Results for 'Peter B. Josephson'

979 found
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  1.  24
    History of American Political Thought.John Agresto, John E. Alvis, Donald R. Brand, Paul O. Carrese, Laurence D. Cooper, Murray Dry, Jean Bethke Elshtain, Thomas S. Engeman, Christopher Flannery, Steven Forde, David Fott, David F. Forte, Matthew J. Franck, Bryan-Paul Frost, David Foster, Peter B. Josephson, Steven Kautz, John Koritansky, Peter Augustine Lawler, Howard L. Lubert, Harvey C. Mansfield, Jonathan Marks, Sean Mattie, James McClellan, Lucas E. Morel, Peter C. Meyers, Ronald J. Pestritto, Lance Robinson, Michael J. Rosano, Ralph A. Rossum, Richard S. Ruderman, Richard Samuelson, David Lewis Schaefer, Peter Schotten, Peter W. Schramm, Kimberly C. Shankman, James R. Stoner, Natalie Taylor, Aristide Tessitore, William Thomas, Daryl McGowan Tress, David Tucker, Eduardo A. Velásquez, Karl-Friedrich Walling, Bradley C. S. Watson, Melissa S. Williams, Delba Winthrop, Jean M. Yarbrough & Michael Zuckert - 2003 - Lexington Books.
    This book is a collection of secondary essays on America's most important philosophic thinkers—statesmen, judges, writers, educators, and activists—from the colonial period to the present. Each essay is a comprehensive introduction to the thought of a noted American on the fundamental meaning of the American regime.
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  2.  7
    Philosophy's Role in Counseling and Psychotherapy.Peter B. Raabe - 2013 - Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    In this book, Raabe argues that philosophy can effectively inform and improve conventional methods of treating mental illness. He presents clinical evidence showing that mild and so-called clinical mental illnesses can be both prevented and alleviated with philosophical talk therapy. Raabe offers concrete case examples that support his findings.
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  3. Pharmacologische ontsluiting van de persoonlijke intimiteit: de morele waarde van de pharmacologisch opzettelijk bewerkte persoonlijkheidsbeinvloeding als bedreiging van het recht op een persoonlijke intimiteit.B. A. M. Peters - 1963 - Assen: Van Gorcum.
  4.  11
    Cross-cultural perspectives on identity.Peter B. Smith - 2011 - In Seth J. Schwartz, Koen Luyckx & Vivian L. Vignoles (eds.), Handbook of identity theory and research. New York: Springer Science+Business Media. pp. 249--265.
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  5. I Ought, Therefore I Can.Peter B. M. Vranas - 2007 - Philosophical Studies 136 (2):167-216.
    I defend the following version of the ought-implies-can principle: (OIC) by virtue of conceptual necessity, an agent at a given time has an (objective, pro tanto) obligation to do only what the agent at that time has the ability and opportunity to do. In short, obligations correspond to ability plus opportunity. My argument has three premises: (1) obligations correspond to reasons for action; (2) reasons for action correspond to potential actions; (3) potential actions correspond to ability plus opportunity. In the (...)
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  6.  5
    Mathematicians on creativity.Peter B. Borwein, Peter Liljedahl & Helen Zhai (eds.) - 2014 - [Washington, D.C.]: Mathematical Association of America.
  7. The indeterminacy paradox: Character evaluations and human psychology.Peter B. M. Vranas - 2005 - Noûs 39 (1):1–42.
    You may not know me well enough to evaluate me in terms of my moral character, but I take it you believe I can be evaluated: it sounds strange to say that I am indeterminate, neither good nor bad nor intermediate. Yet I argue that the claim that most people are indeterminate is the conclusion of a sound argument—the indeterminacy paradox—with two premises: (1) most people are fragmented (they would behave deplorably in many and admirably in many other situations); (2) (...)
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  8. New foundations for imperative logic I: Logical connectives, consistency, and quantifiers.Peter B. M. Vranas - 2008 - Noûs 42 (4):529-572.
