Recently, we have witnessed an explosion of studies and discussions claiming that Neanderthals engaged in a range of “symbolic” behaviors, including personal ornament use (Radovčić et al., 2015), funerary practices (Balzeau et al., 2020), visual arts (Hoffmann et al., 2018), body aesthetics (Roebroeks et al., 2012), etc. In Paleolithic archaeology, it has become mainstream to axiomatically infer from these putative behaviors that Neanderthals engaged in symbol use and that Neanderthals thus possessed some form of language. Rudolf Botha's bombastic title "Neanderthal (...) Language: Demystifying the Linguistic Powers of Our Extinct Cousins" provides a detailed and very critical overview of the archaeological hypotheses and speculations about Neanderthal language. (shrink)
This paper explores relationships between environment and education after the Covid-19 pandemic through the lens of philosophy of education in a new key developed by Michael Peters and the Philosophy of Education Society of Australasia. The paper is collectively written by 15 authors who responded to the question: Who remembers Greta Thunberg? Their answers are classified into four main themes and corresponding sections. The first section, ‘As we bake the earth, let's try and bake it from scratch’, gathers wider philosophical (...) considerations about the intersection between environment, education, and the pandemic. The second section, ‘Bump in the road or a catalyst for structural change?’, looks more closely into issues pertaining to education. The third section, ‘If you choose to fail us, we will never forgive you’, focuses to Greta Thunberg’s messages and their responses. The last section, ‘Towards a new normal’, explores future scenarios and develops recommendations for critical emancipatory action. The concluding part brings these insights together, showing that resulting synergy between the answers offers much more then the sum of articles’ parts. With its ethos of collectivity, interconnectedness, and solidarity, philosophy of education in a new key is a crucial tool for development of post-pandemic education. (shrink)
My intention is to demonstrate how Hobbes’ attempts to adapt two ancient institutions from Roman Law to his own time and knowledge of theology and philosophy. Treason could be quite significant within the context of Hobbes’ understanding of the figure of the sovereign and sovereignty. The central part of the text is an endeavor to ascertain the source and unconditional condition for treason as such, within the framework of Hobbes’ theory of representation which he writes about in Chapter 16 of (...) the Leviathan. The act or performance in which we could perhaps recognize a traitorous gesture could be found in the so-called paradox of representation. The “traitor” breaks the chain of the transfer of power and empowerment, thus stops representation, and puts an end to speaking in the name of the other. If it is possible to discover whether this is possible and whether speaking and acting in one’s own name always carries elements of treason, then we can conclude that differing forms of “direct” speech and action are “acts of treason.” In that case, what interests me is whether “treason” is found within the heart of representative democracy, and thus if it is de facto an integral part of a democratic order and society. (shrink)
Uza sve teškoće pozicioniranja humanizma unutar povijesnog okvira, neslaganja oko definiranja njegove naravi, izvora i temeljnih motiva, kao i odnosa spram tradicija mišljenja, uputnim se čini usmjeriti humanistima samima i kroz njihove radove pokušati detektirati onaj novum humanističkog svjetonazora. U tome smislu ovaj će se rad temeljiti na djelu jednog humanista »prve generacije« i pisca utjecajnog pedagogijskog traktata.Petar Pavao Vergerije stariji , književnik, crkvenopolitički pisac i dužnosnik, na samome početku 15. stoljeća piše raspravu De ingenuis moribus ac liberalibus studiis (...) koju bilježimo kao svojevrsnu prekretnicu u filozofskome shvaćanju odgoja. Humanistički program kakav nudi Vergerije, u mudrosti vidi rezultat studija cjelovitog znanja i ostvarenje slobode. Dijalog s tradicionalnim vrijednostima osnova je razumijevanja vlastitoga vremena i njegovih vrijednosti, te zahtijeva slobodan studij kao jedini dostojan slobodna čovjeka. Odgoj pritom treba služiti svakidašnjici, a misao biti potkrijepljena i dopunjena djelom. Iako cijenjen kao prvi humanistički pedagogijski traktat, konfrontiran s misaonim naslijeđem srednjovjekovlja, Vergerijevo djelo i samo nastaje na tragu tradicije; pristupajući mudrima i sam postaje učeniji. Utoliko će i ovaj rad nastojati smjestiti Vergerijevo djelo u kontekst vremena njegova nastanka, kao i naznačiti utjecaj koji je imalo na promoviranje humanističkog svjetonazora.Against all difficulties of positioning humanism in frames of history, disagreements about defining its nature, sources and grounding motives, and also its relation to philosophical tradition, it seems recommendable to rely on humanists themselves and by studying their works try to detect the novum of humanistic way of perceiving the world. With that aim, this paper will be based on work of a “first generation” humanist and a writer of influential pedagogical treatise. Peter Paul Vergerio, Sr. , a writer, religiously political author and a dignitary, at very