Results for 'Peter H��jek'

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  1.  85
    Objecting Vaguely to Pascal's Wager.Alan H.´jek - 2000 - Philosophical Studies 98 (1-16):1 - 16.
  2. Defining Dysfunction: Natural Selection, Design, and Drawing a Line.Peter H. Schwartz - 2007 - Philosophy of Science 74 (3):364-385.
    Accounts of the concepts of function and dysfunction have not adequately explained what factors determine the line between low‐normal function and dysfunction. I call the challenge of doing so the line‐drawing problem. Previous approaches emphasize facts involving the action of natural selection (Wakefield 1992a, 1999a, 1999b) or the statistical distribution of levels of functioning in the current population (Boorse 1977, 1997). I point out limitations of these two approaches and present a solution to the line‐drawing problem that builds on the (...)
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  3.  35
    An Essay Concerning Human Understanding: Clarendon Edition of the Works of John Locke.Peter H. Nidditch (ed.) - 1975 - Oxford University Press UK.
    A scholarly edition of Essay Concerning Human Understanding by P. H. Nidditch. The edition presents an authoritative text, together with an introduction, commentary notes, and scholarly apparatus.
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  4. Reframing the Disease Debate and Defending the Biostatistical Theory.Peter H. Schwartz - 2014 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 39 (6):572-589.
    Similarly to other accounts of disease, Christopher Boorse’s Biostatistical Theory (BST) is generally presented and considered as conceptual analysis, that is, as making claims about the meaning of currently used concepts. But conceptual analysis has been convincingly critiqued as relying on problematic assumptions about the existence, meaning, and use of concepts. Because of these problems, accounts of disease and health should be evaluated not as claims about current meaning, I argue, but instead as proposals about how to define and use (...)
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  5. Decision and Discovery in Defining “Disease”.Peter H. Schwartz - 2007 - In Harold Kincaid & Jennifer McKitrick (eds.), Establishing medical reality: Methodological and metaphysical issues in philosophy of medicine. Dordrecht: Springer. pp. 47-63.
  6. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding.Peter H. Nidditch (ed.) - 1979 - Oxford University Press UK.
    This paperback edition reproduces the complete text of the Essay as prepared by professor Nidditch for The Clarendon Edition of the Works of John Locke. The Register of Formal Variants and the Glossary are omitted and Professor Nidditch has written a new foreword.
     
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  7.  59
    Do IQ Tests Really Measure Intelligence?Peter H. Schönemann - 1983 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6 (2):311-313.
  8.  18
    Progress in Defining Disease: Improved Approaches and Increased Impact.Peter H. Schwartz - 2017 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 42 (4):485-502.
    In a series of recent papers, I have made three arguments about how to define “disease” and evaluate and apply possible definitions. First, I have argued that definitions should not be seen as traditional conceptual analyses, but instead as proposals about how to define and use the term “disease” in the future. Second, I have pointed out and attempted to address a challenge for dysfunction-requiring accounts of disease that I call the “line-drawing” problem: distinguishing between low-normal functioning and dysfunctioning. Finally, (...)
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  9.  49
    Formalism in Ethics and the Non-Formal Ethics of Values: A New Attempt Toward the Foundation of an Ethical Personalism.Peter H. Spader - 1978 - Ethics 88 (3):271-276.
  10. An Alternative to Conceptual Analysis in the Function Debate.Peter H. Schwartz - 2004 - The Monist 87 (1):136-153.
    Philosophical interest in the biological concept of function stems largely from concerns about its teleological associations. Assigning something a function seems akin to assigning it a purpose, and discussion of the purpose of items has long been off-limits to science. Analytic philosophers have attempted to defend ‘function’ by showing that claims about functions do not involve any reference to a problematic notion of purpose. To do this, philosophers offer short lists of necessary and sufficient conditions for the application of the (...)
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  11. Proper Function and Recent Selection.Peter H. Schwartz - 1999 - Philosophy of Science 66 (3):210-222.
    "Modern History" versions of the etiological theory claim that in order for a trait X to have the proper function F, individuals with X must have been recently favored by natural selection for doing F (Godfrey-Smith 1994; Griffiths 1992, 1993). For many traits with prototypical proper functions, however, such recent selection may not have occurred: traits may have been maintained due to lack of variation or due to selection for other effects. I examine this flaw in Modern History accounts and (...)