    Imperatives cannot be true or false, so they are shunned by logicians. And yet imperatives can be combined by logical connectives: "kiss me and hug me" is the conjunction of "kiss me" with "hug me". This example may suggest that declarative and imperative logic are isomorphic: just as the conjunction of two declaratives is true exactly if both conjuncts are true, the conjunction of two imperatives is satisfied exactly if both conjuncts are satisfied—what more is there to say? Much more, (...)
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  9.  76
    Philosophical counseling: theory and practice.Peter B. Raabe - 2001 - Westport, Conn.: Praeger.
    Critiques existing theoretical approaches and practices of philosophical counseling and presents a new model.
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  10. Epsilon-ergodicity and the success of equilibrium statistical mechanics.Peter B. M. Vranas - 1998 - Philosophy of Science 65 (4):688-708.
    Why does classical equilibrium statistical mechanics work? Malament and Zabell (1980) noticed that, for ergodic dynamical systems, the unique absolutely continuous invariant probability measure is the microcanonical. Earman and Rédei (1996) replied that systems of interest are very probably not ergodic, so that absolutely continuous invariant probability measures very distant from the microcanonical exist. In response I define the generalized properties of epsilon-ergodicity and epsilon-continuity, I review computational evidence indicating that systems of interest are epsilon-ergodic, I adapt Malament and Zabell’s (...)
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  11. Gigerenzer's normative critique of Kahneman and Tversky.Peter B. M. Vranas - 2000 - Cognition 76 (3):179-193.
  12. In Defense of Imperative Inference.Peter B. M. Vranas - 2010 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 39 (1):59 - 71.
    "Surrender; therefore, surrender or fight" is apparently an argument corresponding to an inference from an imperative to an imperative. Several philosophers, however (Williams 1963; Wedeking 1970; Harrison 1991; Hansen 2008), have denied that imperative inferences exist, arguing that (1) no such inferences occur in everyday life, (2) imperatives cannot be premises or conclusions of inferences because it makes no sense to say, for example, "since surrender" or "it follows that surrender or fight", and (3) distinct imperatives have conflicting permissive presuppositions (...)
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  13.  23
    In Defense of Imperative Inference.Peter B. M. Vranas - 2018 - Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy 55:85-92.
    “Surrender; therefore, surrender or fight” is apparently an argument corresponding to an inference from an imperative to an imperative. Several philosophers, however, have denied that imperative inferences exist, arguing that no such inferences occur in everyday life, imperatives cannot be premises or conclusions of inferences because it makes no sense to say, for example, “since surrender” or “it follows that surrender or fight”, and distinct imperatives have conflicting permissive presuppositions, so issuing distinct imperatives amounts to changing one’s mind and thus (...)
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  14. Hempel's Raven paradox: A lacuna in the standard bayesian solution.Peter B. M. Vranas - 2004 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 55 (3):545-560.
    According to Hempel's paradox, evidence (E) that an object is a nonblack nonraven confirms the hypothesis (H) that every raven is black. According to the standard Bayesian solution, E does confirm H but only to a minute degree. This solution relies on the almost never explicitly defended assumption that the probability of H should not be affected by evidence that an object is nonblack. I argue that this assumption is implausible, and I propose a way out for Bayesians. Introduction Hempel's (...)
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  15. What time travelers may be able to do.Peter B. M. Vranas - 2010 - Philosophical Studies 150 (1):115 - 121.
    Kadri Vihvelin, in "What time travelers cannot do" (Philos Stud 81: 315-330, 1996), argued that "no time traveler can kill the baby who in fact is her younger self, because (V1) "if someone would fail to do something, no matter how hard or how many times she tried, then she cannot do it", and (V2) if a time traveler tried to kill her baby self, she would always fail. Theodore Sider (Philos Stud 110: 115-138, 2002) criticized Vihvelin's argument, and Ira (...)
