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Peter Simons [202]Peter M. Simons [55]
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Peter Simons
Trinity College, Dublin
  1. Parts: A Study in Ontology.Peter Simons - 1987 - Oxford University Press.
    Although the relationship of part to whole is one of the most fundamental there is, this is the first full-length study of this key concept. Showing that mereology, or the formal theory of part and whole, is essential to ontology, Simons surveys and critiques previous theories--especially the standard extensional view--and proposes a new account that encompasses both temporal and modal considerations. Simons's revised theory not only allows him to offer fresh solutions to long-standing problems, but also has far-reaching consequences for (...)
  2. Truth-Makers.Kevin Mulligan, Peter Simons & Barry Smith - 1984 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 44 (3):287-321.
    A realist theory of truth for a class of sentences holds that there are entities in virtue of which these sentences are true or false. We call such entities ‘truthmakers’ and contend that those for a wide range of sentences about the real world are moments (dependent particulars). Since moments are unfamiliar, we provide a definition and a brief philosophical history, anchoring them in our ontology by showing that they are objects of perception. The core of our theory is the (...)
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  3. Parts : a Study in Ontology.Peter Simons - 1999 - Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale 2:277-279.
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  4. Particulars in Particular Clothing: Three Trope Theories of Substance.Peter Simons - 1994 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 54 (3):553-575.
  5.  89
    Negatives, Numbers, and Necessity Some Worries About Armstrong's Version of Truthmaking.Peter Simons - 2005 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 83 (2):253 – 261.
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  6.  13
    Barry Smith and His Influence On (Not Only, But Mainly My) Philosophy.Peter Simons - 2017 - Cosmos + Taxis 4 (4):38-41.
    Autobiographical survey of interactions between the author and Barry Smith, especially as concerns the background and influence of the Seminar for Austro-German Philosophy and work on the relevance of Adolf Reinach, Roman Ingarden and other Central-European thinkers to contemporary analytic philosophy.
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  7. Relations and Truthmaking.Peter Simons - 2010 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 84 (1):199-213.
    The metaphysics of relations is still in its infancy. We use the idea of truthmaking to gain purchase on this metaphysics. Assuming a modest supervenience conception of truthmaking, where true relational predications require multiply dependent truthmakers, these are indispensable relations . Though some such relations are required, none are needed for internal relatedness, nor for several other kinds of relational predication. Discerning the metaphysically basic kinds of relations is fraught with uncertainties, but must be tackled if progress is to be (...)
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  8. Extended Simples.Peter Simons - 2004 - The Monist 87 (3):371--85.
    I argue that the assumptions that physically basic things are either mereologically atomic, or that they are continuous and there are no atoms, both face difficult conceptual problems. Both views tend to presuppose a largely unquestioned assumption, that things have parts corresponding to the geometric parts of the regions they occupy. To avoid these problems I propose a third view, that physically simple things occupy a finite volume without themselves having parts. This view is examined enough to tease out some (...)
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  9.  4
    I—Relations And Truthmaking.Peter Simons - 2010 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 84 (1):199-213.
    The metaphysics of relations is still in its infancy. We use the idea of truthmaking to gain purchase on this metaphysics. Assuming a modest supervenience conception of truthmaking, where true relational predications require multiply dependent truthmakers, these are indispensable relations. Though some such relations are required, none are needed for internal relatedness, nor for several other kinds of relational predication. Discerning the metaphysically basic kinds of relations is fraught with uncertainties, but must be tackled if progress is to be made.
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  10. Why the Negations of False Atomic Sentences Are True.Peter Simons - 2008 - Essays on Armstrong. Acta Philosophica Fennica 84:15 - 36.
     
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  11.  30
    Trouble Up at T’Ontological Mill: An Inconclusive Dialog.Peter Simons - 2017 - Cosmos + Taxis 4 (4):64-66.