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  12. Questioning the Quantitative Imperative: Decision Aids, Prevention, and the Ethics of Disclosure.Peter H. Schwartz - 2011 - Hastings Center Report 41 (2):30-39.
    Patients should not always receive hard data about the risks and benefits of a medical intervention. That information should always be available to patients who expressly ask for it, but it should be part of standard disclosure only sometimes, and only for some patients. And even then, we need to think about how to offer it.
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  13. Risk and Disease.Peter H. Schwartz - 2008 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 51 (3):320-334.
    The way that diseases such as high blood pressure (hypertension), high cholesterol, and diabetes are defined is closely tied to ideas about modifiable risk. In particular, the threshold for diagnosing each of these conditions is set at the level where future risk of disease can be reduced by lowering the relevant parameter (of blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein, or blood glucose, respectively). In this article, I make the case that these criteria, and those for diagnosing and treating other “risk-based diseases,” reflect (...)
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  14. Defending the Distinction Between Treatment and Enhancement.Peter H. Schwartz - 2005 - American Journal of Bioethics 5 (3):17 – 19.
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  15. Small Tumors as Risk Factors Not Disease.Peter H. Schwartz - 2014 - Philosophy of Science 81 (5):986-998.
    I argue that ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), the tumor most commonly diagnosed by breast mammography, cannot be confidently classified as cancer, that is, as pathological. This is because there may not be dysfunction present in DCIS—as I argue based on its high prevalence and the small amount of risk it conveys—and thus DCIS may not count as a disease by dysfunction-requiring approaches, such as Boorse’s biostatistical theory and Wakefield’s harmful dysfunction account. Patients should decide about treatment for DCIS based (...)
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  16.  61
    What is a Human?: Toward Psychological Benchmarks in the Field of Human–Robot Interaction.Peter H. Kahn, Hiroshi Ishiguro, Batya Friedman, Takayuki Kanda, Nathan G. Freier, Rachel L. Severson & Jessica Miller - 2007 - Interaction Studies: Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systems 8 (3):363-390.
    In this paper, we move toward offering psychological benchmarks to measure success in building increasingly humanlike robots. By psychological benchmarks we mean categories of interaction that capture conceptually fundamental aspects of human life, specified abstractly enough to resist their identity as a mere psychological instrument, but capable of being translated into testable empirical propositions. Nine possible benchmarks are considered: autonomy, imitation, intrinsic moral value, moral accountability, privacy, reciprocity, conventionality, creativity, and authenticity of relation. Finally, we discuss how getting the right (...)
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  17.  33
    Citizenship Without Consent: Illegal Aliens in the American Polity.Peter H. Schuck & Rogers M. Smith - 1985 - Yale University Press.
  18.  3
    I Peter 2:2–10.Peter H. Hobbie - 1993 - Interpretation: A Journal of Bible and Theology 47 (2):170-173.
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  19. The Ethics of Information: Absolute Risk Reduction and Patient Understanding of Screening.Peter H. Schwartz & Eric M. Meslin - 2008 - Journal of General Internal Medicine 23 (6):867-870.
    Some experts have argued that patients should routinely be told the specific magnitude and absolute probability of potential risks and benefits of screening tests. This position is motivated by the idea that framing risk information in ways that are less precise violates the ethical principle of respect for autonomy and its application in informed consent or shared decisionmaking. In this Perspective, we consider a number of problems with this view that have not been adequately addressed. The most important challenges stem (...)
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  20.  3
    Scheler's Ethical Personalism: Its Logic, Development, and Promise.Peter H. Spader - 2002 - Fordham University Press.
    Peter Spader has written a magisterial study on Max Scheler, one of phenomenology’s earliest and greatest figures, whose theory of ethical personalism has become a major voice in the formulation of phenomenological ethics today. Spader follows Scheler’s use of the classic phenomenological approach, by means of which he presented a fresh view of values, feelings, and the person, and thereby staked out a new approach in ethics. Spader recreates the logic of Scheler’s quest, revealing the basis of his thought (...)
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  21.  9
    Power as a Function of Communality in Factor Analysis.Peter H. Schönemann - 1981 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 17 (1):57-60.
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  22.  44
    Robotic Pets in the Lives of Preschool Children.Peter H. Kahn, Batya Friedman, Deanne R. Pérez-Granados & Nathan G. Freier - 2006 - Interaction Studies. Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systemsinteraction Studies / Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systemsinteraction Studies 7 (3):405-436.