beginning of the 15th century writes the treatise De ingenuis moribus ac liberalibus studiis which we note as a kind of a milestone in philosophical understanding of education. Humanistic programme, offered by Vergerio, treats wisdom as an outcome of study in comprehensive knowledge and as achievement of freedom. A dialogue with traditional values is basic for understanding proper time and its system of values, and it calls for a free study as the only one that is worthy of a free man. Education should then be in service of every day life, and the idea should be verified and completed by an action. Although appreciated asthe first humanistic pedagogical treatise, being confronted to intellectual inheritance of the Middle-Ages, Vergerio’s work itself originates from tradition; admitting to the wise, he himself becomes wiser. For that reason this paper will tend to place Vergerio’s work in context of time when it was created, and to note the influence it had on promoting humanistic way of perceiving the world. (shrink)
We discuss a number of fundamental aspects of modern cosmological concepts, from the phenomenological, observational, theoretical and epistemic points of view. We argue that the modern cosmology, despite a great advent, in particular in the observational sector, is yet to solve important problems, posed already by the classical times. In particular the stress is put on discerning the scientific features of modern cosmological paradigms from the more speculative ones, with the latter immersed in some aspects deeply into mythological world picture. (...) We finally discuss the principal paradigms, which are present in the modern cosmological studies and evaluate their epistemic merits. (shrink)
My intention in this text is to present the most significant contribution of some French philosophers and anthropologists to the notion of reconstruction and advancement of institutions. The paradox of change, reform or transformation of the institution – is an entirely new institution possible? How do institutions die? – lies in the difficulty or even impossibility to change something that manifests what we are as a group. If institutions really present or represent the relations among all of us, how can (...) they be changed in the first place? Whence the capacity for change? What allows for the idea of the “new”? (shrink)
One of the main goals of sport psychology is to identify those psychological factors that are relevant for sport performance as well as possibilities of their development. The aim of the study was to determine whether the set of specific psychological characteristics [generalized self-efficacy, time perspective, emotional intelligence, general achievement motivation, and personality dimensions] makes the distinction between athletes based on their -participation in the senior national team, that is, their belonging to the subsample of elite or non-elite athletes depending (...) on this criterion. According to the group centroids it can be said that elite athletes are characterized by a positive high score in self-efficacy, emotionality, present fatalistic time perspective, past positive time perspective, and openness to experience. They are also characterized by low past negative time perspective, emotional competence, and future time perspective. Non-elite athletes have the opposite traits. The results have been discussed in the context of their application in the process of talent selection and development in sport as well as the development of life skills in athletes. (shrink)
This paper examines relationships between learning and technological change and argues that we urgently need new ways to approach what it means to learn in the context of a global Fourth Industrial Revolution. It briefly introduces the postdigital perspective, which considers the digital ‘revolution’ as something that has already happened and focuses to its reconfiguration. It claims that what we access, how we access it, what we do with it, and who then accesses what we have done, are important elements (...) of a postdigital world worthy of closer examination. Focusing to recent debates about postdigital collective intelligence, we develop the concept of postdigital we-learn by showing that it might help us, amongst other things, to counter the idea of a lone human accessing education primarily for future individual, economic profit, as prescribed by the neoliberal learning economy. Building on new schools of thought emerging in response to the expansion of non-human agency, we refine the concept of postdigital we-learn as a gathering between humans and machines. The consequences of this gathering are uncomfortable, as they imply unlearning elements of both capitalism and critical pedagogy. However, such unlearning is inherent to ‘a critical pedagogy of becoming’ and positions postdigital we-learn as a suitable framework for understanding and development of emancipatory, critical learning in our postdigital reality. (shrink)
We elaborate on semantically labelled syntax trees that provide a method of proving the non-existence of modal formulae satisfying certain syntactic properties and defining a given class of frames and use them to show that there are classes of Kripke frames that are definable by both non-Sahlqvist and Sahlqvist formulae, but the latter requires more propositional variables.
