120 found
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  1. On the Logic of Theory Change: Partial Meet Contraction and Revision Functions.Carlos E. Alchourrón, Peter Gärdenfors & David Makinson - 1985 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 50 (2):510-530.
    This paper extends earlier work by its authors on formal aspects of the processes of contracting a theory to eliminate a proposition and revising a theory to introduce a proposition. In the course of the earlier work, Gardenfors developed general postulates of a more or less equational nature for such processes, whilst Alchourron and Makinson studied the particular case of contraction functions that are maximal, in the sense of yielding a maximal subset of the theory (or alternatively, of one of (...)
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  2. Conceptual Spaces. The Geometry of Thought.Peter Gärdenfors - 2002 - Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 64 (1):180-181.
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  3. Theory Change as Dimensional Change: Conceptual Spaces Applied to the Dynamics of Empirical Theories.Peter Gärdenfors & Frank Zenker - 2013 - Synthese 190 (6):1039-1058.
    This paper offers a novel way of reconstructing conceptual change in empirical theories. Changes occur in terms of the structure of the dimensions—that is to say, the conceptual spaces—underlying the conceptual framework within which a given theory is formulated. Five types of changes are identified: (1) addition or deletion of special laws, (2) change in scale or metric, (3) change in the importance of dimensions, (4) change in the separability of dimensions, and (5) addition or deletion of dimensions. Given this (...)
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  4. Belief Revisions and the Ramsey Test for Conditionals.Peter Gardenfors - 1986 - Philosophical Review 95 (1):81-93.
  5.  69
    Induction, Conceptual Spaces and AI.Peter Gärdenfors - 1990 - Philosophy of Science 57 (1):78 - 95.
    A computational theory of induction must be able to identify the projectible predicates, that is to distinguish between which predicates can be used in inductive inferences and which cannot. The problems of projectibility are introduced by reviewing some of the stumbling blocks for the theory of induction that was developed by the logical empiricists. My diagnosis of these problems is that the traditional theory of induction, which started from a given (observational) language in relation to which all inductive rules are (...)
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  6. Unreliable Probabilities, Risk Taking, and Decision Making.Peter Gärdenfors & Nils-Eric Sahlin - 1982 - Synthese 53 (3):361-386.
  7.  29
    Modeling Diachronic Changes in Structuralism and in Conceptual Spaces.Frank Zenker & Peter Gärdenfors - 2014 - Erkenntnis 79 (S8):1-15.
    Our aim in this article is to show how the theory of conceptual spaces can be useful in describing diachronic changes to conceptual frameworks, and thus useful in understanding conceptual change in the empirical sciences. We also compare the conceptual space approach to Moulines’s typology of intertheoretical relations in the structuralist tradition. Unlike structuralist reconstructions, those based on conceptual spaces yield a natural way of modeling the changes of a conceptual framework, including noncumulative changes, by tracing the changes to the (...)
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  8.  54
    The Geometry of Meaning: Semantics Based on Conceptual Spaces.Peter Gärdenfors - 2014 - MIT Press.
    A novel cognitive theory of semantics that proposes that the meanings of words can be described in terms of geometric structures.
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  9.  52
    A Representation Theorem for Voting with Logical Consequences.Peter Gärdenfors - 2006 - Economics and Philosophy 22 (2):181-190.
    This paper concerns voting with logical consequences, which means that anybody voting for an alternative x should vote for the logical consequences of x as well. Similarly, the social choice set is also supposed to be closed under logical consequences. The central result of the paper is that, given a set of fairly natural conditions, the only social choice functions that satisfy social logical closure are oligarchic (where a subset of the voters are decisive for the social choice). The set (...)
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  10.  61
    Semantics, Conceptual Spaces, and the Meeting of Minds.Massimo Warglien & Peter Gärdenfors - 2013 - Synthese 190 (12):2165-2193.
    We present an account of semantics that is not construed as a mapping of language to the world but rather as a mapping between individual meaning spaces. The meanings of linguistic entities are established via a “meeting of minds.” The concepts in the minds of communicating individuals are modeled as convex regions in conceptual spaces. We outline a mathematical framework, based on fixpoints in continuous mappings between conceptual spaces, that can be used to model such a semantics. If concepts are (...)
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  11. Decision, Probability and Utility: Selected Readings.Peter Gärdenfors & Nils-Eric Sahlin (eds.) - 1988 - Cambridge University Press.
