62 found
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  1. The Cognitive Structure of Scientific Revolutions.Hanne Andersen, Peter Barker & Xiang Chen - 2006 - Cambridge University Press.
    Thomas Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions became the most widely read book about science in the twentieth century. His terms 'paradigm' and 'scientific revolution' entered everyday speech, but they remain controversial. In the second half of the twentieth century, the new field of cognitive science combined empirical psychology, computer science, and neuroscience. In this book, the theories of concepts developed by cognitive scientists are used to evaluate and extend Kuhn's most influential ideas. Based on case studies of the Copernican revolution, (...)
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  2. Scientific Change: Philosophical Models and Historical Research.Larry Laudan, Arthur Donovan, Rachel Laudan, Peter Barker, Harold Brown, Jarrett Leplin, Paul Thagard & Steve Wykstra - 1986 - Synthese 69 (2):141 - 223.
  3.  30
    R. Jordan : Virgil: Aeneid II. Pp. Xvi + 105, Ills. Bristol: Bristol Classical Press, 1999. Paper, £8.95. ISBN: 1-85399-542-8. [REVIEW]Peter Barker - 2000 - The Classical Review 50 (1):292-293.
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  4.  50
    The Cognitive Structure of Scientific Revolutions.Peter Barker - 2011 - Erkenntnis 75 (3):445-465.
    For historical epistemology to succeed, it must adopt a defensible set of categories to characterise scientific activity over time. In historically orientated philosophy of science during the twentieth century, the original categories of theory and observation were supplemented or replaced by categories like paradigm, research program and research tradition. Underlying all three proposals was talk about conceptual systems and conceptual structures, attributed to individual scientists or to research communities, however there has been little general agreement on the nature of these (...)
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  5.  34
    Kuhn on Concepts and Categorization.Peter Barker, Xiang Chen & Hanne Andersen - 2003 - In Thomas Nickles (ed.), Thomas Kuhn. Cambridge University Press. pp. 212--245.
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  6. Kuhn's Mature Philosophy of Science and Cognitive Psychology.Hanne Andersen, Peter Barker & Xiang Chen - 1996 - Philosophical Psychology 9 (3):347 – 363.
    Drawing on the results of modem psychology and cognitive science we suggest that the traditional theory of concepts is no longer tenable, and that the alternative account proposed by Kuhn may now be seen to have independent empirical support quite apart from its success as part of an account of scientific change. We suggest that these mechanisms can also be understood as special cases of general cognitive structures revealed by cognitive science. Against this background, incommensurability is not an insurmountable obstacle (...)
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  7.  56
    Realism and Instrumentalism in Sixteenth Century Astronomy: A Reappraisal.Peter Barker & Bernard R. Goldstein - 1998 - Perspectives on Science 6 (3):232-258.
    : We question the claim, common since Duhem, that sixteenth century astronomy, and especially the Wittenberg interpretation of Copernicus, was instrumentalistic rather than realistic. We identify a previously unrecognized Wittenberg astronomer, Edo Hildericus (Hilderich von Varel), who presents a detailed exposition of Copernicus's cosmology that is incompatible with instrumentalism. Quotations from other sixteenth century astronomers show that knowledge of the real configuration of the heavens was unattainable practically, rather than in principle. Astronomy was limited to quia demonstrations, although demonstration propter (...)
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  8. Continuity Through Revolutions: A Frame-Based Account of Conceptual Change During Scientific Revolutions.Xiang Chen & Peter Barker - 2000 - Philosophy of Science 67 (3):223.
    In this paper we examine the pattern of conceptual change during scientific revolutions by using methods from cognitive psychology. We show that the changes characteristic of scientific revolutions, especially taxonomic changes, can occur in a continuous manner. Using the frame model of concept representation to capture structural relations within concepts and the direct links between concept and taxonomy, we develop an account of conceptual change in science that more adequately reflects the current understanding that episodes like the Copernican revolution are (...)
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  9.  7
    Aviva Rothman. The Pursuit of Harmony: Kepler on Cosmos, Confession, and Community. Viii + 355 Pp., Figs., Notes, Bibl., Index. Chicago/London: University of Chicago Press, 2017. $55 . ISBN 9780226496979. [REVIEW]Peter Barker - 2019 - Isis 110 (2):400-401.