    This study examined preschool children’s reasoning about and behavioral interactions with one of the most advanced robotic pets currently on the retail market, Sony’s robotic dog AIBO. Eighty children, equally divided between two age groups, 34–50 months and 58–74 months, participated in individual sessions with two artifacts: AIBO and a stuffed dog. Evaluation and justification results showed similarities in children’s reasoning across artifacts. In contrast, children engaged more often in apprehensive behavior and attempts at reciprocity with AIBO, and more often (...)
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  23.  76
    What is a Human? Toward Psychological Benchmarks in the Field of Humanrobot Interaction.Peter H. Kahn, Hiroshi Ishiguro, Batya Friedman, Takayuki Kanda, Nathan G. Freier, Rachel L. Severson & Jessica Miller - 2007 - Interaction Studies 8 (3):363-390.
  24. W. H. Sheldon's Philosophy of Polarity: A Metaphilosophy.Peter H. Hare - 1967 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 48 (2):200.
     
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  25. The Continuing Usefulness Account of Proper Function.Peter H. Schwartz - 2002 - In Andre Ariew, Robert Cummins & Mark Perlman (eds.), Functions: New Essays in the Philosophy of Psychology and Biology. Clarendon Press.
    'Modern History' views claim that in order for a trait X to have the proper function F, X must have been recently favored by natural selection for doing F (Griffiths 1992, 1993; Godfrey-Smith 1994). For many traits with prototypical proper functions, however, such recent selection may not have occurred, since traits may have been maintained owing to lack of variation or selection for other effects. I explore this flaw in Modern History accounts and offer an alternative etiological theory, which I (...)
     
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  26. Autonomy and Consent in Biobanks.Peter H. Schwartz - 2010 - The Physiologist 53 (1):1, 3-7.
  27.  17
    Nature's Web: Rethinking Our Place on Earth.Peter H. Marshall - 1993 - Armonk, N.Y. ;M.E. Sharpe.
    Providing an overview of the intellectual roots of the worldwide environmental movement - from ancient religions and philosophies to modern science and ethics - this book synthesises them into a new philosophy of nature in which to ground ...
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  28.  9
    What is a Human?Peter H. Kahn, Hiroshi Ishiguro, Batya Friedman, Takayuki Kanda, Nathan G. Freier, Rachel L. Severson & Jessica Miller - 2007 - Interaction Studies. Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systemsinteraction Studies / Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systemsinteraction Studies 8 (3):363-390.
    In this paper, we move toward offering psychological benchmarks to measure success in building increasingly humanlike robots. By psychological benchmarks we mean categories of interaction that capture conceptually fundamental aspects of human life, specified abstractly enough to resist their identity as a mere psychological instrument, but capable of being translated into testable empirical propositions. Nine possible benchmarks are considered: autonomy, imitation, intrinsic moral value, moral accountability, privacy, reciprocity, conventionality, creativity, and authenticity of relation. Finally, we discuss how getting the right (...)
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  29.  32
    Moral Empathy Gaps and the American Culture War.Peter H. Ditto & Spassena P. Koleva - 2011 - Emotion Review 3 (3):331-332.
    Our inability to feel what others feel makes it difficult to understand how they think. Because moral intuitions organize political attitudes, moral empathy gaps can exacerbate political conflict (and other kinds of conflict as well) by contributing to the perception that people who do not share our moral opinions are unintelligent and/or have malevolent intentions.
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  30. Peter H. Hare and Edward H. Madden, "Causing, Perceiving and Believing: An Examination of the Philosophy of C. J. Ducasse". [REVIEW]Raziel Abelson - 1977 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 15 (4):497.
  31. Disclosure and Rationality: Comparative Risk Information and Decision-Making About Prevention.Peter H. Schwartz - 2009 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 30 (3):199-213.
    With the growing focus on prevention in medicine, studies of how to describe risk have become increasing important. Recently, some researchers have argued against giving patients “comparative risk information,” such as data about whether their baseline risk of developing a particular disease is above or below average. The concern is that giving patients this information will interfere with their consideration of more relevant data, such as the specific chance of getting the disease (the “personal risk”), the risk reduction the treatment (...)
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  32.  64
    Hartshorne’s Social Feelings and G. H. Mead.Peter H. Hare - 1966 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 4 (2):69-70.
  33. Representation of Symmetric Probability Models.Peter H. Krauss - 1969 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 34 (2):183-193.
