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Peter Hartman
Loyola University, Chicago
  1. Durand of St.-Pourçain on Reflex Acts and State Consciousness.Peter John Hartman - 2021 - Vivarium 59 (3):215-240.
    Some of my mental states are conscious and some of them are not. Sometimes I am so focused on the wine in front of me that I am unaware that I am thinking about it; but sometimes, of course, I take a reflexive step back and become aware of my thinking about the wine in front of me. What marks the difference between a conscious mental state and an unconscious one? In this paper, I focus on Durand of St.-Pourçain’s rejection (...)
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    Durand of St.-Pourçain's Theory of Modes.Peter John Hartman - 2022 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 60 (2):203-226.
    Early modern philosophers, such as Descartes and Spinoza, appeal to a theory of modes in their metaphysics. Recent commentators have argued that such a theory of modes has Francesco Suárez as its primary source. In this paper, I explore one explicit source for Suárez’s view: Durand of St.-Pourçain, an early fourteenth-century philosopher. My aim will be mainly expository: I will put forward Durand’s theory of modes, thus correcting the persistent belief that there was no well-defined theory of modes prior to (...)
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    Are Cognitive Habits in the Intellect? Durand of St.-Pourçain and Prosper de Reggio Emilia on Cognitive Habits.Peter John Hartman - 2018 - In Nicolas Faucher & Magali Roques (eds.), The Ontology, Psychology and Axiology of Habits in Medieval Philosophy. Springer. pp. 229-244.
    Once Socrates has thought something, he comes to acquire an item such that he is then able to think such thoughts again when he wants, and he can, all other things being equal, do this with more ease than he could before. This item that he comes to acquire medieval philosophers called a cognitive habit. Most medieval philosophers maintained this item was a new quality added to Socrates’s intellect. However, some disagreed. In this paper, I will examine an interesting alternative (...)
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