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Peter Simons [206]Peter M. Simons [54]
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Peter Simons
Trinity College, Dublin
  1. Parts: A Study in Ontology.Peter Simons - 1987 - Oxford University Press.
    Although the relationship of part to whole is one of the most fundamental there is, this is the first full-length study of this key concept. Showing that mereology, or the formal theory of part and whole, is essential to ontology, Simons surveys and critiques previous theories--especially the standard extensional view--and proposes a new account that encompasses both temporal and modal considerations. Simons's revised theory not only allows him to offer fresh solutions to long-standing problems, but also has far-reaching consequences for (...)
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  2. Parts : a Study in Ontology.Peter Simons - 1987 - Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale 2:277-279.
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  3. Truth-Makers.Kevin Mulligan, Peter Simons & Barry Smith - 1984 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 44 (3):287-321.
    A realist theory of truth for a class of sentences holds that there are entities in virtue of which these sentences are true or false. We call such entities ‘truthmakers’ and contend that those for a wide range of sentences about the real world are moments (dependent particulars). Since moments are unfamiliar, we provide a definition and a brief philosophical history, anchoring them in our ontology by showing that they are objects of perception. The core of our theory is the (...)
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  4. Particulars in Particular Clothing: Three Trope Theories of Substance.Peter Simons - 1994 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 54 (3):553-575.
  5. Parts: A Study in Ontology.Peter Simons - 1987 - Clarendon Press.
    The relationship of part to whole is one of the most fundamental there is; this is the first and only full-length study of this concept. This book shows that mereology, the formal theory of part and whole, is essential to ontology. Peter Simons surveys and criticizes previous theories, especially the standard extensional view, and proposes a more adequate account which encompasses both temporal and modal considerations in detail. 'Parts could easily be the standard book on mereology for the next twenty (...)
     
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  6. Truth­-Makers.Kevin Mulligan, Peter Simons & Barry Smith - 2009 - Swiss Philosophical Preprints.
    During the realist revival in the early years of this century, philosophers of various persuasions were concerned to investigate the ontology of truth. That is, whether or not they viewed truth as a correspondence, they were interested in the extent to which one needed to assume the existence of entities serving some role in accounting for the truth of sentences. Certain of these entities, such as the Sätze an sich of Bolzano, the Gedanken of Frege, or the propositions of Russell (...)
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  7.  47
    The Long and Winding Road.Peter Simons - 2021 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 98 (1):75-89.
    Following its welcome revival in the late twentieth century, metaphysics in the analytic tradition has succumbed to decadence, with an astonishing variety of outlandish and extreme positions or “metaphysical follies” being taken seriously. This has caused an inevitable backlash among more scientifically-minded philosophers and incurred the scorn of scientists. Much of the reason for this is the blithe ignoring of empirical science by armchair metaphysicians. The roles of empirical knowledge in good, scientific metaphysics are however unclear. In virtue of its (...)
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  8. I—Relations And Truthmaking.Peter Simons - 2010 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 84 (1):199-213.
    The metaphysics of relations is still in its infancy. We use the idea of truthmaking to gain purchase on this metaphysics. Assuming a modest supervenience conception of truthmaking, where true relational predications require multiply dependent truthmakers, these are indispensable relations. Though some such relations are required, none are needed for internal relatedness, nor for several other kinds of relational predication. Discerning the metaphysically basic kinds of relations is fraught with uncertainties, but must be tackled if progress is to be made.
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  9. Negatives, Numbers, and Necessity Some Worries About Armstrong's Version of Truthmaking.Peter Simons - 2005 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 83 (2):253 – 261.
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  10. Extended Simples.Peter Simons - 2004 - The Monist 87 (3):371--85.
    I argue that the assumptions that physically basic things are either mereologically atomic, or that they are continuous and there are no atoms, both face difficult conceptual problems. Both views tend to presuppose a largely unquestioned assumption, that things have parts corresponding to the geometric parts of the regions they occupy. To avoid these problems I propose a third view, that physically simple things occupy a finite volume without themselves having parts. This view is examined enough to tease out some (...)
