Results for 'Phenomena'

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  1.  5
    Sketching Biological Phenomena and Mechanisms.Sheredos Benjamin & Bechtel William - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (4):970-985.
    In many fields of biology, both the phenomena to be explained and the mechanisms proposed to explain them are commonly presented in diagrams. Our interest is in how scientists construct such diagrams. Researchers begin with evidence, typically developed experimentally and presented in data graphs. To arrive at a robust diagram of the phenomenon or the mechanism, they must integrate a variety of data to construct a single, coherent representation. This process often begins as the researchers create a first sketch, (...)
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  2. Data and Phenomena: A Restatement and Defense.James F. Woodward - 2011 - Synthese 182 (1):165-179.
    This paper provides a restatement and defense of the data/ phenomena distinction introduced by Jim Bogen and me several decades ago (e.g., Bogen and Woodward, The Philosophical Review, 303–352, 1988). Additional motivation for the distinction is introduced, ideas surrounding the distinction are clarified, and an attempt is made to respond to several criticisms.
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  3. From Data to Phenomena and Back Again: Computer-Simulated Signatures.Eran Tal - 2011 - Synthese 182 (1):117-129.
    This paper draws attention to an increasingly common method of using computer simulations to establish evidential standards in physics. By simulating an actual detection procedure on a computer, physicists produce patterns of data (‘signatures’) that are expected to be observed if a sought-after phenomenon is present. Claims to detect the phenomenon are evaluated by comparing such simulated signatures with actual data. Here I provide a justification for this practice by showing how computer simulations establish the reliability of detection procedures. I (...)
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  4. What Exactly is Stabilized When Phenomena Are Stabilized?Uljana Feest - 2011 - Synthese 182 (1):57-71.
    The last two decades have seen a rising interest in (a) the notion of a scientific phenomenon as distinct from theories and data, and (b) the intricacies of experimentally producing and stabilizing phenomena. This paper develops an analysis of the stabilization of phenomena that integrates two aspects that have largely been treated separately in the literature: one concerns the skills required for empirical work; the other concerns the strategies by which claims about phenomena are validated. I argue (...)
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  5. 'Saving the Phenomena' and Saving the Phenomena.Jim Bogen - 2011 - Synthese 182 (1):7-22.
    Empiricists claim that in accepting a scientific theory one should not commit oneself to claims about things that are not observable in the sense of registering on human perceptual systems (according to Van Fraassen’s constructive empiricism) or experimental equipment (according to what I call liberal empiricism ). They also claim scientific theories should be accepted or rejected on the basis of how well they save the phenomena in the sense delivering unified descriptions of natural regularities among things that meet (...)
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  6. What Are the Phenomena of Physics?Brigitte Falkenburg - 2011 - Synthese 182 (1):149-163.
    Depending on different positions in the debate on scientific realism, there are various accounts of the phenomena of physics. For scientific realists like Bogen and Woodward, phenomena are matters of fact in nature, i.e., the effects explained and predicted by physical theories. For empiricists like van Fraassen, the phenomena of physics are the appearances observed or perceived by sensory experience. Constructivists, however, regard the phenomena of physics as artificial structures generated by experimental and mathematical methods. My (...)
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  7. Symbolization (Part 2) as the Purity of All Phenomena.Rudolph Bauer - 2012 - Transmission 3.
    This paper focuses on symbolization as purity and translucidity of phenomena.
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  8.  33
    Leibniz on the Nature of Phenomena.Stephen Puryear - 2016 - In Wenchao Li (ed.), "Für Unser Glück oder das Glück Anderer": Vortrage des X. Internationalen Leibniz-Kongresses, vol. 5. Georg Olms. pp. 169-177.
    Leibniz holds that bodies are phenomena, and that phenomena have their being in perceiving substances. After summarizing the evidence for ascribing this mentalistic conception of phenomenon to Leibniz, I argue that this conception coheres with three of his other doctrines of body: (1) that bodies presuppose unities or simple substances; (2) that bodies are aggregates of such substances; and (3) that bodies derive or borrow their reality from their simple constituents.
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  9.  24
    Reconstituting Phenomena.Maria Kronfeldner - 2015 - In Mäki U., Votsis S., Ruphy S. & Schurz G. (eds.), Recent developments in the philosophy of science. Springer. pp. 169-182.
