Results for 'Peter B. Imrey'

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  1.  18
    Predicting Violent Behavior: What Can Neuroscience Add?Russell A. Poldrack, John Monahan, Peter B. Imrey, Valerie Reyna, Marcus E. Raichle, David Faigman & Joshua W. Buckholtz - 2018 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 22 (2):111-123.
  2. New Foundations for Imperative Logic I: Logical Connectives, Consistency, and Quantifiers.Peter B. M. Vranas - 2008 - Noûs 42 (4):529-572.
    Imperatives cannot be true or false, so they are shunned by logicians. And yet imperatives can be combined by logical connectives: "kiss me and hug me" is the conjunction of "kiss me" with "hug me". This example may suggest that declarative and imperative logic are isomorphic: just as the conjunction of two declaratives is true exactly if both conjuncts are true, the conjunction of two imperatives is satisfied exactly if both conjuncts are satisfied—what more is there to say? Much more, (...)
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  3. I Ought, Therefore I Can.Peter B. M. Vranas - 2007 - Philosophical Studies 136 (2):167-216.
    I defend the following version of the ought-implies-can principle: (OIC) by virtue of conceptual necessity, an agent at a given time has an (objective, pro tanto) obligation to do only what the agent at that time has the ability and opportunity to do. In short, obligations correspond to ability plus opportunity. My argument has three premises: (1) obligations correspond to reasons for action; (2) reasons for action correspond to potential actions; (3) potential actions correspond to ability plus opportunity. In the (...)
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  4.  21
    Religions Traditional and New in the Encyclopedia of Religion: PETER B. CLARKE.Peter B. Clarke - 1988 - Religious Studies 24 (1):19-27.
    A comedy, unlike a tragedy which the experts maintain has to succeed greatly if it is to succeed at all, can be evaluated on a more or less basis. The former can likewise be great, but it can also be quite funny or only mildly amusing and remain a worthwhile comedy and it is this kind of relativist assessment that this writer believes is appropriate with regard to the sections of this encyclopaedia dealing with ‘traditional’ and ‘new’ religions. The former (...)
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  5. The Indeterminacy Paradox: Character Evaluations and Human Psychology.Peter B. M. Vranas - 2005 - Noûs 39 (1):1–42.
    You may not know me well enough to evaluate me in terms of my moral character, but I take it you believe I can be evaluated: it sounds strange to say that I am indeterminate, neither good nor bad nor intermediate. Yet I argue that the claim that most people are indeterminate is the conclusion of a sound argument—the indeterminacy paradox—with two premises: (1) most people are fragmented (they would behave deplorably in many and admirably in many other situations); (2) (...)
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  6. Whistleblowing: A Restrictive Definition and Interpretation. [REVIEW]Peter B. Jubb - 1999 - Journal of Business Ethics 21 (1):77 - 94.
    Whistleblowing has been defined often and in differing ways in the literature. This paper has as its main purposes to clarify the meaning of whistleblowing and to speak for a narrow interpretation of it. A restrictive, general purpose definition is provided which contains six necessary elements: act of disclosure, actor, disclosure subject, target, disclosure recipient, and outcome.Whistleblowing is characterised as a dissenting act of public accusation against an organisation which necessitates being disloyal to that organisation. The definition differs from others (...)
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  7. Hempel's Raven Paradox: A Lacuna in the Standard Bayesian Solution.Peter B. M. Vranas - 2004 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 55 (3):545-560.
    According to Hempel's paradox, evidence (E) that an object is a nonblack nonraven confirms the hypothesis (H) that every raven is black. According to the standard Bayesian solution, E does confirm H but only to a minute degree. This solution relies on the almost never explicitly defended assumption that the probability of H should not be affected by evidence that an object is nonblack. I argue that this assumption is implausible, and I propose a way out for Bayesians. Introduction Hempel's (...)
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  8. Gigerenzer's Normative Critique of Kahneman and Tversky.Peter B. M. Vranas - 2000 - Cognition 76 (3):179-193.
  9. Epsilon-Ergodicity and the Success of Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics.Peter B. M. Vranas - 1998 - Philosophy of Science 65 (4):688-708.