    Grenon and Smith (2004) propose a framework for the ontology of things in space and time involving and invoking the distinction between continuants and occurrents, which has become a key element of Basic Formal Ontology (BFO). The terminology of SNAP (from “snapshot:” state of a continuant at a time) and SPAN (how an occurrent develops over an interval or timespan) occurs in that paper’s title. While any commonsense ontology will have a place for both continuants and occurrents, there is much (...)
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  12. Real Wholes, Real Parts: Mereology Without Algebra.Peter Simons - 2006 - Journal of Philosophy 103 (12):597-613.
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  13. Philosophy and Logic in Central Europe From Bolzano to Tarski.Peter Simons - 1992 - Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  14. Tropes, Relational.Peter Simons - 2002 - Conceptus: Zeitschrift Fur Philosophie 35 (86-88):53-73.
     
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  15.  95
    Continuants and Occurrents, I.Peter Simons - 2000 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 74 (1):59–75.
    [Peter Simons] Commonsense ontology contains both continuants and occurrents, but are continuants necessary? I argue that they are neither occurrents nor easily replaceable by them. The worst problem for continuants is the question in virtue of what a given continuant exists at a given time. For such truthmakers we must have recourse to occurrents, those vital to the continuant at that time. Continuants are, like abstract objects, invariants under equivalences over occurrents. But they are not abstract, and their being invariants (...)
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  16.  76
    Farewell to Substance: A Differentiated Leave-Taking.Peter M. Simons - 1998 - Ratio 11 (3):235–252.
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  17. Vectors and Beyond: Geometric Algebra and its Philosophical Significance.Peter Simons - 2009 - Dialectica 63 (4):381-395.
  18. Ancient and Medieval Theories of Intentionality.Myles Burnyeat, Richard Gaskin, Joël Biard, Peter Simons, Victor Caston, Richard Sorabji, Christof Rapp, Hermann Weidemann, Dorothea Frede, Claude Panaccio, Elizabeth Karger, Robert Pasnau & Cyrille Michon - 2001 - Brill.
    This volume, including sixteen contributions, analyses ancient and medieval theories of intentionality in various contexts: perception, imagination, and intellectual thinking. It sheds new light on classical theories and examines neglected sources, both Greek and Latin.
     
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  19. What's Wrong with Contemporary Philosophy?Kevin Mulligan, Peter Simons & Barry Smith - 2006 - Topoi 25 (1-2):63-67.
    Philosophy in the West divides into three parts: Analytic Philosophy (AP), Continental Philosophy (CP), and History of Philosophy (HP). But all three parts are in a bad way. AP is sceptical about the claim that philosophy can be a science, and hence is uninterested in the real world. CP is never pursued in a properly theoretical way, and its practice is tailor-made for particular political and ethical conclusions. HP is mostly developed on a regionalist basis: what is studied is determined (...)
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  20.  95
    The Universe.Peter Simons - 2003 - Ratio 16 (3):236–250.
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  21. Higher-Order Quantification and Ontological Commitment.Peter Simons - 1997 - Dialectica 51 (4):255–271.
    George Boolos's employment of plurals to give an ontologically innocent interpretation of monadic higher‐order quantification continues and extends a minority tradition in thinking about quantification and ontological commitment. An especially prominent member of that tradition is Stanislaw Leśniewski, and shall first draw attention to this work and its relation to that of Boolos. Secondly I shall stand up briefly for plurals as logically respectable expressions, while noting their limitations in offering ontologically deflationary accounts of higher‐order quantification. Thirdly I shall focus (...)
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  22.  23
    Logical Atomism and its Ontological Refinement: A Defense.Peter Simons - 1992 - In Kevin Mulligan (ed.), Language, Truth and Ontology. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 157--179.
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  23. Coincidence of Things of a Kind.Peter M. Simons - 1985 - Mind 94 (373):70-75.
  24. Bocheński and Balance: System and History in Analytic Philosophy.Peter Simons - 2003 - Studies in East European Thought 55 (4):281-297.