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  10. Kuhn's Theory of Scientific Revolutions and Cognitive Psychology.Xiang Chen, Hanne Andersen & Peter Barker - 1998 - Philosophical Psychology 11 (1):5 – 28.
    In a previous article we have shown that Kuhn's theory of concepts is independently supported by recent research in cognitive psychology. In this paper we propose a cognitive re-reading of Kuhn's cyclical model of scientific revolutions: all of the important features of the model may now be seen as consequences of a more fundamental account of the nature of concepts and their dynamics. We begin by examining incommensurability, the central theme of Kuhn's theory of scientific revolutions, according to two different (...)
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  11.  9
    Distance and Velocity in Kepler's Astronomy.Peter Barker & Bernard R. Goldstein - 1994 - Annals of Science 51 (1):59-73.
    We will examine Kepler's use of a relation between velocity and distance from a centre of circular motion. This relation plays an essential role, through a derivation in chapter 40 of the Astronomia Nova, in the presentation of the Area Law of planetary motion. Kepler transcends ancient and contemporary applications of the distance-velocity relation by connecting it with his metaphysical commitment to the causal role of the Sun. His second main innovation is to replace the astronomical models of his predecessors (...)
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  12.  60
    Incommensurability and Conceptual Change During the Copernican Revolution.Peter Barker - 2001 - In Paul Hoyningen-Huene & Howard Sankey (eds.), Incommensurability and Related Matters. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 241--273.
  13.  4
    Is Seventeenth Century Physics Indebted to the Stoics?Peter Barker & Bernard R. Goldstein - 1984 - Centaurus 27 (2):148-164.
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  14. Kuhn, Incommensurability, and Cognitive Science.Peter Barker - 2001 - Perspectives on Science 9 (4):433-462.
    : This paper continues my application of theories of concepts developed in cognitive psychology to clarify issues in Kuhn's mature account of scientific change. I argue that incommensurability is typically neither global nor total, and that the corresponding form of scientific change occurs incrementally. Incommensurability can now be seen as a local phenomenon restricted to particular points in a conceptual framework represented by a set of nodes. The unaffected parts in the framework constitute the basis for continued communication between the (...)
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  15.  46
    The Role of Comets in The Copernican Revolution.Peter Barker - 1988 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 19 (3):299.
  16.  18
    The Role of Rothmann in the Dissolution of the Celestial Spheres.Bernard Goldstein & Peter Barker - 1995 - British Journal for the History of Science 28 (4):385-403.
    At the end of the sixteenth century astronomers and others felt compelled to choose among different cosmologies. For Tycho Brahe, who played a central role in these debates, the intersection of the spheres of Mars and the Sun was an outstanding problem that had to be resolved before he made his choice. His ultimate solution was to eliminate celestial spheres in favour of fluid heavens, a crucial step in the abandonment of the Ptolemaic system and the demise of Aristotelian celestial (...)
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  17.  35
    Hertz and Wittgenstein.Peter Barker - 1980 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 11 (3):243.
  18.  42
    Constructing Copernicus.Peter Barker - 2002 - Perspectives on Science 10 (2):208-227.
    : This paper offers my current view of a joint research project, with Bernard R. Goldstein, that examines Kepler's unification of physics and astronomy. As an organizing theme, I describe the extent to which the work of Kepler led to the appearance of the form of Copernicanism that we accept today. In the half century before Kepler's career began, the understanding of Copernicus and his work was significantly different from the modern one. In successive sections I consider the modern conception (...)
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  19. The Role of Religion in the Lutheran Response to Copernicus.Peter Barker - 2000 - In Margaret J. Osler (ed.), Rethinking the Scientific Revolution. Cambridge University Press. pp. 59--88.
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  20. Duhem and Continuity in the History of Science.Roger Ariew & Peter Barker - 1992 - Revue Internationale de Philosophie 46 (182):323-343.
     
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  21.  4
    Essays in the History and Philosophy of Science.Pierre Duhem, Roger Ariew & Peter Barker - 1997 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 48 (4):606-609.
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  22.  6
    Training the Intelligent Eye: Understanding Illustrations in Early Modern Astronomy Texts.Kathleen Crowther & Peter Barker - 2013 - Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 104:429-470.