    This paper is a sequel to the joint publication of Scott and Krauss in which the first aspects of a mathematical theory are developed which might be called "First Order Probability Logic". No attempt will be made to present this additional material in a self-contained form. We will use the same notation and terminology as introduced and explained in Scott and Krauss, and we will frequently refer to the theorems stated and proved in the preceding paper. The main objective of (...)
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  34.  20
    Developmental Study of Color-Word Interference.Peter H. Schiller - 1966 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 72 (1):105.
  35.  29
    Doing Philosophy Historically.Peter H. Hare (ed.) - 1988 - Prometheus Books.
    Can original philosophy be done while simultaneously engaging in the history of philosophy? Such a possibility is questioned by analytic philosophers who contend that history contaminates good philosophy, and by historians of philosophy who insist that theoretical predecessors cannot be ignored. Believing that both camps are misguided, the contributors to this book present a case for historical philosophy as a valuable enterprise. The contributors include: Todd L. Adams, Lilli Alanen, Jos? Bernardete, Jonathan Bennett, John I. Biro, Phillip Cummins, Georges Dicker, (...)
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  36.  16
    Detection in Metacontrast.Peter H. Schiller & Marilyn C. Smith - 1966 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 71 (1):32.
  37.  14
    New Questions About Old Heritability Estimates.Peter H. Sch&öNemann - 1989 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 27 (2):175-178.
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  38.  5
    Peirce’s Concept of Sign.Peter H. Hare - 1974 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 35 (2):281-282.
  39. John Locke: An Essay Concerning Human Understanding.Peter H. Nidditch - 1977 - Philosophy 52 (200):227-230.
  40.  10
    Modeling Child–Nature Interaction in a Nature Preschool: A Proof of Concept.Peter H. Kahn, Thea Weiss & Kit Harrington - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  41. Actions, Reasons and Humean Causes.Peter H. Hess - 1980 - Analysis 41 (March):77-81.
  42. The Value of Information and the Ethics of Personal-Genomic Screening.Peter H. Schwartz - 2009 - American Journal of Bioethics 9 (4):26-27.
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  43.  6
    On Artificial Intelligence.Peter H. Schönemann - 1985 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8 (2):241-242.
  44. Patient Understanding of Benefits, Risks, and Alternatives to Screening Colonoscopy.Peter H. Schwartz, Elizabeth Edenberg, Patrick R. Barrett, Susan M. Perkins, Eric M. Meslin & Thomas F. Imperiale - 2013 - Family Medicine 45 (2):83-89.
    While several tests and strategies are recommended for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, studies suggest that primary care providers often recommend colonoscopy without providing information about its risks or alternatives. These observations raise concerns about the quality of informed consent for screening colonoscopy.
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  45.  11
    Pragmatism Without Foundations: Reconciling Realism and Relativism.Peter H. Hare - 1991 - Noûs 25 (4):578-580.
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  46.  3
    In Moral Relationship with Nature: Development and Interaction.Peter H. Kahn - 2022 - Journal of Moral Education 51 (1):73-91.
    ABSTRACT One of the overarching problems of the world today is that too many people see themselves as dominating other groups of people, and dominating nature. That is a root problem. And thus part of a core solution builds from Kohlberg’s commitment to a universal moral orientation, though extended to include not only all people but the more-than-human world: animals, trees, plants, species, ecosystems, and the land itself. In this article, I make a case for this form of ethical extensionism, (...)
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  47. Discounting a Surgical Risk: Data, Understanding, and Gist.Peter H. Schwartz - 2012 - American Medical Association Journal of Ethics 14 (7):532-538.
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  48.  87
    The Market Economy and Christian Ethics.Peter H. Sedgwick - 1999 - Cambridge University Press.
    Peter Sedgwick explores the relation of a theology of justice to that of human identity in the context of the market economy, and engages with critics of capitalism and the market. He examines three aspects of the market economy: first, how does it shape personal identity, through consumption and the experience of paid employment in relation to the work ethic? Second, what impact does the global economy have on local cultures? Finally, as manufacturing changes out of all recognition through (...)
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  49.  11
    In Praise of Randomness.Peter H. Schönemann - 1991 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (1):162-163.
  50.  12
    The Elementary Theory of Torsionfree Abelian Groups With a Predicate Specifying a Subgroup.Peter H. Schmitt - 1982 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 28 (22‐24):323-329.
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