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  11.  25
    Continuants and Occurrents.Peter Simons & Joseph Melia - 2000 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 74:59-92.
    Commonsense ontology contains both continuants and occurrents, but are continuants necessary? I argue that they are neither occurrents nor easily replaceable by them. The worst problem for continuants is the question in virtue of what a given continuant exists at a given time. For such truthmakers we must have recourse to occurrents, those vital to the continuant at that time. Continuants are, like abstract objects, invariants under equivalences over occurrents. But they are not abstract, and their being invariants enables us (...)
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  12. Why the Negations of False Atomic Sentences Are True.Peter Simons - 2008 - Essays on Armstrong. Acta Philosophica Fennica 84:15 - 36.
     
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  13. Plural Reference and Set Theory.Peter Simons - 1982 - In Barry Smith (ed.), Parts and Moments: Studies in Logic and Formal Ontology. Munich: Philosophia Verlag. pp. 199--260.
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  14. Higher-Order Quantification and Ontological Commitment.Peter Simons - 1997 - Dialectica 51 (4):255–271.
    George Boolos's employment of plurals to give an ontologically innocent interpretation of monadic higher‐order quantification continues and extends a minority tradition in thinking about quantification and ontological commitment. An especially prominent member of that tradition is Stanislaw Leśniewski, and shall first draw attention to this work and its relation to that of Boolos. Secondly I shall stand up briefly for plurals as logically respectable expressions, while noting their limitations in offering ontologically deflationary accounts of higher‐order quantification. Thirdly I shall focus (...)
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  15.  96
    Farewell to Substance: A Differentiated Leave-Taking.Peter M. Simons - 1998 - Ratio 11 (3):235–252.
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  16. Real Wholes, Real Parts: Mereology Without Algebra.Peter Simons - 2006 - Journal of Philosophy 103 (12):597-613.
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  17. Vagueness and Ignorance.Timothy Williamson & Peter Simons - 1992 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Supplementary Volumes( 66:145-177.
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  18. Tropes, Relational.Peter Simons - 2002 - Conceptus: Zeitschrift Fur Philosophie 35 (86-88):53-73.
     
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  19.  91
    The Formalisation of Husserl’s Theory of Wholes and Parts.Peter Simons - 1982 - In Barry Smith (ed.), Parts and Moments. Studies in Logic and Formal Ontology. Munich: Philosophia. pp. 111-159.
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  20.  37
    Logical Atomism and its Ontological Refinement: A Defense.Peter Simons - 1992 - In Kevin Mulligan (ed.), Language, Truth and Ontology. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 157--179.
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  21.  21
    Extended Simples: A Third Way Between Atoms and Gunk.Peter Simons - 2004 - The Monist 87 (3):371-384.
    I argue that the assumptions that physically basic things are either mereologically atomic, or that they are continuous and there are no atoms, both face difficult conceptual problems. Both views tend to presuppose a largely unquestioned assumption, that things have parts corresponding to the geometric parts of the regions they occupy. To avoid these problems I propose a third view, that physically simple things occupy a finite volume without themselves having parts. This view is examined enough to tease out some (...)
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  22. Continuants and Occurrents, I.Peter Simons - 2000 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 74 (1):59–75.
    [Peter Simons] Commonsense ontology contains both continuants and occurrents, but are continuants necessary? I argue that they are neither occurrents nor easily replaceable by them. The worst problem for continuants is the question in virtue of what a given continuant exists at a given time. For such truthmakers we must have recourse to occurrents, those vital to the continuant at that time. Continuants are, like abstract objects, invariants under equivalences over occurrents. But they are not abstract, and their being invariants (...)
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  23. Identity Through Time and Trope Bundles.Peter Simons - 2000 - Topoi 19 (2):147-155.
    This paper brings together two theories that I have propounded separately elsewhere. The first is the view that concrete individuals are constituted completely by tropes, that they are trope bundles. The second and more recently developed theory is that of the two major categories of concrete individuals, continuants and occurrents, the latter are ontologically more basic than the former and that continuants are to be viewed as invariants among occurrents under equivalence relations. The latter theory embodies on its own an (...)
