Results for 'PeterJ Schulz'

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  1.  29
    Toward the Subjectivity of the Human Person: Edith Stein's Contribution to the Theory of Identity.PeterJ Schulz - 2008 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 82 (1):161-176.
    Edith Stein’s work revolves around one central question, namely, the identity of the person. Discussions of this topic are already present in Stein’s dissertation. Iexamine her theory of identity, developed throughout her work and maturing in her magnum opus, Finite and Eternal Being, in three stages, each of which is historically relevant and original. First, Stein’s development of the question is examined phenomenologically, focusing on Stein’s early work. Second, I will show how Stein takes her early phenomenological positions concerning the (...)
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  2. Wirklichkeit Und Reflexion Walter Schulz Z. 60. Geburtstag.Walter Schulz & Helmut Fahrenbach - 1973
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  3. M. Puetz,(Hg.), Nietzsche in American Literature and Thought D. SCHULZ.D. Schulz - 1997 - Nietzsche-Studien 26:588-592.
     
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  4. System des Transzendentalen Idealismus, herausgegeben von Ruth-Eva Schulz.F. W. J. Schelling & Walter Schulz - 1959 - Les Etudes Philosophiques 14 (2):243-243.
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  5.  37
    Pragmatic Meaning and Non-Monotonic Reasoning: The Case of Exhaustive Interpretation.Katrin Schulz & Robert van Rooij - 2006 - Linguistics and Philosophy 29 (2):205 - 250.
    In this paper an approach to the exhaustive interpretation of answers is developed. It builds on a proposal brought forward by Groenendijk and Stokhof (1984). We will use the close connection between their approach and McCarthy's (1980, 1986) predicate circumscription and describe exhaustive interpretation as an instance of interpretation in minimal models, well-known from work on counterfactuals (see for instance Lewis (1973)). It is shown that by combining this approach with independent developments in semantics/pragmatics one can overcome certain limitations of (...)
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  6.  45
    Modalised Conditionals: A Response to Willer.Moritz Schulz - 2013 - Philosophical Studies 163 (3):673-682.
    A paper by Schulz (Philos Stud 149:367–386, 2010) describes how the suppositional view of indicative conditionals can be supplemented with a derived view of epistemic modals. In a recent criticism of this paper, Willer (Philos Stud 153:365–375, 2011) argues that the resulting account of conditionals and epistemic modals cannot do justice to the validity of certain inference patterns involving modalised conditionals. In the present response, I analyse Willer’s argument, identify an implicit presupposition which can plausibly be denied and show (...)
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  7.  1
    Einleitung: Condorcet und die Theorie der repräsentativen Demokratie.Daniel Schulz - 2010 - In Marquis de Condorcet (ed.), Freiheit, Revolution, Verfassung. Kleine Politische Schriften: Herausgegeben von Daniel Schulz. Akademie Verlag. pp. 11-50.
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  8.  52
    A Theory of Causal Learning in Children: Causal Maps and Bayes Nets.Alison Gopnik, Clark Glymour, David M. Sobel, Laura E. Schulz, Tamar Kushnir & David Danks - 2004 - Psychological Review 111 (1):3-32.
    We propose that children employ specialized cognitive systems that allow them to recover an accurate “causal map” of the world: an abstract, coherent, learned representation of the causal relations among events. This kind of knowledge can be perspicuously understood in terms of the formalism of directed graphical causal models, or “Bayes nets”. Children’s causal learning and inference may involve computations similar to those for learning causal Bayes nets and for predicting with them. Experimental results suggest that 2- to 4-year-old children (...)
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  9.  58
    Quinean Updates: In Defense of "Two Dogmas".Bryan Pickel & Moritz Schulz - 2018 - Journal of Philosophy 115 (2):57-91.
    Quine challenged traditional views of the a priori by appealing to two key premises: that any statement may be held true “come what may” and that no statement is immune to revision in light of new experience. Chalmers has recently developed a seemingly compelling response to each of these claims. The critique is particularly threatening because it seems to rest on the Bayesian premise that upon acquiring evidence E, a rational agent will update her credence in any statement S to (...)