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  16. Who's afraid of undermining?Peter B. M. Vranas - 2002 - Erkenntnis 57 (2):151-174.
    The Principal Principle (PP) says that, for any proposition A, given any admissible evidence and the proposition that the chance of A is x%, one's conditional credence in A should be x%. Humean Supervenience (HS) claims that, among possible worlds like ours, no two differ without differing in the spacetime-point-by-spacetime-point arrangement of local properties. David Lewis (1986b, 1994a) has argued that PP contradicts HS, and the validity of his argument has been endorsed by Bigelow et al. (1993), Thau (1994), Hall (...)
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  17. “Ought” Implies “Can” but Does Not Imply “Must”: An Asymmetry between Becoming Infeasible and Becoming Overridden.Peter B. M. Vranas - 2018 - Philosophical Review 127 (4):487-514.
    The claim that (OIC) “ought” implies “can” (i.e., you have an obligation only at times at which you can obey it) entails that (1) obligations that become infeasible are lost (i.e., you stop having an obligation when you become unable to obey it). Moreover, the claim that (2) obligations that become overridden are not always lost (i.e., sometimes you keep having an obligation when you acquire a stronger incompatible obligation) entails that (ONIM) “ought” does not imply “must” (i.e., some obligations (...)
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  18.  53
    Resolution in type theory.Peter B. Andrews - 1971 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 36 (3):414-432.
  19.  14
    Philosophy's Role in Counseling and Psychotherapy.Peter B. Raabe - 2013 - Lanham: Jason Aronson.
    In this book, Raabe argues that philosophy can effectively inform and improve conventional methods of treating mental illness. He presents clinical evidence showing that mild and so-called clinical mental illnesses can be both prevented and alleviated with philosophical talk therapy. Raabe offers concrete case examples that support his findings.
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  20. Have your cake and eat it too: The old principal principle reconciled with the new.Peter B. M. Vranas - 2004 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 69 (2):368–382.
    David Lewis (1980) proposed the Principal Principle (PP) and a “reformulation” which later on he called ‘OP’ (Old Principle). Reacting to his belief that these principles run into trouble, Lewis (1994) concluded that they should be replaced with the New Principle (NP). This conclusion left Lewis uneasy, because he thought that an inverse form of NP is “quite messy”, whereas an inverse form of OP, namely the simple and intuitive PP, is “the key to our concept of chance”. I argue (...)
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  21.  10
    Whistleblowing: A Restrictive Definition and Interpretation.Peter B. Jubb - 1999 - Journal of Business Ethics 21 (1):77-94.
    Whistleblowing has been defined often and in differing ways in the literature. This paper has as its main purposes to clarify the meaning of whistleblowing and to speak for a narrow interpretation of it. A restrictive, general purpose definition is provided which contains six necessary elements: act of disclosure, actor, disclosure subject, target, disclosure recipient, and outcome.Whistleblowing is characterised as a dissenting act of public accusation against an organisation which necessitates being disloyal to that organisation. The definition differs from others (...)
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  22.  69
    General models and extensionality.Peter B. Andrews - 1972 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 37 (2):395-397.
  23. Against Moral Character Evaluations: The Undetectability of Virtue and Vice.Peter B. M. Vranas - 2009 - The Journal of Ethics 13 (2-3):213 - 233.
    I defend the epistemic thesis that evaluations of people in terms of their moral character as good, bad, or intermediate are almost always epistemically unjustified. (1) Because most people are fragmented (they would behave deplorably in many and admirably in many other situations), one's prior probability that any given person is fragmented should be high. (2) Because one's information about specific people does not reliably distinguish those who are fragmented from those who are not, one's posterior probability that any given (...)
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  24. Can I kill my younger self? Time travel and the retrosuicide paradox.Peter B. M. Vranas - 2009 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 90 (4):520-534.