  23.  4
    Training the Intelligent Eye: Understanding Illustrations in Early Modern Astronomy Texts.Kathleen M. Crowther & Peter Barker - 2013 - Isis 104 (3):429-470.
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  24.  42
    Copernicus, the Orbs, and the Equant.Peter Barker - 1990 - Synthese 83 (2):317 - 323.
    I argue that Copernicus accepted the reality of celestial spheres on the grounds that the equant problem is unintelligible except as a problem about real spheres. The same considerations point to a number of generally unnoticed liabilities of Copernican astronomy, especially gaps between the spheres, and the failure of some spheres to obey the principle that their natural motion is to rotate. These difficulties may be additional reasons for Copernicus's reluctance to publish, and also stand in the way of strict (...)
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  25.  3
    Process Concepts and Cognitive Obstacles to Change: Perspectives on the History of Science and Science Policy.Xiang Chen & Peter Barker - 2009 - Centaurus 51 (4):314-320.
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  26.  14
    Jean Pena (1528-58) and Stoic Physics in the Sixteenth Century.Peter Barker - 1984 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 23 (S1):93-107.
  27. Revolution and Continuity Essays in the History and Philosophy of Early Modern Science.Roger Ariew & Peter Barker - 1991
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  28.  19
    Cognitive Appraisal and Power: David Brewster, Henry Brougham, and the Tactics of the Emission—Undulatory Controversy During the Early 1850s.Xiang Chen & Peter Barker - 1991 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 23 (1):75-101.
  29.  13
    Untangling the Net Metaphor.Peter Barker - 1979 - Philosophy Research Archives 5:182-199.
    The longest remarks in the section of the Tractatus devoted to science introduce the net metaphor in a discussion of Newtonian mechanics. These sections of the Tractatus are generally believed to be inconsistent with the rest of the book. After a brief description of these difficulties and some relevant historical background I suggest a re-interpretation of the net metaphor in terms of contemporary debates about mechanics. This interpretation shows that the account of science in the Tractatus is an application of (...)
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  30.  3
    Meeting Galileo: Testing the Effectiveness of an Immersive Video Game to Teach History and Philosophy of Science to Undergraduates.Logan L. Watts & Peter Barker - 2018 - Transversal: International Journal for the Historiography of Science 5:133-145.
    Can video games teach students about the history and philosophy of science? This paper reports the results of a study investigating the effects of playing an educational video game on students’ knowledge of Galileo’s life and times, the nature of scientific evidence, and Aristotle’s and Galileo’s views of the cosmos. In the game, students were immersed in a computer simulation of 16th century Venice where they interacted with an avatar of Galileo and other characters. Over a period of two weeks, (...)
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  31. Copernicus' First Friends: Physical Copernicanism From 1543 to 1610.Katherine A. Tredwell & Peter Barker - 2004 - Filozofski Vestnik 25 (2).
    Between the appearance of Copernicus’ De Revolutionibus in 1543 and the works of Kepler and Galileo that appeared in 1609–10, there were probably no more than a dozen converts to physical heliocentrism. Following Westman we take this list to include Rheticus, Maestlin, Rothmann, Kepler, Bruno, Galileo, Digges, Harriot, de Zúńiga, and Stevin, but we include Gemma Frisius and William Gilbert, and omit Thomas Harriot. In this paper we discuss the reasons this tiny group of true Copernicans give for believing that (...)
     
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  32.  28
    Duhem on Maxwell: A Case-Study in the Interrelations of History of Science and Philosophy of Science.Roger Ariew & Peter Barker - 1986 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1986:145 - 156.
    We examine Duhem's critique of Maxwell, especially Duhem's complaints that Maxwell's theory is too bold or not systematic enough, that it is too dependent on models, and that its concepts are not continuous with those of the past. We argue that these complaints are connected by Duhem's historical criterion for the evaluation of physical theories. We briefly compare Duhem's criterion of historical continuity with similar criteria developed by "historicists" like Kuhn and Lakatos. We argue that Duhem's rejection of theoretical pluralism (...)
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  33.  18
    Uncle Ludwig's Book About Science.Peter Barker - 1982 - Philosophical Topics 13 (Supplement):71-78.