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  10.  58
    Causal Learning: Psychology, Philosophy, and Computation.Alison Gopnik & Laura Schulz (eds.) - 2007 - Oxford University Press.
    Understanding causal structure is a central task of human cognition. Causal learning underpins the development of our concepts and categories, our intuitive theories, and our capacities for planning, imagination and inference. During the last few years, there has been an interdisciplinary revolution in our understanding of learning and reasoning: Researchers in philosophy, psychology, and computation have discovered new mechanisms for learning the causal structure of the world. This new work provides a rigorous, formal basis for theory theories of concepts and (...)
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  11.  17
    The Double-Edged Sword of Pedagogy: Instruction Limits Spontaneous Exploration and Discovery.Elizabeth Bonawitz, Patrick Shafto, Hyowon Gweon, Noah D. Goodman, Elizabeth Spelke & Laura Schulz - 2011 - Cognition 120 (3):322-330.
  12.  45
    Modus Ponens Under the Restrictor View.Moritz Schulz - forthcoming - Journal of Philosophical Logic:1-28.
    There is a renewed debate about modus ponens. Strikingly, the recent counterexamples in Cantwell, Dreier and MacFarlane and Kolodny are generated by restricted readings of the ‘if’-clause. Moreover, it can be argued on general grounds that the restrictor view of conditionals developed in Kratzer and Lewis leads to counterexamples to modus ponens. This paper provides a careful analysis of modus ponens within the framework of the restrictor view. Despite appearances to the contrary, there is a robust sense in which modus (...)
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  13.  22
    The Naïve Utility Calculus: Computational Principles Underlying Commonsense Psychology.Julian Jara-Ettinger, Hyowon Gweon, Laura E. Schulz & Joshua B. Tenenbaum - 2016 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 20 (8):589-604.
  14.  1
    Children’s Understanding of the Costs and Rewards Underlying Rational Action.Julian Jara-Ettinger, Hyowon Gweon, Joshua B. Tenenbaum & Laura E. Schulz - 2015 - Cognition 140:14-23.
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  15.  40
    Exhaustive Interpretation of Complex Sentences.Robert van Rooij & Katrin Schulz - 2004 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 13 (4):491-519.
    In terms of Groenendijk and Stokhofs (1984) formalization of exhaustive interpretation, many conversational implicatures can be accounted for. In this paper we justify and generalize this approach. Our justification proceeds by relating their account via Halpern and Moses (1984) non-monotonic theory of only knowing to the Gricean maxims of Quality and the first sub-maxim of Quantity. The approach of Groenendijk and Stokhof (1984) is generalized such that it can also account for implicatures that are triggered in subclauses not entailed by (...)
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  16.  7
    A Life-Span Theory of Control.Jutta Heckhausen & Richard Schulz - 1995 - Psychological Review 102 (2):284-304.
  17.  9
    Going Beyond the Evidence: Abstract Laws and Preschoolers’ Responses to Anomalous Data.Laura E. Schulz, Noah D. Goodman, Joshua B. Tenenbaum & Adrianna C. Jenkins - 2008 - Cognition 109 (2):211-223.
  18.  11
    Causal Learning Mechanisms in Very Young Children: Two-, Three-, and Four-Year-Olds Infer Causal Relations From Patterns of Variation and Covariation.Clark Glymour, Alison Gopnik, David M. Sobel & Laura E. Schulz - unknown
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  19.  12
    Just Do It? Investigating the Gap Between Prediction and Action in Toddlers’ Causal Inferences.Elizabeth Baraff Bonawitz, Darlene Ferranti, Rebecca Saxe, Alison Gopnik, Andrew N. Meltzoff, James Woodward & Laura E. Schulz - 2010 - Cognition 115 (1):104-117.
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  20.  26
    Counterfactuals and Arbitrariness.Moritz Schulz - 2014 - Mind 123 (492):1021-1055.