    If time travel is possible, presumably so is my shooting my younger self ; then apparently I can kill him – I can commit retrosuicide. But if I were to kill him I would not exist to shoot him, so how can I kill him? The standard solution to this paradox understands ability as compossibility with the relevant facts and points to an equivocation about which facts are relevant: my killing YS is compossible with his proximity but not with his (...)
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  25. Do Cry Over Spilt Milk.Peter B. M. Vranas - 2005 - The Monist 88 (3):370-387.
    There is widespread agreement, even among those who accept the possibility of backward causation, that it is impossible to change the past. I argue that this agreement corresponds to a relatively uninteresting understanding of what changing the past amounts to. In one sense it is indeed impossible to change the past: in no possible world is an action performed which makes the past in that world different from the past in that world. In another sense, however, it may be possible (...)
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  26.  46
    Have Your Cake and Eat It Too: The Old Principal Principle Reconciled with the New.Peter B. M. Vranas - 2004 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 69 (2):368-382.
    David Lewis (1980) proposed the Principal Principle (PP) and a “reformulation” which later on he called ‘OP’(Old Principle). Reacting to his belief that these principles run into trouble, Lewis (1994) concluded that they should be replaced with the New Principle (NP). This conclusion left Lewis uneasy, because he thought that an inverse form of NP is “quite messy”, whereas an inverse form of OP, namely the simple and intuitive PP, is “the key to our concept of chance”. I argue that, (...)
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  27.  64
    New foundations for imperative logic III: A general definition of argument validity.Peter B. M. Vranas - 2016 - Synthese 193 (6):1703-1753.
    Besides pure declarative arguments, whose premises and conclusions are declaratives, and pure imperative arguments, whose premises and conclusions are imperatives, there are mixed-premise arguments, whose premises include both imperatives and declaratives, and cross-species arguments, whose premises are declaratives and whose conclusions are imperatives or vice versa. I propose a general definition of argument validity: an argument is valid exactly if, necessarily, every fact that sustains its premises also sustains its conclusion, where a fact sustains an imperative exactly if it favors (...)
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  28.  60
    Issues in philosophical counseling.Peter B. Raabe - 2002 - Westport, Conn.: Praeger.
    A detailed discussion of issues in philosophical counseling for the practitioner and general public.
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  29. Single-case probabilities and content-neutral norms: a reply to Gigerenzer.Peter B. M. Vranas - 2001 - Cognition 81 (1):105-111.
  30.  63
    General models, descriptions, and choice in type theory.Peter B. Andrews - 1972 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 37 (2):385-394.
  31.  5
    Effective solution of qualitative interval constraint problems.Peter B. Ladkin & Alexander Reinefeld - 1992 - Artificial Intelligence 57 (1):105-124.
  32. The Paradox of Addiction Neuroscience.Peter B. Reiner - 2010 - Neuroethics 4 (2):65-77.
    Neuroscience has substantially advanced the understanding of how changes in brain biochemistry contribute to mechanisms of tolerance and physical dependence via exposure to addictive drugs. Many scientists and mental health advocates scaffold this emerging knowledge by adding the imprimatur of disease, arguing that conceptualizing addiction as a brain disease will reduce stigma amongst the folk. Promoting a brain disease concept is grounded in beneficent and utilitarian thinking: the language makes room for individuals living with addiction to receive the same level (...)
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  33. New Foundations for Imperative Logic Iii: A General Definition of Argument Validity.Peter B. M. Vranas - 2012 - Manuscript in Preparation.
    Besides pure declarative arguments, whose premises and conclusions are declaratives (“you sinned shamelessly; so you sinned”), and pure imperative arguments, whose premises and conclusions are imperatives (“repent quickly; so repent”), there are mixed-premise arguments, whose premises include both imperatives and declaratives (“if you sinned, repent; you sinned; so repent”), and cross-species arguments, whose premises are declaratives and whose conclusions are imperatives (“you must repent; so repent”) or vice versa (“repent; so you can repent”). I propose a general definition of argument (...)