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  24. Faces, Boundaries, and Thin Layers.Peter Simons - unknown
    We only need to think for a moment about surfaces and other interfaces to realise their enormous importance in everydaylife. There are numerous branches of physics, chemistry, biology, and materials science concerned wholly or largely with surfaces, and one sometimes comes across the expression ‘surface science’ Among the natural phenomena connected with surfaces which have aroused scientific interest are surface tension, surface waves, photoelectric emission, reflection, refraction, evaporation, adsorption, adhesion, thin films, detergents, catalysts, cell membranes, skin. All of these phenomena (...)
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  25. The Universe.Peter Simons - 2003 - Ratio 16 (3):236–250.
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  26.  30
    Vagueness and Ignorance.Timothy Williamson & Peter Simons - 1992 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 66 (1):145-178.
  27.  89
    Bolzano on Collections.Peter Simons - 1997 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 53 (1):87-108.
    Bolzano's theory of collections has usually been taken as a rudimentary set theory. More recently, Frank Krickel has claimed it is a mereology. I find both interpretations wanting. Bolzano's theory is, as I show, extremely broad in scope; it is in fact a general theory of collective entities, including the concrete wholes of mereology, classes-as-many, and many empirical collections. By extending Bolzano's ideas to embrace the three factors of kind, components and mode of combination, one may develop a coherent general (...)
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  28.  29
    I–Peter Simons.Peter Simons - 2000 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 74 (1):59-75.
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  29. Coincidence of Things of a Kind.Peter Simons - 1985 - Mind 94 (373):70-75.
  30.  73
    Token resistance.Peter M. Simons - 1982 - Analysis 42 (4):195.
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  31.  15
    Continuants and Occurrents, I.Peter Simons - 2000 - Supplement to the Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 74 (1):59-75.
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  32. Ramsey, Particulars, and Universals.Peter Simons - 1991 - Theoria 57 (3):150-161.
    My subject is the arguments brought by Ramsey in his paper “ Universals ” ’ against the generally held distinction between particulars and universals. This paper is provocative, suggestive, and radical, and it is humbling to reflect that its author was just 22 years old when it was published in Mind. As so often with Ramsey, the paper is superficially very easy to follow and hardly requires any introduction other than the imperative, “Read it through”, but underneath the surface are (...)
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  33.  53
    On Understanding Leśniewski.Peter M. Simons - 1982 - History and Philosophy of Logic 3 (2):165-191.
    This paper assesses those features of Lesniewski's Ontology which make it difficult to understand for logicians accustomed to more orthodox systems of logic. It is seen that certain general features of presentation and content can, by selective acceptance or modification, be accommodated with a fairly orthodox viewpoint. The chief difficulty lies in the interpretation of Le?niewski's names, and the constant ???. Four interpretations are suggested in turn: Le?niewski's names as monadic predicates; as class terms; as common nouns; and as empty, (...)
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  34. How to Exist at a Time When You Have No Temporal Parts.Peter Simons - 2000 - The Monist 83 (3):419-436.
    Occurrents are entities that exist in time and, with few or no exceptions, extend over time as well, that is, they have parts corresponding to the different times at which they exist. This makes it very easy to say what makes it true that they exist at the times at which they do. Singular existential propositions, being contingent, positive and arguably atomic, stand in need of truth-makers, entities in virtue of whose existence they are true. The obvious candidate for what (...)
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  35. The Thread of Persistence.Peter Simons - 2008 - In Christian Kanzian (ed.), Persistence. Ontos. pp. 165--84.
     
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  36.  9
    Real Wholes, Real Parts: Mereology Without Algebra.Peter Simons - 2006 - Journal of Philosophy 103 (12):597-613.
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  37. What’s Wrong with Contemporary Philosophy?Kevin Mulligan, Peter Simons & Barry Smith - 2006 - Topoi 25 (1-2):63-67.