Forgetting Futures reignites the debate about the crisis of memory and the search to understand the relationship between past and present, remembering and forgetting. In the book Petar Ramadanovic presents an elegant critique of the most significant concepts of memory, from Plato to Nietzsche, as he challenges the prevalent, Aristotelain understanding of memory as mere repeated presentation of the past in the present. Ramadanovic skillfully examines the power of traumatic memory in history. Through an analysis of Cathy Caruth and (...) a ground breaking revisionist interpretation of Toni Morrison's Beloved he shows how the memory of the Holocaust and slavery has shaped American identity. This unique study of memory places trauma, identity, and race under the intellectual microscope resulting in a book of great use for literary and cultural studies scholars, and educated readers seeking to learn more about the relationship between history and memory. (shrink)
A set of propositional connectives is said to be functionally complete if all propositional formulae can be expressed using only connectives from that set. In this paper we give sufficient and necessary conditions for a one-element set of propositional connectives to be functionally complete. These conditions provide a simple and elegant characterization of functionally complete one-element sets of propositional connectives.
This article is concerned with developing a philosophical approach to a number of significant changes to academic publishing, and specifically the global journal knowledge system wrought by a range of new digital technologies that herald the third age of the journal as an electronic, interactive and mixed-media form of scientific communication. The paper emerges from an Editors' Collective, a small New Zealand-based organisation comprised of editors and reviewers of academic journals mostly in the fields of education and philosophy. The paper (...) is the result of a collective writing process. (shrink)
Viral modernity is a concept based upon the nature of viruses, the ancient and critical role they play in evolution and culture, and the basic application to understanding the role of information and forms of bioinformation in the social world. The concept draws a close association between viral biology on the one hand, and information science on the other – it is an illustration and prime example of bioinformationalism that brings together two of the most powerful forces that now drive (...) cultural evolution. The concept of viral modernity applies to viral technologies, codes and ecosystems in information, publishing, education and emerging knowledge systems. This paper traces the relationship between epidemics, quarantine, and public health management and outlines elements of viral-digital philosophy based on the fusion of living and technological systems. We discuss Covid-19 as a ‘bioinformationalist’ response that represents historically unprecedented level of sharing information from the sequencing of the genome to testing for a vaccination. Finally, we look at the US response to Covid-19 through the lens of infodemics and post-truth. The paper is followed by three open reviews, which further refine its conclusions as they relate to philosophy and the notion of the virus as Pharmakon. (shrink)
Once upon a time, there was this pilot. His plane was about to crash and he had to choose whether to steer his plane to a less or a more inhabited area. You'd think his choice would be simple, right? But before you give your response, consider the following situation that is practically the same, only a bit different.A judge faces rioters. The crowd demands that the culprit be found guilty for a certain crime or else they will take revenge (...) on a particular section of the community. Since the real culprit is unknown, the judge realizes that he can prevent bloodshed only by framing some innocent bystander and having him executed to save the lives of many. But should he do it? Can he, like the pilot from the scenario... (shrink)
Michael Oakeshott critique le rationalisme en politique car celui-ci exclut tout ce qui n’est pas fondé sur ou justifié par la théorie. L e savoir théorique, d’après Oakeshott, ne peut absorber la diversité du monde étant donné qu’il fonctionne avec des catégories différentes de celles de la réalité qu’il cherche à saisir. Par conséquent, le rationalisme réduit la politique à la résolution de problèmes. Ce que recommande Oakeshott pour un retour à l’autonomie de la politique est l’émancipation dans l’association civile. (...) Cette dernière est constituée sur la reconnaissance commune des règles générales dans le cadre desquelles la politique devrait s’exercer sous forme de dialogue. Une version plus élaborée du projet utopique de Michael Oakeshott est donnée par la pensée de Michel Foucault qui montre mieux que les institutions, les normes et les lois sont le résultat des relations de pouvoir complexes. (shrink)
Michael Oakeshott criticises rationalism in politics because it excludes everything that is not grounded in and justified by theory. Theoretical knowledge, according to Oakeshott, isn’t capable of absorbing the given diversity because it operates in different categories than the reality it seeks to grasp. As a consequence, rationalism reduces politics to problem- solving activity. Oakeshott’s formula for the return to autonomous politics is its emancipation in civil association, a framework constituted in terms of common recognition of general rules within which (...) politics in the form of conversation is to be exercised. Corrective to Oakeshott’s utopian project is given by Michel Foucault’s thought where it is best shown how common institutions, norms and laws are a result of very complex power relations. (shrink)
The theoretical notion of ‘construal’ captures the idea that the way in which we describe a scene reflects our conceptualization of it. Relying on the concept of ception – which conjoins conception and perception – we operationalized construal and employed a Visual World Paradigm to establish which aspects of linguistic scene description modulate visual scene perception, thereby affecting event conception. By analysing viewing behaviour after alternating ways of describing location, agentivity and transfer, we found that the linguistic construal of a (...) scene affects its spontaneous visual perception in two ways: either by determining the order in which the components of a scene are accessed or by modulating the distribution of attention over the components, making them more or less salient than they naturally are. We also found evidence for the existence of a cline in the construal effect with stronger expressive differences, such as the prepositional manipulation, inducing more prominent changes in visual perception than the dative manipulation. We discuss the claims language can lay to affecting visual information uptake and hence conceptualization of a static scene in the light of these results. (shrink)
Carl Schmitt, Der Schatten Gottes: Introspektionen, Tagebücher und Briefe 1921 bis 1924, Hrsg. von Gerd Giesler, Ernst Hüsmert und Wolfgang H. Spindler, Berlin, Duncker & Humblot 2014. / Carl Schmitt, Tagebücher 1925 Bis 1929, Hrsg. von Martin Tielke und Gerd Giesler, Berlin, Duncker & Humblot, 2018 Petar Bojanić, Željko Radinković.