    In the face of causal complexity, scientists reconstitute phenomena in order to arrive at a more simplified and partial picture that ignores most of the 'bigger picture.' This paper will distinguish between two modes of reconstituting phenomena: one moving down to a level of greater decomposition (toward organizational parts of the original phenomenon), and one moving up to a level of greater abstraction (toward different differences regarding the phenomenon). The first aim of the paper is to illustrate that (...)
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  10.  91
    Evidence of Macroscopic Quantum Phenomena and Conscious Reality Selection.Cynthia Sue Larson - 2014 - Cosmos and History 10 (1):34-47.
    The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of emergent examples of macroscopic quantum phenomena. While quantum theory asserts that such quantum behaviors as superposition, entanglement, and coherence are possible for all objects, assumptions that quantum processes operate exclusively within the quantum realm have contributed to on-going bias toward presumed primacy of classical physics in the macroscopic realm. Non-trivial quantum macroscopic effects are now recognized in the fields of biology, quantum physics, quantum computing, quantum astronomy, and neuroscience, (...)
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  11.  96
    From Data to Phenomena: A Kantian Stance.Michela Massimi - 2011 - Synthese 182 (1):101-116.
    This paper investigates some metaphysical and epistemological assumptions behind Bogen and Woodward’s data-to-phenomena inferences. I raise a series of points and suggest an alternative possible Kantian stance about data-to-phenomena inferences. I clarify the nature of the suggested Kantian stance by contrasting it with McAllister’s view about phenomena as patterns in data sets.
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  12. Bogen and Woodward's Data-Phenomena Distinction, Forms of Theory-Ladenness, and the Reliability of Data.Samuel Schindler - 2011 - Synthese 182 (1):39-55.
    Some twenty years ago, Bogen and Woodward challenged one of the fundamental assumptions of the received view, namely the theory-observation dichotomy and argued for the introduction of the further category of scientific phenomena. The latter, Bogen and Woodward stressed, are usually unobservable and inferred from what is indeed observable, namely scientific data. Crucially, Bogen and Woodward claimed that theories predict and explain phenomena, but not data. But then, of course, the thesis of theory-ladenness, which has it that our (...)
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  13.  25
    Awareness, Mental Phenomena, and Consciousness: A Synthesis of Dennett and Rosenthal.Teed Rockwell - 1996 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 3 (5-6):463-76.
    Both Dennett and his critics believe that the invalidity of the famed Stalinist-Orwellian distinction is a consequence of his multiple drafts model of consciousness . This is not so obvious, however, once we recognize that the question ‘how do you get experience out of meat?’ actually fragments into at least three different questions. How do we get: a unified sense of self, awareness and mental phenomena? In the latter chapters of Consciousness Explained, Dennett shows how MDM has a radical (...)
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  14.  7
    Spontaneous Anomalystic Phenomena, Pragmatic Information and Formal Representations of Uncertainty.Stefano Siccardi - 2011 - Axiomathes 21 (2):287-301.
    I discuss the application of the Model of Pragmatic Information to the study of spontaneous anomalystic mental phenomena like telepathy, precognition, etc. In these phenomena the most important effects are related to anomalous information gain by the subjects. I consider the basic ideas of the Model, as they have been applied to experimental anomalystic phenomena and to spontaneous phenomena that have strong physical effects, like poltergeist cases, highlighting analogies and differences. Moreover, I point out that in (...)
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  15. Multinomial Distribution, Quantum Statistics and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Like Phenomena.Ratan Dasgupta & Sisir Roy - 2008 - Foundations of Physics 38 (4):384-394.
    Bose-Einstein statistics may be characterized in terms of multinomial distribution. From this characterization, an information theoretic analysis is made for Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen like situation; using Shannon’s measure of entropy.
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  16.  9
    The Phenomenology of Life Phenomena – in a Nursing Context.Charlotte Delmar - 2006 - Nursing Philosophy 7 (4):235-246.
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  17. Phenomena and Representation.Norton Nelkin - 1994 - Philosophy of Science 45 (2):527-47.
  18. Consciousness: Explaining the Phenomena.Peter Carruthers - 2001 - In D. Walsh (ed.), Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement. Cambridge University Press. pp. 61-85.
    Can phenomenal consciousness be given a reductive natural explanation? Many people argue not. They claim that there is an.
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  19.  27
    Fantastic Phenomena.Mark Sentesy & Jean-Luc Nancy - 2011 - Research in Phenomenology 41 (2):228-237.