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  34.  40
    Dynamic semiotics.Peter Bøgh Andersen - 2002 - Semiotica 2002 (139):161-210.
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  35. Imperatives, Logic Of.Peter B. M. Vranas - 2013 - In Hugh LaFollette (ed.), The International Encyclopedia of Ethics. Hoboken, NJ: Blackwell. pp. 2575-2585.
    Suppose that a sign at the entrance of a hotel reads: “Don’t enter these premises unless you are accompanied by a registered guest”. You see someone who is about to enter, and you tell her: “Don’t enter these premises if you are an unaccompanied registered guest”. She asks why, and you reply: “It follows from what the sign says”. It seems that you made a valid inference from an imperative premise to an imperative conclusion. But it also seems that imperatives (...)
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  36.  26
    Nature Chose Abduction: Support from Brain Research for Lipton’s Theory of Inference to the Best Explanation.Peter B. Seddon - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (4):1489-1505.
    This paper presents arguments and evidence from psychology and neuroscience supporting Lipton’s 2004 claim that scientists create knowledge through an abductive process that he calls “Inference to the Best Explanation”. The paper develops two conclusions. Conclusion 1 is that without conscious effort on our part, our brains use a process very similar to abduction as a powerful way of interpreting sensory information. To support Conclusion 1, evidence from psychology and neuroscience is presented that suggests that what we humans perceive through (...)
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  37.  14
    The nature of evolutionary theory: The semantic challenge.Peter B. Sloep & Wim J. van der Steen - 1987 - Biology and Philosophy 2 (1):1-15.
  38. I Ought, Therefore I Can Obey.Peter B. M. Vranas - 2018 - Philosophers' Imprint 18.
    According to typical ought-implies-can principles, if you have an obligation to vaccinate me tomorrow, then you can vaccinate me tomorrow. Such principles are uninformative about conditional obligations: what if you only have an obligation to vaccinate me tomorrow if you synthesize a vaccine today? Then maybe you cannot vaccinate me tomorrow ; what you can do instead, I propose, is make it the case that the conditional obligation is not violated. More generally, I propose the ought-implies-can-obey principle: an agent has (...)
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  39. Wittgenstein, Tolstoy, and Shakespeare.Peter B. Lewis - 2005 - Philosophy and Literature 29 (2):241-255.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:Wittgenstein, Tolstoy, and ShakespearePeter B. LewisNear the middle of the first of his 1938 Lectures on Aesthetics, Wittgenstein talks about what he calls "the tremendous things in art"(LC, I 23 8, italics in original).1 Apart from a brief indication of the way in which our response to the tremendous differs from the non-tremendous, he does not refer again in this way to the tremendous things in art, though he (...)
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  40. David Snelling, Philosophy, Psychoanalysis and the Origins of Meaning: Pre-Reflective Intentionality in the Psychoanalytic View of the Mind Reviewed by.Peter B. Raabe - 2002 - Philosophy in Review 22 (2):149-151.
  41.  41
    How Philosophy Can Help You Feel Better.Peter B. Raabe - 2000 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 14 (1):59-64.
    The theoretical nature of academic philosophy has led to the assumption that a philosophical inquiry is not an appropriate means by which to explore the emotional issues encountered in everyday life. But a closer examination of various conceptions of the emotions leads to the conclusion that a person’s unwelcome emotions don’t simply erupt unexpectedly out of the unconscious and for no reason, but rather that they are generated in large part by a person’s unexamined assumptions and beliefs about himself and (...)
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  42.  21
    How Philosophy Can Help You Feel Better.Peter B. Raabe - 2000 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 14 (1):59-64.
    The theoretical nature of academic philosophy has led to the assumption that a philosophical inquiry is not an appropriate means by which to explore the emotional issues encountered in everyday life. But a closer examination of various conceptions of the emotions leads to the conclusion that a person’s unwelcome emotions don’t simply erupt unexpectedly out of the unconscious and for no reason, but rather that they are generated in large part by a person’s unexamined assumptions and beliefs about himself and (...)