    Why does classical equilibrium statistical mechanics work? Malament and Zabell (1980) noticed that, for ergodic dynamical systems, the unique absolutely continuous invariant probability measure is the microcanonical. Earman and Rédei (1996) replied that systems of interest are very probably not ergodic, so that absolutely continuous invariant probability measures very distant from the microcanonical exist. In response I define the generalized properties of epsilon-ergodicity and epsilon-continuity, I review computational evidence indicating that systems of interest are epsilon-ergodic, I adapt Malament and Zabell’s (...)
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  10. In Defense of Imperative Inference.Peter B. M. Vranas - 2010 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 39 (1):59 - 71.
    "Surrender; therefore, surrender or fight" is apparently an argument corresponding to an inference from an imperative to an imperative. Several philosophers, however (Williams 1963; Wedeking 1970; Harrison 1991; Hansen 2008), have denied that imperative inferences exist, arguing that (1) no such inferences occur in everyday life, (2) imperatives cannot be premises or conclusions of inferences because it makes no sense to say, for example, "since surrender" or "it follows that surrender or fight", and (3) distinct imperatives have conflicting permissive presuppositions (...)
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  11. Can I Kill My Younger Self? Time Travel and the Retrosuicide Paradox.Peter B. M. Vranas - 2009 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 90 (4):520-534.
    If time travel is possible, presumably so is my shooting my younger self ; then apparently I can kill him – I can commit retrosuicide. But if I were to kill him I would not exist to shoot him, so how can I kill him? The standard solution to this paradox understands ability as compossibility with the relevant facts and points to an equivocation about which facts are relevant: my killing YS is compossible with his proximity but not with his (...)
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  12. Have Your Cake and Eat It Too: The Old Principal Principle Reconciled with the New.Peter B. M. Vranas - 2004 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 69 (2):368–382.
    David Lewis (1980) proposed the Principal Principle (PP) and a “reformulation” which later on he called ‘OP’ (Old Principle). Reacting to his belief that these principles run into trouble, Lewis (1994) concluded that they should be replaced with the New Principle (NP). This conclusion left Lewis uneasy, because he thought that an inverse form of NP is “quite messy”, whereas an inverse form of OP, namely the simple and intuitive PP, is “the key to our concept of chance”. I argue (...)
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  13. Who's Afraid of Undermining?Peter B. M. Vranas - 2002 - Erkenntnis 57 (2):151-174.
    The Principal Principle (PP) says that, for any proposition A, given any admissible evidence and the proposition that the chance of A is x%, one's conditional credence in A should be x%. Humean Supervenience (HS) claims that, among possible worlds like ours, no two differ without differing in the spacetime-point-by-spacetime-point arrangement of local properties. David Lewis (1986b, 1994a) has argued that PP contradicts HS, and the validity of his argument has been endorsed by Bigelow et al. (1993), Thau (1994), Hall (...)
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  14.  3
    A Restrictive Definition and Interpretation.Peter B. Jubb - 1999 - Journal of Business Ethics 21 (1):77-94.
    Whistleblowing has been defined often and in differing ways in the literature. This paper has as its main purposes to clarify the meaning of whistleblowing and to speak for a narrow interpretation of it. A restrictive, general purpose definition is provided which contains six necessary elements: act of disclosure, actor, disclosure subject, target, disclosure recipient, and outcome.Whistleblowing is characterised as a dissenting act of public accusation against an organisation which necessitates being disloyal to that organisation. The definition differs from others (...)
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  15. What Time Travelers May Be Able to Do.Peter B. M. Vranas - 2010 - Philosophical Studies 150 (1):115 - 121.
    Kadri Vihvelin, in "What time travelers cannot do" (Philos Stud 81: 315-330, 1996), argued that "no time traveler can kill the baby who in fact is her younger self, because (V1) "if someone would fail to do something, no matter how hard or how many times she tried, then she cannot do it", and (V2) if a time traveler tried to kill her baby self, she would always fail. Theodore Sider (Philos Stud 110: 115-138, 2002) criticized Vihvelin's argument, and Ira (...)
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  16.  36
    Resolution in Type Theory.Peter B. Andrews - 1971 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 36 (3):414-432.
  17.  10
    Philosophical Counseling: Theory and Practice.Peter B. Raabe - 2001 - Praeger.
    Critiques existing theoretical approaches and practices of philosophical counseling and presents a new model.
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  18. Against Moral Character Evaluations: The Undetectability of Virtue and Vice.Peter B. M. Vranas - 2009 - The Journal of Ethics 13 (2-3):213 - 233.