    Using the work of Józef Bocheski as apositive example, this paper sets out the casefor a balanced use of historical knowledge indoing analytic philosophy. Between the twoextremes of relativizing historicism, whichdenies absolute truth, and arrogant scientism,which denies any constructive role for thehistory of ideas in philosophy, lies a viamedia in which historical reflection onconcepts and their history is placed at theservice of the system of cognitive philosophy.Knowledge of the history of philosophy, whilenot a sine qua non, can empower analyticphilosophy to (...)
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  25. Identity Through Time and Trope Bundles.Peter Simons - 2000 - Topoi 19 (2):147-155.
    This paper brings together two theories that I have propounded separately elsewhere. The first is the view that concrete individuals are constituted completely by tropes, that they are trope bundles. The second and more recently developed theory is that of the two major categories of concrete individuals, continuants and occurrents, the latter are ontologically more basic than the former and that continuants are to be viewed as invariants among occurrents under equivalence relations. The latter theory embodies on its own an (...)
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  26.  57
    Bolzano on Collections.Peter Simons - 1997 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 53:87-108.
    Bolzano's theory of collections has usually been taken as a rudimentary set theory. More recently, Frank Krickel has claimed it is a mereology. I find both interpretations wanting. Bolzano's theory is, as I show, extremely broad in scope; it is in fact a general theory of collective entities, including the concrete wholes of mereology, classes-as-many, and many empirical collections. By extending Bolzano's ideas to embrace the three factors of kind, components and mode of combination, one may develop a coherent general (...)
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  27.  19
    Vagueness and Ignorance.Timothy Williamson & Peter Simons - 1992 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 66 (1):145-178.
  28.  29
    Truth-Maker Optimalism.Peter Simons - 2000 - Logique Et Analyse 43 (169-170):17-41.
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  29. On Being the Same Ship(S)--Or Electron(S): Reply to Hughes.Peter Simons - 1997 - Mind 106 (424):761-767.
  30.  8
    Continuants and Occurrents.Peter Simons & Joseph Melia - 2000 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 74:59-92.
    Commonsense ontology contains both continuants and occurrents, but are continuants necessary? I argue that they are neither occurrents nor easily replaceable by them. The worst problem for continuants is the question in virtue of what a given continuant exists at a given time. For such truthmakers we must have recourse to occurrents, those vital to the continuant at that time. Continuants are, like abstract objects, invariants under equivalences over occurrents. But they are not abstract, and their being invariants enables us (...)
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  31.  5
    Extended Simples: A Third Way Between Atoms and Gunk.Peter Simons - 2004 - The Monist 87 (3):371-384.
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  32. De Veritate: Austro-Polish Contributions to the Theory of Truth From Brentano to Tarski.Peter M. Simons & Jan Wolenski - 1989 - In Klemens Szaniawski (ed.), The Vienna Circle and the Lvov-Warsaw School. Dordrecht.
  33.  74
    Frege's Theory of Real Numbers.Peter M. Simons - 1987 - History and Philosophy of Logic 8 (1):25--44.
    Frege's theory of real numbers has undeservedly received almost no attention, in part because what we have is only a fragment. Yet his theory is interesting for the light it throws on logicism, and it is quite different from standard modern approaches. Frege polemicizes vigorously against his contemporaries, sketches the main features of his own radical alternative, and begins the formal development. This paper summarizes and expounds what he has to say, and goes on to reconstruct the most important steps (...)
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  34.  34
    Relations and Idealism: On Some Arguments of Hochberg Against Trope Nominalism.Peter Simons - 2014 - Dialectica 68 (2):305-315.
    In a recent article, Herbert Hochberg portrays my ontological position, that of a trope nominalist who is sceptical about relational tropes, as deviating into idealism. Since there are few philosophical views I find more repugnant than idealism, I must either resist the accusation or recant. I choose to resist, by showing how relational tropes are not needed as truth-makers for a wide range of truths, and raising the real possibility that they may not be needed at all, without lapsing into (...)
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  35.  73
    How to Exist at a Time When You Have No Temporal Parts.Peter Simons - 2000 - The Monist 83 (3):419-436.
  36.  13
    I–Peter Simons.Peter Simons - 2000 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 74 (1):59-75.