    Philosophy in the West divides into three parts: Analytic Philosophy (AP), Continental Philosophy (CP), and History of Philosophy (HP). But all three parts are in a bad way. AP is sceptical about the claim that philosophy can be a science, and hence is uninterested in the real world. CP is never pursued in a properly theoretical way, and its practice is tailor-made for particular political and ethical conclusions. HP is mostly developed on a regionalist basis: what is studied is determined (...)
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  38.  48
    Relations and Idealism: On Some Arguments of Hochberg Against Trope Nominalism.Peter Simons - 2014 - Dialectica 68 (2):305-315.
    In a recent article, Herbert Hochberg portrays my ontological position, that of a trope nominalist who is sceptical about relational tropes, as deviating into idealism. Since there are few philosophical views I find more repugnant than idealism, I must either resist the accusation or recant. I choose to resist, by showing how relational tropes are not needed as truth-makers for a wide range of truths, and raising the real possibility that they may not be needed at all, without lapsing into (...)
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  39.  82
    Frege's Theory of Real Numbers.Peter M. Simons - 1987 - History and Philosophy of Logic 8 (1):25--44.
    Frege's theory of real numbers has undeservedly received almost no attention, in part because what we have is only a fragment. Yet his theory is interesting for the light it throws on logicism, and it is quite different from standard modern approaches. Frege polemicizes vigorously against his contemporaries, sketches the main features of his own radical alternative, and begins the formal development. This paper summarizes and expounds what he has to say, and goes on to reconstruct the most important steps (...)
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  40.  91
    Alfred North Whitehead’s Process and Reality.Peter Simons - 2015 - Topoi 34 (1):1-9.
  41.  91
    Brentano's Reform of Logic.Peter M. Simons - 1987 - Topoi 6 (1):25-38.
  42. Truth-Maker Optimalism.Peter Simons - 2000 - Logique Et Analyse 43 (169-170):17-41.
     
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  43. Brentano’s Mereology.Wilhelm Baumgartner & Peter Simons - 1994 - Axiomathes 5 (1):55-76.
  44.  47
    Husserl and Frege. [REVIEW]Peter M. Simons - 1984 - Philosophical Quarterly 34 (136):420.
  45. De Veritate: Austro-Polish Contributions to the Theory of Truth From Brentano to Tarski.Peter M. Simons & Jan Wolenski - 1989 - In Klemens Szaniawski (ed.), The Vienna Circle and the Lvov-Warsaw School. Dordrecht.
  46. Ancient and Medieval Theories of Intentionality.Myles Burnyeat, Richard Gaskin, Joël Biard, Peter Simons, Victor Caston, Richard Sorabji, Christof Rapp, Hermann Weidemann, Dorothea Frede, Claude Panaccio, Elizabeth Karger, Robert Pasnau & Cyrille Michon - 2001 - Brill.
    This volume, including sixteen contributions, analyses ancient and medieval theories of intentionality in various contexts: perception, imagination, and intellectual thinking. It sheds new light on classical theories and examines neglected sources, both Greek and Latin.
     
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  47. On Being the Same Ship(s)—or Electron(S). Reply to Hughes.Peter Simons - 1997 - Mind 106 (424):761-767.
  48.  72
    Metaphysical Systematics: A Lesson From Whitehead. [REVIEW]Peter Simons - 1998 - Erkenntnis 48 (2-3):377-393.
    Despite its lack of influence in analytical philosophy, and independently of its content as a process philosophy, Whitehead's system in Process and Reality affords a valuable lesson on how to pursue revisionary systematic metaphysics. This paper argues the case generally for metaphysical revision and system, describes the structure of Whitehead's categorial scheme, endorses his idea of an ultimate which is not an entity, and outlines an alternative, “digital” ultimate or basis composed of several analytical factors. [I]n the absence of a (...)
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  49.  17
    Meaning and Language.Peter Simons - 1995 - In Barry Smith & David Woodruff Smith (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to Husserl (Cambridge Companions to Philosophy). Cambridge University Press. pp. 106.
  50.  22
    The Context of the Phenomenological Movement.Peter M. Simons - 1984 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 44 (3):426-428.
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