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  34.  17
    Jean Pena and Stoic Physics in the 16th Century.Peter Barker - 1984 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 23 (Supplement):93-107.
  35.  10
    The Reflexivity Problem in the Psychology of Science.Peter Barker - 1989 - In Barry Gholson (ed.), Psychology of Science: Contributions to Metascience. Cambridge University Press. pp. 92--114.
  36.  21
    Adam Mosley. Bearing the Heavens: Tycho Brahe and the Astronomical Community of the Late Sixteenth Century. Xiv + 354 Pp., Illus., Figs., App., Bibl., Index. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007. $99. [REVIEW]Peter Barker - 2008 - Isis 99 (2):398-399.
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  37.  8
    Reconstructing Scientific Revolutions: Thomas S. Kuhn's Philosophy of Science by Paul Hoyningen-Huene; Alexander J. Levine. [REVIEW]Peter Barker - 1994 - Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 85:193-195.
  38.  38
    Can Scientific History Repeat?Peter Barker - 1980 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1980:20 - 28.
    Although Kuhn, Lakatos and Laudan disagree on many points, these three widely accepted accounts of scientific growth do agree on certain key features of scientific revolutions. This minimal agreement is sufficient to place stringent restraints on the historical development of science. In particular it follows from the common features of their accounts that scientific history can never repeat. Using the term 'supertheory' to denote indifferently the large scale historical entitites employed in all three accounts, it is shown that a supertheory (...)
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  39.  2
    Commentary 02 on Goldstein 1980.Peter Barker - 2008 - Centaurus 50 (1-2):189-194.
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  40.  26
    Kepler's Geometrical Cosmology.Peter Barker - 1989 - Review of Metaphysics 42 (4):826-828.
    In his first major publication, the Mysterium Cosmographicum, Johann Kepler undertook to answer several questions--most notably why there are six planets and why their orbits have a particular relative spacing. Neither Kepler's answers to these questions nor the questions themselves survived the transition to Newtonian physics. Kepler's conviction about the importance of his questions, and his early answers to them, provided the foundation for his subsequent scientific work, including the discovery of the laws of planetary motion for which he is (...)
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  41.  5
    The Social Structure of Islamicate Science.Peter Barker - 2017 - Journal of World Philosophies 2 (2).
    The view that Islamicate science went into decline while European science was getting started is still commonly held among historians of science and almost universal in general history and popular presentations. Different versions of the decline thesis make it start in the 11 th century with the work of Ibn al-Haytham and al-Ghaz ā l ī ; in the 13 th century with the sack of Baghdad, or at latest with the beginning of the “Scientific Revolution” in Europe. However, it (...)
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  42.  16
    Why Was Copernicus a Copernican?Peter Barker, Peter Dear, J. R. Christianson & Robert S. Westman - 2014 - Metascience 23 (2):203-223.
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  43.  9
    Reconstructing Scientific Revolutions: Thomas S. Kuhn's Philosophy of Science. Paul Hoyningen-Huene, Alexander J. Levine. [REVIEW]Peter Barker - 1994 - Isis 85 (1):193-195.
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  44.  12
    The World of Rome.Peter Barker - 1998 - The Classical Review 48 (2):417-419.
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  45.  23
    New Foundations in the History of Astronomy: Four Papers in Honor of Bernard R. Goldstein.Peter Barker - 2002 - Perspectives on Science 10 (2):151-154.
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  46.  7
    Chronology of Eclipses and Comets, A.D. 1-1000D. Justin Schove Alan Fletcher.Roger Ariew & Peter Barker - 1986 - Isis 77 (2):347-348.
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  47.  5
    Virgil: Aeneid II. [REVIEW]Peter Barker - 2000 - The Classical Review 50 (1):292-293.
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  48.  9
    Bearing the Heavens: Tycho Brahe and the Astronomical Community of the Late Sixteenth Century. [REVIEW]Peter Barker - 2008 - Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 99:398-399.
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  49.  9
    Philosophy and the New Physics by Jonathan Powers. [REVIEW]Peter Barker - 1984 - Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 75:391-392.
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  50.  6
    Chronology of Eclipses and Comets, A.D. 1-1000 by D. Justin Schove; Alan Fletcher. [REVIEW]Roger Ariew & Peter Barker - 1986 - Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 77:347-348.
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