    The pattern of credences we are inclined to assign to counterfactuals challenges standard accounts of counterfactuals. In response to this problem, the paper develops a semantics of counterfactuals in terms of the epsilon-operator. The proposed semantics stays close to the standard account: the epsilon-operator substitutes the universal quantifier present in standard semantics by arbitrarily binding the open world-variable. Various applications of the suggested semantics are explored including, in particular, an explanation of how the puzzling credences in counterfactuals come about.
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  21.  52
    The Origins of Inquiry: Inductive Inference and Exploration in Early Childhood.Laura Schulz - 2012 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 16 (7):382-389.
  22.  4
    Where Science Starts: Spontaneous Experiments in Preschoolers’ Exploratory Play.Claire Cook, Noah D. Goodman & Laura E. Schulz - 2011 - Cognition 120 (3):341-349.
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  23. Sober & Wilson's Evolutionary Arguments for Psychological Altruism: A Reassessment.Armin W. Schulz - 2011 - Biology and Philosophy 26 (2):251-260.
    In their book Unto Others, Sober and Wilson argue that various evolutionary considerations (based on the logic of natural selection) lend support to the truth of psychological altruism. However, recently, Stephen Stich has raised a number of challenges to their reasoning: in particular, he claims that three out of the four evolutionary arguments they give are internally unconvincing, and that the one that is initially plausible fails to take into account recent findings from cognitive science and thus leaves open a (...)
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  24. Grounding Mental Causation.Thomas Kroedel & Moritz Schulz - 2016 - Synthese 193 (6):1909-1923.
    This paper argues that the exclusion problem for mental causation can be solved by a variant of non-reductive physicalism that takes the mental not merely to supervene on, but to be grounded in, the physical. A grounding relation between events can be used to establish a principle that links the causal relations of grounded events to those of grounding events. Given this principle, mental events and their physical grounds either do not count as overdetermining physical effects, or they do so (...)
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  25.  24
    Vantagens e limitações das ontologias formais na área biomédica.Stefan Schulz, Holger Stenzhorn, Martin Boeker & Barry Smith - 2009 - RECIIS: Revista Electronica de Comunicacao Informacao, Inovacao Em Saude 3 (1).
    Propomos uma tipologia dos artefatos de representação para as áreas de saúde e ciências biológicas, e a associação dessa tipologia com diferentes tipos de ontologia formal e lógica, chegando a conclusões quanto aos pontos fortes e limitações da ontologia de diferentes tipos de recursos lógicos, enquanto mantemos o foco na lógica descritiva. Consideramos quatro tipos de representação de área: (i) representação léxico-semântica, (ii) representação de tipos de entidades, (iii) representação de conhecimento prévio, e (iv) representação de indivíduos. Defendemos uma clara (...)
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  26.  19
    The Adaptive Importance of Cognitive Efficiency: An Alternative Theory of Why We Have Beliefs and Desires.Armin Schulz - 2011 - Biology and Philosophy 26 (1):31-50.
    Finding out why we have beliefs and desires is important for a thorough understanding of the nature of our minds (and those of other animals). It is therefore unsurprising that several accounts have been presented that are meant to answer this question. At least in the philosophical literature, the most widely accepted of these are due to Kim Sterelny and Peter Godfrey-Smith, who argue that beliefs and desires evolved due to their enabling us to be behaviourally flexible in a way (...)
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  27.  20
    Gigerenzer’s Evolutionary Arguments Against Rational Choice Theory: An Assessment.Armin W. Schulz - 2011 - Philosophy of Science 78 (5):1272-1282.
  28.  77
    Beyond the Hype.A. W. Schulz - 2013 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 43 (1):46-72.
  29.  72
    The Dynamics of Indexical Belief.Moritz Schulz - 2010 - Erkenntnis 72 (3):337 - 351.
    Indexical beliefs pose a special problem for standard theories of Bayesian updating. Sometimes we are uncertain about our location in time and space. How are we to update our beliefs in situations like these? In a stepwise fashion, I develop a constraint on the dynamics of indexical belief. As an application, the suggested constraint is brought to bear on the Sleeping Beauty problem.