    Decision theory and the theory of rational choice have recently been the subjects of considerable research by philosophers and economists. However, no adequate anthology exists which can be used to introduce students to the field. This volume is designed to meet that need. The essays included are organized into five parts covering the foundations of decision theory, the conceptualization of probability and utility, pholosophical difficulties with the rules of rationality and with the assessment of probability, and causal decision theory. The (...)
     
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  12.  6
    Induction and Knowledge-What.Peter Gärdenfors & Andreas Stephens - 2018 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 8 (3):471-491.
    Within analytic philosophy, induction has been seen as a problem concerning inferences that have been analysed as relations between sentences. In this article, we argue that induction does not primarily concern relations between sentences, but between properties and categories. We outline a new approach to induction that is based on two theses. The first thesis is epistemological. We submit that there is not only knowledge-how and knowledge-that, but also knowledge-what. Knowledge-what concerns relations between properties and categories and we argue that (...)
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  13. Co–Operation and Communication in Apes and Humans.Ingar Brinck & Peter Gärdenfors - 2003 - Mind and Language 18 (5):484–501.
    We trace the difference between the ways in which apes and humans co–operate to differences in communicative abilities, claiming that the pressure for future–directed co–operation was a major force behind the evolution of language. Competitive co–operation concerns goals that are present in the environment and have stable values. It relies on either signalling or joint attention. Future–directed co–operation concerns new goals that lack fixed values. It requires symbolic communication and context–independent representations of means and goals. We analyse these ways of (...)
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  14.  9
    Relevance and Redundancy in Deductive Explanations.Peter Gardenfors - 1976 - Philosophy of Science 43 (3):420-431.
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  15. The Dynamics of Belief Systems: Foundations Vs. Coherence Theories.Peter GÄrdenfors - 1990 - Revue Internationale de Philosophie 44 (172):24.
     
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  16.  28
    Epistemic Importance and Minimal Changes of Belief.Peter Gärdenfors - 1984 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 62 (2):136 – 157.
  17. Imaging and Conditionalization.Peter Gardenfors - 1982 - Journal of Philosophy 79 (12):747-760.
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  18. Representation and Self-Awareness in Intentional Agents.Ingar Brinck & Peter Gärdenfors - 1999 - Synthese 118 (1):89 - 104.
    Several conditions for being an intrinsically intentional agent are put forward. On a first level of intentionality the agent has representations. Two kinds are described: cued and detached. An agent with both kinds is able to represent both what is prompted by the context and what is absent from it. An intermediate level of intentionality is achieved by having an inner world, that is, a coherent system of detached representations that model the world. The inner world is used, e.g., for (...)
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  19.  24
    Using Conceptual Spaces to Model the Dynamics of Empirical Theories.Peter Gärdenfors & Frank Zenker - 2011 - In Erik J. Olson Sebastian Enqvist (ed.), Belief Revision Meets Philosophy of Science. Springer. pp. 137--153.
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  20.  12
    Relations Between the Logic of Theory Change and Nonmonotonic Logic.David Makinson & Peter Gärdenfors - 1991 - In André Fuhrmann & Michael Morreau (eds.), The Logic of Theory Change. Springer. pp. 183--205.
  21.  2
    Demonstration and Pantomime in the Evolution of Teaching.Peter Gärdenfors - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  22.  13
    Applications of Conceptual Spaces.Peter Gärdenfors & Frank Zenker (eds.) - 2015 - Springer Verlag.
    Why is a red face not really red? How do we decide that this book is a textbook or not? Conceptual spaces provide the medium on which these computations are performed, but an additional operation is needed: Contrast. By contrasting a reddish face with a prototypical face, one gets a prototypical ‘red’. By contrasting this book with a prototypical textbook, the lack of exercises may pop out. Dynamic contrasting is an essential operation for converting perceptions into predicates. The existence of (...)
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  23.  12
    Communication, Rationality, and Conceptual Changes in Scientific Theories.Peter Gärdenfors & Frank Zenker - 2014 - In Peter Gärdenfors & Frank Zenker (eds.), Applications of Conceptual Spaces. Springer Verlag.
    This article outlines how conceptual spaces theory applies to modeling changes of scientific frameworks when these are treated as spatial structures rather than as linguistic entities. The theory is briefly introduced and five types of changes are presented. It is then contrasted with Michael Friedman’s neo-Kantian account that seeks to render Kuhn’s “paradigm shift” as a communicatively rational historical event of conceptual development in the sciences. Like Friedman, we refer to the transition from Newtonian to relativistic mechanics as an example (...)