    I defend the epistemic thesis that evaluations of people in terms of their moral character as good, bad, or intermediate are almost always epistemically unjustified. (1) Because most people are fragmented (they would behave deplorably in many and admirably in many other situations), one's prior probability that any given person is fragmented should be high. (2) Because one's information about specific people does not reliably distinguish those who are fragmented from those who are not, one's posterior probability that any given (...)
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  19. Do Cry Over Spilt Milk: Possibly You Can Change the Past.Peter B. M. Vranas - 2005 - The Monist 88 (3):370-387.
    There is widespread agreement, even among those who accept the possibility of backward causation, that it is impossible to change the past. I argue that this agreement corresponds to a relatively uninteresting understanding of what changing the past amounts to. In one sense it is indeed impossible to change the past: in no possible world is an action performed which makes the past in that world different from the past in that world. In another sense, however, it may be possible (...)
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  20.  53
    General Models and Extensionality.Peter B. Andrews - 1972 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 37 (2):395-397.
  21.  7
    In Defense of Imperative Inference.Peter B. M. Vranas - 2018 - Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy 55:85-92.
    “Surrender; therefore, surrender or fight” is apparently an argument corresponding to an inference from an imperative to an imperative. Several philosophers, however, have denied that imperative inferences exist, arguing that no such inferences occur in everyday life, imperatives cannot be premises or conclusions of inferences because it makes no sense to say, for example, “since surrender” or “it follows that surrender or fight”, and distinct imperatives have conflicting permissive presuppositions, so issuing distinct imperatives amounts to changing one’s mind and thus (...)
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  22.  21
    Have Your Cake and Eat It Too: The Old Principal Principle Reconciled with the New.Peter B. M. Vranas - 2004 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 69 (2):368-382.
    David Lewis proposed the Principal Principle and a “reformulation” which later on he called ‘OP’. Reacting to his belief that these principles run into trouble, Lewis concluded that they should be replaced with the New Principle. This conclusion left Lewis uneasy, because he thought that an inverse form of NP is “quite messy”, whereas an inverse form of OP, namely the simple and intuitive PP, is “the key to our concept of chance”. I argue that, even if OP should be (...)
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  23. The Paradox of Addiction Neuroscience.Peter B. Reiner - 2011 - Neuroethics 4 (2):65-77.
    Neuroscience has substantially advanced the understanding of how changes in brain biochemistry contribute to mechanisms of tolerance and physical dependence via exposure to addictive drugs. Many scientists and mental health advocates scaffold this emerging knowledge by adding the imprimatur of disease, arguing that conceptualizing addiction as a brain disease will reduce stigma amongst the folk. Promoting a brain disease concept is grounded in beneficent and utilitarian thinking: the language makes room for individuals living with addiction to receive the same level (...)
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  24. Single-Case Probabilities and Content-Neutral Norms: A Reply to Gigerenzer.Peter B. M. Vranas - 2001 - Cognition 81 (1):105-111.
  25.  37
    Human Male Pair Bonding and Testosterone.Peter B. Gray, Judith Flynn Chapman, Terence C. Burnham, Matthew H. McIntyre, Susan F. Lipson & Peter T. Ellison - 2004 - Human Nature 15 (2):119-131.
    Previous research in North America has supported the view that male involvement in committed, romantic relationships is associated with lower testosterone (T) levels. Here, we test the prediction that undergraduate men involved in committed, romantic relationships (paired) will have lower T levels than men not involved in such relationships (unpaired). Further, we also test whether these differences are more apparent in samples collected later, rather than earlier, in the day. For this study, 107 undergraduate men filled out a questionnaire and (...)
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  26. Wittgenstein, Tolstoy, and Shakespeare.Peter B. Lewis - 2005 - Philosophy and Literature 29 (2):241-255.
  27.  74
    “Ought” Implies “Can” but Does Not Imply “Must”: An Asymmetry Between Becoming Infeasible and Becoming Overridden.Peter B. M. Vranas - 2018 - Philosophical Review 127 (4):487-514.
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  28.  86
    I Ought, Therefore I Can Obey.Peter B. M. Vranas - 2018 - Philosophers' Imprint 18.
