more efficient. In Experiments 2A and 2B, we used eye tracking to show that pragmatic contrast is not a processing constraint. Instead, incrementality and efficiency determine that English listeners establish color contrast across categories (BLUE SHAPES > TRIANGULAR ONE), whereas Spanish listeners establish color contrast within a category (TRIANGLES > BLUE ONE). Spanish listeners, however, reversed their visual search strategy when tested in English immediately after. Our results show that speakers and listeners of different languages exploit word order to increase communicative efficiency. (shrink)