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  37. Ramsey, Particulars, and Universals.Peter Simons - 1991 - Theoria 57 (3):150-161.
    My subject is the arguments brought by Ramsey in his paper “ Universals ” ’ against the generally held distinction between particulars and universals. This paper is provocative, suggestive, and radical, and it is humbling to reflect that its author was just 22 years old when it was published in Mind. As so often with Ramsey, the paper is superficially very easy to follow and hardly requires any introduction other than the imperative, “Read it through”, but underneath the surface are (...)
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  38.  53
    Vague Kinds and Biological Nominalism.Peter Simons - 2013 - Metaphysica 14 (2):275-282.
    Among biological kinds, the most important are species. But species, however defined, have vague boundaries, both synchronically owing to hybridization and ongoing speciation, and diachronically owing to genetic drift and genealogical continuity despite speciation. It is argued that the solution to the problems of species and their vague boundaries is to adopt a thoroughgoing nominalism in regard to all biological taxa, from species to domains. The base entities are individual organisms: populations of these compose species and higher taxa. This accommodates (...)
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  39.  25
    Linguistic Complexity and Argumentative Unity: A Lvov-Warsaw School Supplement.Peter Simons - 2014 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 36 (1):101-119.
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  40.  83
    Review of M. Steiner, _The Applicability of Mathematics as a Philosophical Problem. [REVIEW]Peter Simons - 2001 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 52 (1):181-184.
  41.  29
    Husserl and Frege.Peter M. Simons & J. N. Mohanty - 1982 - Philosophical Quarterly 34 (136):420.
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  42.  46
    Why is There so Little Sense in Grundgesetze?Peter Simons - 1992 - Mind 101 (404):753-766.
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  43.  75
    The Logic of Location.Peter Simons - 2006 - Synthese 150 (3):443-458.
    I consider the idea of a propositional logic of location based on the following semantic framework, derived from ideas of Prior. We have a collection L of locations and a collection S of statements such that a statement may be evaluated for truth at each location. Typically one and the same statement may be true at one location and false at another. Given this semantic framework we may proceed in two ways: introducing names for locations, predicates for the relations among (...)
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  44. Brentano's Mereology.Wilhelm Baumgartner & Peter Simons - 1994 - Axiomathes 5 (1):55-76.
  45.  1
    Continuants and Occurrents, I.Peter Simons - 2000 - Supplement to the Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 74 (1):59-75.
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  46.  46
    On Understanding Leśniewski.Peter M. Simons - 1982 - History and Philosophy of Logic 3 (2):165-191.
    This paper assesses those features of Lesniewski's Ontology which make it difficult to understand for logicians accustomed to more orthodox systems of logic. It is seen that certain general features of presentation and content can, by selective acceptance or modification, be accommodated with a fairly orthodox viewpoint. The chief difficulty lies in the interpretation of Le?niewski's names, and the constant ???. Four interpretations are suggested in turn: Le?niewski's names as monadic predicates; as class terms; as common nouns; and as empty, (...)
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  47.  5
    Herbert Spiegelberg, The Context of the Phenomenological Movement. [REVIEW]Peter M. Simons - 1984 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 44 (3):426-428.
  48. Wahrmacher.Kevin Mulligan, Peter Simons & Barry Smith - 1987 - In L. Bruno Puntel (ed.), Der Wahrheitsbegriff: Neue Explikationsversuche. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. pp. 210-255.
    German translation of Mulligan, Simons and Smith, "Truth-Makers" (1984) A realist theory of truth for a class of sentence holds that there are entities in virtue of which these sentences are true or false. We call such entities ‘truthmakers’ and contend that those for a wide range of sentences about the real world are moments (dependent particulars). Since moments are unfamiliar we provide a definition and a brief philosophical history, anchoring them in our ontology by showing that they are objects (...)
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  49.  56
    Token Resistance.Peter M. Simons - 1982 - Analysis 42 (4):195 - 203.
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  50.  81
    Brentano's Reform of Logic.Peter M. Simons - 1987 - Topoi 6 (1):25-38.
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