    According to typical ought-implies-can principles, if you have an obligation to vaccinate me tomorrow, then you can vaccinate me tomorrow. Such principles are uninformative about conditional obligations: what if you only have an obligation to vaccinate me tomorrow if you synthesize a vaccine today? Then maybe you cannot vaccinate me tomorrow ; what you can do instead, I propose, is make it the case that the conditional obligation is not violated. More generally, I propose the ought-implies-can-obey principle: an agent has (...)
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  29. Imperatives, Logic Of.Peter B. M. Vranas - 2013 - In Hugh LaFollette (ed.), The International Encyclopedia of Ethics. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 2575-2585.
    Suppose that a sign at the entrance of a hotel reads: “Don’t enter these premises unless you are accompanied by a registered guest”. You see someone who is about to enter, and you tell her: “Don’t enter these premises if you are an unaccompanied registered guest”. She asks why, and you reply: “It follows from what the sign says”. It seems that you made a valid inference from an imperative premise to an imperative conclusion. But it also seems that imperatives (...)
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  30.  47
    General Models, Descriptions, and Choice in Type Theory.Peter B. Andrews - 1972 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 37 (2):385-394.
  31.  20
    A Natural Alliance of Teaching and Philosophy of Science.Peter B. Sloep & Wim J. van der Steen - 1988 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 20 (2):24–32.
  32. New Foundations for Imperative Logic Iii: A General Definition of Argument Validity.Peter B. M. Vranas - 2012 - Manuscript in Preparation.
    Besides pure declarative arguments, whose premises and conclusions are declaratives (“you sinned shamelessly; so you sinned”), and pure imperative arguments, whose premises and conclusions are imperatives (“repent quickly; so repent”), there are mixed-premise arguments, whose premises include both imperatives and declaratives (“if you sinned, repent; you sinned; so repent”), and cross-species arguments, whose premises are declaratives and whose conclusions are imperatives (“you must repent; so repent”) or vice versa (“repent; so you can repent”). I propose a general definition of argument (...)
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  33.  10
    Testosterone and Jamaican Fathers.Peter B. Gray, Jody Reece, Charlene Coore-Desai, Twana Dinall, Sydonnie Pellington & Maureen Samms-Vaughan - 2017 - Human Nature 28 (2):201-218.
    This paper investigates relationships between men’s testosterone and family life in a sample of approximately 350 Jamaican fathers of children 18–24 months of age. The study recognizes the role of testosterone as a proximate mechanism coordinating and reflecting male life history allocations within specific family and cultural contexts. A sample of Jamaican fathers and/or father figures reported to an assessment center for an interview based on a standardized questionnaire and provided a saliva sample for measuring testosterone level. Outcomes measured include (...)
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  34. The Individuation of God: Integrating Science and Religion.Peter B. Todd (ed.) - 2012 - Chiron Publications.
    Todd argues for the integration of science and religion to form a new paradigm for the third millennium. He counters both the arguments made by fundamentalist Christians against science and the rejection of religion by the New Atheists, in particular Richard Dawkins and his followers. Drawing on the work of scientists, psychologists, philosophers, and theologians, Todd challenges the materialistic reductionism of our age and offers an alternative grounded in the visionary work taking place in a wide array of disciplines including (...)
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  35. Forgiveness in Christianity.Peter B. Ely - 2004 - Ultimate Reality and Meaning 27 (2):108-126.
     
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  36. Teilhard and Other Modern Thinkers on Evolution, Mind, and Matter.Peter B. Todd - 2013 - Teilhard Studies (66):1-22.
    In his The Phenomenon of Man, Pierre Teilhard de Chardin develops concepts of consciousness, the noosphere, and psychosocial evolution. This paper explores Teilhard’s evolutionary concepts as resonant with thinking in psychology and physics. It explores contributions from archetypal depth psychology, quantum physics, and neuroscience to elucidate relationships between mind and matter. Teilhard’s work can be seen as advancing this psychological lineage or psychogenesis. That is, the evolutionary emergence of matter in increasing complexity from sub-atomic particles to the human brain and (...)
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  37.  15
    The Nature of Evolutionary Theory: The Semantic Challenge. [REVIEW]Peter B. Sloep & Wim J. Steen - 1987 - Biology and Philosophy 2 (1):1-15.
  38.  25
    Methodology Revitalized?Peter B. Sloep - 1993 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 44 (2):231-249.
