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Petter Sandstad
University of Reading
  1. Aristotle on Exceptions to Essences in Biology.Petter Sandstad - 2016 - In Benedikt Strobel & Georg Wöhrle (eds.), Angewandte Epistemologie in antiker Philosophie und Wissenschaft, AKAN-Einzelschriften 11. Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier. pp. 69-92.
    Exceptions are often cited as a counterargument against formal causation. Against this I argue that Aristotle explicitly allows for exceptions to essences in his biological writings, and that he has a means of explaining them through formal causation – though this means that he has to slightly elaborate on his general case theory from the Posterior Analytics, by supplementing it with a special case application in the biological writings. Specifically for Aristotle an essential predication need not be a universal predication. (...)
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  2. The Formal Cause in the Posterior Analytics.Petter Sandstad - 2016 - Filozofski Vestnik 37 (3):7-26.
    I argue that Aristotle’s account of scientific demonstrations in the Posterior Analytics is centred upon formal causation, understood as a demonstration in terms of essence (and as innocent of the distinction between form and matter). While Aristotle says that all four causes can be signified by the middle term in a demonstrative syllogism, and he discusses at some length efficient causation, much of Aristotle’s discussion is foremost concerned with the formal cause. Further, I show that Aristotle had very detailed procedures (...)
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  3.  34
    Heuristic Analogies in Aristotle's Posterior Analytics, Semantic Stretch of Terms, and Soundness or Fallaciousness of Analogies.Petter Sandstad - 2017 - Australasian Philosophical Review 1 (3):291-297.
    I present three critical points against G.E.R. Lloyd's ‘The Fortunes of Analogy’. First, I argue that Lloyd unduly criticises Aristotle's view of analogies. Second, I argue that Lloyd needs to discuss the means of limiting the semantic stretch of terms, for instance through the distinction between fiat and bona fide boundaries. Third, I point out some terminological issues in Lloyd's account, especially concerning the applicability of validity, soundness, and fallaciousness to analogies.
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  4.  17
    The Logical Structure of Socrates’ Expert-Analogies.Petter Sandstad - 2017 - In Alessandro Stavru & Christopher Moore (eds.), Socrates and the Socratic Dialogue. Leiden: Brill. pp. 319-335.
    Socrates’ expert-analogies is frequent both in Plato’s dialogues and in the Socratic writings of Xenophon, and is also ascribed to Socrates by Aristotle and Aeschines. Socrates makes an analogy from a non-controversial expert (or an expertise) like the cobbler or ship-captain, to another (often controversial) expert (or expertise) like the statesman. This paper defends an interpretation of the expert-analogy as valid deductions. It infers from one type of expert (such as the ship-captain) to another type of expert (such as the (...)
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  5. Essentiality Without Necessity.Petter Sandstad - 2016 - Kriterion - Journal of Philosophy 30 (1):61-78.
    It is widely accepted that if a property is essential then it is necessary. Against this I present numerous counterexamples from biology and chemistry, which fall into two groups: (I) A property is essential to a genus or species, yet some instances of this genus or species do not have this essential property. (II) A property is essential to a genus, yet some species of this genus do not have this essential property. I discuss and reject four minor objections. Then (...)
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  6. Michael T. Ferejohn, Formal Causes: Definition, Explanation, and Primacy In: Socratic and Aristotelian Thought. [REVIEW]Petter Sandstad - 2016 - History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis 19:235-241.
    I review Michael T. Ferejohn's "Formal Causes: Definition, Explanation, and Primacy in Socratic and Aristotelian Thought".
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  7. Stefan Roski, Bolzano’s Conception of Grounding. [REVIEW]Petter Sandstad - 2017 - Phenomenological Reviews.
    I review Stefan Roski's "Bolzano's Conception of Grounding".
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  8. David Bronstein, Aristotle on Knowledge and Learning: The Posterior Analytics. [REVIEW]Petter Sandstad - 2017 - Bryn Mawr Classical Review:2017.01.22.
    I review David Bronstein's "Aristotle on Knowledge and Learning: The Posterior Analytics".
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  9. Sandra Lapointe (Ed.) Themes From Ontology, Mind, and Logic: Present and Past – Essays in Honour of Peter Simons. [REVIEW]Petter Sandstad - 2017 - History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis 20 (1):218-226.
    I review Sandra Lapointe (ed.) "Themes from Ontology, Mind, and Logic: Present and Past – Essays in Honour of Peter Simons".
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  10.  29
    Preface.Ludger Jansen & Petter Sandstad - 2020 - History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis 23 (2):289-290.
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  11.  69
    Vedrørende Husserls lære om helheter og deler.Petter Sandstad - 2018 - Norsk Filosofisk Tidsskrift 53 (2-03):150-164.
    A Norwegian translation is here offered of Eugenie Ginsberg’s paper «Zur Husserlschen Lehre von den Ganzen und den Teilen» (in Archiv für systematische Philosophie und Soziologie 32, 1929, 108–120). The paper discusses Husserl’s six theorems from Logical Investigations III, §14. Ginsberg provides new proofs for theorems 1 and 3, and also endorses theorem 5. In contrast, a counter example is given to theorems 2, 4, and 6: However, proofs are supplied for a modified version of these theorems. Furthermore, an additional (...)
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    Philosophy 101 in the Alexandrian School, Fifth Century Ad - (M.) Chase (Trans.) Ammonius: Interpretation of Porphyry's Introduction to Aristotle's Five Terms. Pp. VIII + 200. London and New York: Bloomsbury Academic, 2020. Cased, £85. Isbn: 978-1-350-08922-8. [REVIEW]Ludger Jansen & Petter Sandstad - 2020 - The Classical Review 70 (2):360-362.
  13.  20
    Neo-Aristotelian Perspectives on Formal Causation.Ludger Jansen & Petter Sandstad (eds.) - 2021 - Routledge.
    Introducing formal causation / Ludger Jansen and Petter Sandstad -- Form, intention, information : from scholastic logic to artificial intelligence / Gyula Klima -- Formal causation : accidental and substantial / David S. Oderberg -- A non-hylomorphic account of formal causation / Petter Sandstad and Ludger Jansen -- Formal causes for powers theorists / Giacomo Giannini and Stephen Mumford -- Away with dispositional essences in trope theory / Jani Hakkarainen and Markku Keinänen -- Functional powers / Michele Paolini Paoletti -- (...)
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