Michael Oakeshott upućuje kritiku racionalizmu u politici koji isključuje sve što nije utemeljeno u teoriji, odnosno njome opravdano. Teoretsko znanje, prema Oakeshottu, ne može apsorbirati raznolikost svijeta jer rukuje drugačijim kategorijama od onih koje pripadaju realnom svijetu. Posljedično, racionalizam svodi politiku na djelatnost rješavanja problema. Oakeshottova formula za povratak autonomiji političke djelatnosti jest njezina emancipacija u civilnom udruživanju, okviru koji se temelji na priznavanju općih pravila kao takvih, unutar kojeg politička djelatnost zauzima oblik razgovora. Korektiv Oakeshottovu utopijskom projektu nadaje se (...) u misli Michela Foucaulta gdje je najbolje demonstrirana ovisnost zajedničkih institucija, normi i zakona o vrlo kompleksnim odnosima moći. (shrink)
In this paper we will examine how experts from certain epistemic networks behave in the circumstances of a crisis. Our main goal is to show rhetorical strategies experts use to strengthen their own epistemic authority. We will do that by analysing experts’ strategies used in two pandemics: the one caused by A h1n1 virus in 2009 and the current pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2. There are four different, but interrelated, rhetorical strategies, that epistemic experts use to consolidate their epistemic authority. Two (...) are internally oriented and consist of 1) experts providing additional reasons for why the measures they propose in the time of crises are rational and (2) experts emphasising their own responsibilities in the crises. Experts also use two externally oriented rhetorical strategies by which they (3) challenge the expertise of other experts and (4) raise doubts about the motives of other epistemic experts. (shrink)
Michael Oakeshott kritisiert den Rationalismus in der Politik, da er im Vorhinein alles ausschließe, das einer theoretischen Grundlage bzw. Rechtfertigung entbehre. Theoretisches Wissen könne jedoch nicht, so Oakeshott, alle Mannigfaltigkeit der Welt in sich aufnehmen, denn es operiere mit anderen Kategorien, als in der realen Welt vorzufinden seien. Folglich werde nach rationalistischen Gesichtspunkten die Politik auf das L ösen von Problemen reduziert. Oakeshotts Formel für eine Rückkehr zur Autonomie politischen Handelns ist dessen Emanzipierung innerhalb der bürgerlichen Vereinigung als eines Rahmens, (...) dessen Grundlage die Anerkennung allgemein verbindlicher Regeln bildet und in dem das politische Handeln in Form von Unterhandlungen vor sich geht. Ein Korrektiv zu Oakeshotts utopischem Projekt ist das Denken Michel Foucaults, das am besten demonstriert, inwiefern gesellschaftliche Institutionen, Normen und Gesetze von äußerst komplexen Machtverhältnissen abhängig sind. (shrink)
In this article the author problematizes Rousseau’s Discourse on Political Economy and his conception of government in the political community. Rousseau’s Discourse on Political Economy was chronologically written seven years before his major work The Social Contract or Principles of Political Right. Regardless of the fact that the Discourse on Political Economy was published earlier, it left a remarkable trace in Rousseau‘s philosophical opus. In this work, which was published as part of the fifth volume of Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment, (...) Rousseau indicated his direction in political philosophy. This philosophical and political direction began with the Discourse on Political Economy and culminated in the philosophical and political conception of republicanism, elaborated in detail in The Social Contract. In this article the author uses critical analysis and reconstruction to establish Rousseau‘s fundamental ideas about his political philosophy present in the Discourse on Political Economy, with a focus on observing and studying the role of a sovereign and the public economy in the function of the government by general will within the political community. (shrink)