    Controversies in science have a tendency to be long-lasting. Moreover, they tend to wither rather than be solved by sorting out the arguments pro and con. Barring the sociological dimension, an important factor in the perpetuation of scientific controversies seems to be the contestants' passion for broad philosophical theses when it comes to defending their respective positions. In this paper one such controversy is analysed. It involves the alleged use of Popperian falsificationism to defend a position in (community) ecology some (...)
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  39.  2
    The Nature of Evolutionary Theory: The Semantic Challenge.Peter B. Sloep & Wim J. Van Der Steen - 1987 - Biology and Philosophy 2 (1):1-15.
  40.  4
    Rectilinear Edge Selectivity Is Insufficient to Explain the Category Selectivity of the Parahippocampal Place Area.Peter B. Bryan, Joshua B. Julian & Russell A. Epstein - 2016 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 10.
  41. Lack of Character: Personality and Moral Behavior. [REVIEW]Peter B. M. Vranas - 2004 - Philosophical Review 113 (2):284-288.
    I agree with all four of the above theses, but I will argue that some of Doris’s arguments need improvement. I will deal only with arguments in defense of the thesis that situationism is true.
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  42.  31
    Dynamic Semiotics.Peter Bøgh Andersen - 2002 - Semiotica 2002 (139):161-210.
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  43.  24
    The Challenge of Crafting Policy for Do-It-Yourself Brain Stimulation.Nicholas S. Fitz & Peter B. Reiner - 2015 - Journal of Medical Ethics 41 (5):410-412.
    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a simple means of brain stimulation, possesses a trifecta of appealing features: it is relatively safe, relatively inexpensive and relatively effective. It is also relatively easy to obtain a device and the do-it-yourself (DIY) community has become galvanised by reports that tDCS can be used as an all-purpose cognitive enhancer. We provide practical recommendations designed to guide balanced discourse, propagate norms of safe use and stimulate dialogue between the DIY community and regulatory authorities. We call (...)
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  44.  8
    TPS: A Hybrid Automatic-Interactive System for Developing Proofs.Peter B. Andrews & Chad E. Brown - 2006 - Journal of Applied Logic 4 (4):367-395.
  45.  88
    Updating Our Selves: Synthesizing Philosophical and Neurobiological Perspectives on Incorporating New Information Into Our Worldview.Fay Niker, Peter B. Reiner & Gidon Felsen - 2018 - Neuroethics 11 (3):273-282.
    Given the ubiquity and centrality of social and relational influences to the human experience, our conception of self-governance must adequately account for these external influences. The inclusion of socio-historical, externalist considerations into more traditional internalist accounts of autonomy has been an important feature of the debate over personal autonomy in recent years. But the relevant socio-temporal dynamics of autonomy are not only historical in nature. There are also important, and under-examined, future-oriented questions about how we retain autonomy while incorporating new (...)
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  46.  8
    Null Hypotheses in Ecology: Towards the Dissolution of a Controversy.Peter B. Sloep - 1986 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1986:307 - 313.
    Ever since ecology's inception, the concept of competition has generated discussion. Recent discussions have focused on the role of interspecific competition in shaping the structure of ecological communities. More in particular, ecologists are split up over the validity of a method that is currently in vogue to discredit explanations of community structure in terms of competition theory. An analysis of this controversy is presented which attempts to show that the discussions so far have focused on the wrong issues. Not the (...)
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  47.  44
    Issues in Philosophical Counseling.Peter B. Raabe - 2002 - Praeger.
    A detailed discussion of issues in philosophical counseling for the practitioner and general public.
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  48.  6
    A Natural Alliance of Teaching and Philosophy of Science.Peter B. Sloep & Wim J. Steen - 1988 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 20 (2):24-32.
  49. New Foundations for Deontic Logic: A Preliminary Sketch.Peter B. M. Vranas - unknown
    I outline six components of a comprehensive proposal for overhauling the foundations of deontic logic. (1) Actions and prescriptions are temporally indexed; more precisely, they attach to nodes of a tree in a branching time structure. (2) Actions are (modeled as) sets of branches and can be coarse- or fine-grained depending on whether or not they have proper subsets which are also actions. (3) Prescriptions have satisfaction and violation sets; these are sets of branches which may—but need not—be or include (...)
     
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  50.  13
    An Introduction to Mathematical Logic and Type Theory: To Truth Through Proof.M. Yasuhara & Peter B. Andrews - 1988 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 53 (1):312.
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