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  30.  1
    The Relation Between Essentialist Beliefs and Evolutionary Reasoning.Andrew Shtulman & Laura Schulz - 2008 - Cognitive Science 32 (6):1049-1062.
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  31.  37
    The Benefits of Rule Following: A New Account of the Evolution of Desires.Armin Schulz - unknown
    A key component of much current research in behavioral ecology, cognitive science, and economics is a model of the mind at least partly based on beliefs and desires. However, despite this prevalence, there are still many open questions concerning both the structure and the applicability of this model. This is especially so when it comes to its ‘desire’ part: in particular, it is not yet entirely clear when and why we should expect organisms to be desire-based—understood so as to imply (...)
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  32.  35
    Decisions and Higher‐Order Knowledge.Moritz Schulz - 2017 - Noûs 51 (3):463-483.
    A knowledge-based decision theory faces what has been called the prodigality problem : given that many propositions are assigned probability 1, agents will be inclined to risk everything when betting on propositions which are known. In order to undo probability 1 assignments in high risk situations, the paper develops a theory which systematically connects higher level goods with higher-order knowledge.
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  33. Exhaustive Interpretation of Complex Sentences.Robert Rooij & Katrin Schulz - 2004 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 13 (4):491-519.
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  34.  17
    Enhanced Cardiac Perception Is Associated With Increased Susceptibility to Framing Effects.Stefan Sütterlin, Stefan M. Schulz, Theresa Stumpf, Paul Pauli & Claus Vögele - 2013 - Cognitive Science 37 (5):922-935.
    Previous studies suggest in line with dual process models that interoceptive skills affect controlled decisions via automatic or implicit processing. The “framing effect” is considered to capture implicit effects of task-irrelevant emotional stimuli on decision-making. We hypothesized that cardiac awareness, as a measure of interoceptive skills, is positively associated with susceptibility to the framing effect. Forty volunteers performed a risky-choice framing task in which the effect of loss versus gain frames on decisions based on identical information was assessed. The results (...)
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  35.  50
    A Pragmatic Solution for the Paradox of Free Choice Permission.Katrin Schulz - 2005 - Synthese 147 (2):343-377.
    In this paper, a pragmatic approach to the phenomenon of free choice permission is proposed. Free choice permission is explained as due to taking the speaker (i) to obey certain Gricean maxims of conversation and (ii) to be competent on the deontic options, i.e. to know the valid obligations and permissions. The approach differs from other pragmatic approaches to free choice permission in giving a formally precise description of the class of inferences that can be derived based on these two (...)
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  36. Letters Pro and Con.Lincoln Rothschild, Helmut Hungerland, D. Zwemmer & Juergen Schulz - 1963 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 22 (1):71-73.
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  37.  78
    “If You'd Wiggled A, Then B Would've Changed”.Katrin Schulz - 2011 - Synthese 179 (2):239-251.
    This paper deals with the truth conditions of conditional sentences. It focuses on a particular class of problematic examples for semantic theories for these sentences. I will argue that the examples show the need to refer to dynamic, in particular causal laws in an approach to their truth conditions. More particularly, I will claim that we need a causal notion of consequence. The proposal subsequently made uses a representation of causal dependencies as proposed in Pearl (2000) to formalize a causal (...)
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  38.  15
    Inferring Hidden Causal Structure.Tamar Kushnir, Alison Gopnik, Chris Lucas & Laura Schulz - 2010 - Cognitive Science 34 (1):148-160.
    We used a new method to assess how people can infer unobserved causal structure from patterns of observed events. Participants were taught to draw causal graphs, and then shown a pattern of associations and interventions on a novel causal system. Given minimal training and no feedback, participants in Experiment 1 used causal graph notation to spontaneously draw structures containing one observed cause, one unobserved common cause, and two unobserved independent causes, depending on the pattern of associations and interventions they saw. (...)
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  39.  63
    Risky Business.Armin W. Schulz - 2008 - Journal of Philosophy 105 (3):156-165.
  40.  5
    Interoception and Stress.André Schulz - forthcoming - Frontiers in Psychology.