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  43. Lewis Schipper, Introduction to Philosophy and Applied Psychology. Conversational Topics in Philosophy and Psychology: A Book of Workshops Reviewed by.Peter B. Raabe - 1997 - Philosophy in Review 17 (5):369-369.
     
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  44. Reinterpreting psychiatric diagnoses.Peter B. Raabe - 2005 - Janus Head 8 (2):509-521.
    In discussing the psychiatric diagnoses, the author explores not the “formal” diagnoses of the so-called mental illnesses, but the “informal” judgments made by psychotherapists in regard to their method or the process of their therapy. These diagnoses include transference, repression, resistance, denial, negativism, projection, and suppression. While these are not precisely the symptoms of psychopathology, they are an integral part of the language which psychotherapists use to describe and label what they see as problems in their patients. These so-called problems, (...)
     
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  45.  31
    Why Has God Forsaken Me?Peter B. Raabe - 1998 - Philosophy in the Contemporary World 5 (4):43-48.
    This essay traces a case in which I was involved. It illustrates that counselors and clients can have very different worldviews, down to and including different views concerning the existence of God, and yet philosophy can do its work in the counseling setting. It also illustrates that straight thinking can be very valuable to both religious and irreligious persons.
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  46.  10
    Why Has God Forsaken Me?Peter B. Raabe - 1998 - Philosophy in the Contemporary World 5 (4):43-48.
    This essay traces a case in which I was involved. It illustrates that counselors and clients can have very different worldviews, down to and including different views concerning the existence of God, and yet philosophy can do its work in the counseling setting. It also illustrates that straight thinking can be very valuable to both religious and irreligious persons.
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  47.  23
    TPS: A hybrid automatic-interactive system for developing proofs.Peter B. Andrews & Chad E. Brown - 2006 - Journal of Applied Logic 4 (4):367-395.
  48.  27
    Testosterone and Jamaican Fathers.Peter B. Gray, Jody Reece, Charlene Coore-Desai, Twana Dinall, Sydonnie Pellington & Maureen Samms-Vaughan - 2017 - Human Nature 28 (2):201-218.
    This paper investigates relationships between men’s testosterone and family life in a sample of approximately 350 Jamaican fathers of children 18–24 months of age. The study recognizes the role of testosterone as a proximate mechanism coordinating and reflecting male life history allocations within specific family and cultural contexts. A sample of Jamaican fathers and/or father figures reported to an assessment center for an interview based on a standardized questionnaire and provided a saliva sample for measuring testosterone level. Outcomes measured include (...)
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  49.  34
    Methodology revitalized?Peter B. Sloep - 1993 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 44 (2):231-249.
    Controversies in science have a tendency to be long-lasting. Moreover, they tend to wither rather than be solved by sorting out the arguments pro and con. Barring the sociological dimension, an important factor in the perpetuation of scientific controversies seems to be the contestants' passion for broad philosophical theses when it comes to defending their respective positions. In this paper one such controversy is analysed. It involves the alleged use of Popperian falsificationism to defend a position in (community) ecology some (...)
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  50.  48
    Human male pair bonding and testosterone.Peter B. Gray, Judith Flynn Chapman, Terence C. Burnham, Matthew H. McIntyre, Susan F. Lipson & Peter T. Ellison - 2004 - Human Nature 15 (2):119-131.
    Previous research in North America has supported the view that male involvement in committed, romantic relationships is associated with lower testosterone (T) levels. Here, we test the prediction that undergraduate men involved in committed, romantic relationships (paired) will have lower T levels than men not involved in such relationships (unpaired). Further, we also test whether these differences are more apparent in samples collected later, rather than earlier, in the day. For this study, 107 undergraduate men filled out a questionnaire and (...)
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