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  24.  17
    Using Conceptual Spaces to Exhibit Conceptual Continuity Through Scientific Theory Change.George Masterton, Frank Zenker & Peter Gärdenfors - 2017 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 7 (1):127-150.
    There is a great deal of justified concern about continuity through scientific theory change. Our thesis is that, particularly in physics, such continuity can be appropriately captured at the level of conceptual frameworks using conceptual space models. Indeed, we contend that the conceptual spaces of three of our most important physical theories—Classical Mechanics, Special Relativity Theory, and Quantum Mechanics —have already been so modelled as phase-spaces. Working with their phase-space formulations, one can trace the conceptual changes and continuities in transitioning (...)
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  25.  23
    Notes on the History of Ideas Behind AGM.Peter Gärdenfors - 2011 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 40 (2):115 - 120.
  26.  31
    Levels of Communication and Lexical Semantics.Peter Gärdenfors - 2018 - Synthese 195 (2):549-569.
    The meanings of words are not permanent but change over time. Some changes of meaning are quick, such as when a pronoun changes its reference; some are slower, as when two speakers find out that they are using the same word in different senses; and some are very slow, such as when the meaning of a word changes over historical time. A theory of semantics should account for these different time scales. In order to describe these different types of meaning (...)
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  27.  19
    A Pragmatic Approach to Explanations.Peter Gardenfors - 1980 - Philosophy of Science 47 (3):404-423.
    It is argued that it is not sufficient to consider only the sentences included in the explanans and explanandum when determining whether they constitute an explanation, but these sentences must always be evaluated relative to a knowledge situation. The central criterion on an explanation is that the explanans in a non-trivial way increases the belief value of the explanandum, where the belief value of a sentence is determined from the given knowledge situation. The outlined theory of explanations is applied to (...)
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  28.  16
    An Epistemic Approach to Conditionals.Peter Gärdenfors - 1981 - American Philosophical Quarterly 18 (3):203 - 211.
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  29.  11
    Locative and Directional Prepositions in Conceptual Spaces: The Role of Polar Convexity.Joost Zwarts & Peter Gärdenfors - 2016 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 25 (1):109-138.
    We approach the semantics of prepositions from the perspective of conceptual spaces. Focusing on purely spatial locative and directional prepositions, we analyze both types of prepositions in terms of polar coordinates instead of Cartesian coordinates. This makes it possible to demonstrate that the property of convexity holds quite generally in the domain of prepositions of location and direction, supporting the important role that this property plays in conceptual spaces.
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  30.  33
    Rights, Games and Social Choice.Peter Gardenfors - 1981 - Noûs 15 (3):341-356.
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  31. Meaning Negotiation.Peter Gärdenfors & Massimo Warglien - 2015 - In Peter Gärdenfors & Frank Zenker (eds.), Applications of Conceptual Spaces. Springer Verlag.
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  32. Propositional Logic Based on the Dynamics of Belief.Peter Gärdenfors - 1985 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 50 (2):390-394.
  33. Mental Representation, Conceptual Spaces and Metaphors.Peter Gärdenfors - 1996 - Synthese 106 (1):21 - 47.
  34.  39
    Variations on the Ramsey Test: More Triviality Results.Peter Gärdenfors - 1987 - Studia Logica 46 (4):319-325.
    The purpose of this note is to formulate some weaker versions of the so called Ramsey test that do not entail the following unacceptable consequenceIf A and C are already accepted in K, then if A, then C is also accepted in K. and to show that these versions still lead to the same triviality result when combined with a preservation criterion.
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  35.  33
    Decision Making with Unreliable Probabilities.Peter Gärdenfors & Nils-Eric Sahlin - unknown
    This paper presents a decision theory which allows subjects to account for the uncertainties of their probability estimates. This is accomplished by modelling beliefs about states of nature by means of a class of probability measures. In order to represent uncertainties of those beliefs a measure of epistemic reliability is introduced. The suggested decision theory is evaluated in the light of empirical evidence on ambiguity and uncertainty in decision making. The theory is also compared to Tversky & Kahneman's prospect theory.
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  36.  52
    The Dynamics of Belief: Contractions and Revisions of Probability Functions.Peter Gärdenfors - 1986 - Topoi 5 (1):29-37.