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  41.  6
    Sins of Omission: Children Selectively Explore When Teachers Are Under-Informative.Hyowon Gweon, Hannah Pelton, Jaclyn A. Konopka & Laura E. Schulz - 2014 - Cognition 132 (3):335-341.
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  42.  65
    Simulation, Simplicity, and Selection: An Evolutionary Perspective on High-Level Mindreading. [REVIEW]Armin W. Schulz - 2011 - Philosophical Studies 152 (2):271 - 285.
    In this paper, I argue that a natural selection-based perspective gives reasons for thinking that the core of the ability to mindread cognitively complex mental states is subserved by a simulationist process—that is, that it relies on nonspecialised mechanisms in the attributer's cognitive architecture whose primary function is the generation of her own decisions and inferences. In more detail, I try to establish three conclusions. First, I try to make clearer what the dispute between simulationist and non-simulationist theories of mindreading (...)
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  43. A Motivational Theory of Life-Span Development.Jutta Heckhausen, Carsten Wrosch & Richard Schulz - 2010 - Psychological Review 117 (1):32-60.
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  44.  37
    Overextension: The Extended Mind and Arguments From Evolutionary Biology. [REVIEW]Armin W. Schulz - 2013 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 3 (2):241-255.
    I critically assess two widely cited evolutionary biological arguments for two versions of the ‘Extended Mind Thesis’ (EMT): namely, an argument appealing to Dawkins’s ‘Extended Phenotype Thesis’ (EPT) and an argument appealing to ‘Developmental Systems Theory’ (DST). Specifically, I argue that, firstly, appealing to the EPT is not useful for supporting the EMT (in either version), as it is structured and motivated too differently from the latter to be able to corroborate or elucidate it. Secondly, I extend and defend Rupert’s (...)
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  45. Data-Mining Probabilists or Experimental Determinists.Thomas Richardson, Laura Schulz & Alison Gopnik - 2007 - In Alison Gopnik & Laura Schulz (eds.), Causal Learning: Psychology, Philosophy, and Computation. Oxford University Press. pp. 208--230.
  46.  4
    Pragmatic Meaning and Non-Monotonic Reasoning: The Case of Exhaustive Interpretation.Katrin Schulz & Robert Rooij - 2006 - Linguistics and Philosophy 29 (2):205-250.
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  47.  22
    Clinical Ontologies Interfacing the Real World.Stefan Schulz, Holger Stenzhorn, Martin Boeker, Rüdiger Klar & Barry Smith - 2007 - In Third International Conference on Semantic Technologies (i-semantics 2007), Graz, Austria. Graz: pp. 356-363..
    The desideratum of semantic interoperability has been intensively discussed in medical informatics circles in recent years. Originally, experts assumed that this issue could be sufficiently addressed by insisting simply on the application of shared clinical terminologies or clinical information models. However, the use of the term ‘ontology’ has been steadily increasing more recently. We discuss criteria for distinguishing clinical ontologies from clinical terminologies and information models. Then, we briefly present the role clinical ontologies play in two multicentric research projects. Finally, (...)
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  48.  9
    Altruism, Egoism, or Neither: A Cognitive-Efficiency-Based Evolutionary Biological Perspective on Helping Behavior.Armin W. Schulz - forthcoming - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences.
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  49.  6
    The Benefits of Rule Following: A New Account of the Evolution of Desires.Armin W. Schulz - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (4):595-603.
    A key component of much current research in behavioral ecology, cognitive science, and economics is a model of the mind at least partly based on beliefs and desires. However, despite this prevalence, there are still many open questions concerning both the structure and the applicability of this model. This is especially so when it comes to its ‘desire’ part: in particular, it is not yet entirely clear when and why we should expect organisms to be desire-based—understood so as to imply (...)
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  50. Learning From Doing: Intervention and Causal Inference.Laura Schulz, Tamar Kushnir & Alison Gopnik - 2007 - In Alison Gopnik & Laura Schulz (eds.), Causal Learning: Psychology, Philosophy, and Computation. Oxford University Press. pp. 67--85.
     
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