    Using probability functions defined over a simple language as models of states of belief, my goal in this article has been to analyse contractions and revisions of beliefs. My first strategy was to formulate postulates for these processes. Close parallels between the postulates for contractions and the postulates for revisions have been established - the results in Section 5 show that contractions and revisions are interchangeable. As a second strategy, some suggestions for more or less explicit constructive definitions of the (...)
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  37.  39
    Qualitative Probability as an Intensional Logic.Peter Gärdenfors - 1975 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 4 (2):171 - 185.
  38.  2
    From Actions to Effects: Three Constraints on Event Mappings.Peter Gärdenfors, Jürgen Jost & Massimo Warglien - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  39.  10
    From Sensations to Concepts: A Proposal for Two Learning Processes.Peter Gärdenfors - forthcoming - Review of Philosophy and Psychology:1-24.
    This article presents two learning processes in order to explain how children at an early age can transform a complex sensory input to concepts and categories. The first process constructs the perceptual structures that emerge in children’s cognitive development by detecting invariants in the sensory input. The invariant structures involve a reduction in dimensionality of the sensory information. It is argued that this process generates the primary domains of space, objects and actions and that these domains can be represented as (...)
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  40.  78
    Conceptual Spaces as a Framework for Knowledge Representation.Peter Gardenfors - 2004 - Mind and Matter 2 (2):9-27.
    The dominating models of information processes have been based on symbolic representations of information and knowledge. During the last decades, a variety of non-symbolic models have been proposed as superior. The prime examples of models within the non-symbolic approach are neural networks. However, to a large extent they lack a higher-level theory of representation. In this paper, conceptual spaces are suggested as an appropriate framework for non- symbolic models. Conceptual spaces consist of a number of 'quality dimensions' that often are (...)
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  41.  4
    Knowledge in Flux: Modeling the Dynamics of Epistemic States.Peter Menzies & Peter Gardenfors - 1994 - Philosophical Review 103 (1):159.
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  42.  11
    What is a Domain? Dimensional Structures Versus Meronomic Relations.Peter Gärdenfors & Simone Löhndorf - 2013 - Cognitive Linguistics 24 (3).
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  43.  59
    The Emergence of Meaning.Peter Gärdenfors - 1993 - Linguistics and Philosophy 16 (3):285 - 309.
  44.  50
    On the Logic of Relevance.Peter Gärdenfors - 1978 - Synthese 37 (3):351 - 367.
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  45.  24
    Forecasts, Decisions and Uncertain Probabilities.Peter Gärdenfors - 1979 - Erkenntnis 14 (2):159 - 181.
    In the traditional decision theories the role of forecasts is to a large extent swept under the carpet. I believe that a recognition of the connections between forecasts and decisions will be of benefit both for decision theory and for the art of forecasting.In this paper I have tried to analyse which factors, apart from the utilities of the outcomes of the decision alternatives, determine the value of a decision. I have outlined two answers to the question why a decision (...)
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  46.  22
    The Dynamics of Belief as a Basis for Logic.Peter Gärdenfors - 1984 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 35 (1):1-10.
  47.  21
    The Dynamics of Belief Systems: Foundations Versus Coherence Theories.Peter Gärdenfors - 1992 - In Cristina Bicchieri, Dalla Chiara & Maria Luisa (eds.), Knowledge, Belief, and Strategic Interaction. Cambridge University Press. pp. 377.
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  48.  66
    What Are the Evolutionary Causes of Mental Time Travel?Mathias Osvath & Peter Gärdenfors - 2007 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (3):329-330.
    We are not entirely satisfied with the evolutionary explanation provided by Suddendorf & Corballis (S&C) for why only humans should be capable of advanced mental time travel. General social factors do not suffice, given that other primates are also highly social. We discuss the evolutionary mechanisms that have generated mental time travel typical to humans, focusing on ecological factors.
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  49.  10
    Choice Blindness and the Non-Unitary Nature of the Human Mind.Petter Johansson, Lars Hall & Peter Gärdenfors - 2011 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (1):28-29.
    Experiments on choice blindness support von Hippel & Trivers's (VH&T's) conception of the mind as fundamentally divided, but they also highlight a problem for VH&T's idea of non-conscious self-deception: If I try to trick you into believing that I have a certain preference, and the best way is to also trick myself, I might actually end up having that preference, at all levels of processing.
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  50.  18
    Positionalist Voting Functions.Peter Gärdenfors - 1973 - Theory and Decision 4 (1):1-24.
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