    The subject of this essay is the thing itself, examined through the fantastic character of phenomenality, that is, through the coming into being or opening up of the world. The world of appearance emerges from a simple, absolute nothing: there is nothing behind or before the world. There are right away many things, a world: one thing implies others, since for one to be it must distinguish itself from another. Thus, if `to be' means `to distinguish,' Being begins with the (...)
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  20.  8
    Chromatic Phenomena Produced by Intermittent Stimulation of the Retina.J. W. Gebhard - 1943 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 33 (5):387.
  21.  6
    Replication Report: Two- and Three-Choice Verbal-Conditioning Phenomena.John W. Cotton & Allan Rechtschaffen - 1958 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 56 (1):96.
  22.  4
    Masking Phenomena and Time Intensity Reciprocity for Form.Donald L. Schurman, Charles W. Eriksen & John Rohrbaugh - 1968 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 78 (2p1):310.
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  23.  3
    Effect of Pitch of Tone-Stimuli Upon Body Resistance and Cardio-Vascular Phenomena.L. E. Misbach - 1932 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 15 (2):167.
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  24.  3
    The Reflection of Negative Social Phenomena in Contemporary Opera Practice.Michaela Mojžišová - 2013 - Human Affairs 23 (1):66-74.
    There are two approaches that dominate contemporary opera performances. The first may be characterised as producing a subtle, aesthetic and stylistic means of expression. The second runs up visual, interpretation and content means to their maximum expressivity and the audience is exposed to violence, sex and experience disgust. This paper analyses specific productions by renowned European theatre and opera directors, in order to shed light on the way in which opera directors cope with the threat of terrorism, sexual violence, and (...)
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  25.  2
    Galvanic Phenomena of the Skin.L. A. Jeffress - 1928 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 11 (2):130.
  26.  2
    Massing and Spacing Phenomena as Functions of Prolonged and Extended Practice.Edward A. Bilodeau - 1952 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 44 (2):108.
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  27. Building Integrated Explanatory Models of Complex Biological Phenomena: From Mill’s Methods to a Causal Mosaic.Alan Love - 2017 - In M. Massimi & Jan-Willem Romeijn (eds.), EPSA15 Selected Papers: European Studies in Philosophy of Science, Vol. 5. Dordrecht: Springer. pp. 221-232.
    This edited collection showcases some of the best recent research in the philosophy of science. It comprises of thematically arranged papers presented at the 5th conference of the European Philosophy of Science Association (EPSA15), covering a broad variety of topics within general philosophy of science, and philosophical issues pertaining to specific sciences. The collection will appeal to researchers with an interest in the philosophical underpinnings of their own discipline, and to philosophers who wish to study the latest work on the (...)
     
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  28. A Unified Explanation of Quantum Phenomena? The Case for the Peer‐to‐Peer Simulation Hypothesis as an Interdisciplinary Research Program.Marcus Arvan - 2014 - Philosophical Forum 45 (4):433-446.
    In my 2013 article, “A New Theory of Free Will”, I argued that several serious hypotheses in philosophy and modern physics jointly entail that our reality is structurally identical to a peer-to-peer (P2P) networked computer simulation. The present paper outlines how quantum phenomena emerge naturally from the computational structure of a P2P simulation. §1 explains the P2P Hypothesis. §2 then sketches how the structure of any P2P simulation realizes quantum superposition and wave-function collapse (§2.1.), quantum indeterminacy (§2.2.), wave-particle duality (...)
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  29.  47
    Experiments Versus Models: New Phenomena, Inference and Surprise.Mary S. Morgan - 2005 - Journal of Economic Methodology 12 (2):317-329.
    A comparison of models and experiments supports the argument that although both function as mediators and can be understood to work in an experimental mode, experiments offer greater epistemic power than models as a means to investigate the economic world. This outcome rests on the distinction that whereas experiments are versions of the real world captured within an artificial laboratory environment, models are artificial worlds built to represent the real world. This difference in ontology has epistemic consequences: experiments have greater (...)
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  30.  90
    Cognitive Penetrability and High‐Level Properties in Perception: Unrelated Phenomena?Berit Brogaard & Bartek Chomanski - 2015 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 96 (4):469-486.
    There has been a recent surge in interest in two questions concerning the nature of perceptual experience; viz. the question of whether perceptual experience is sometimes cognitively penetrated and that of whether high-level properties are presented in perceptual experience. Only rarely have thinkers been concerned with the question of whether the two phenomena are interestingly related. Here we argue that the two phenomena are not related in any interesting way. We argue further that this lack of an interesting (...)
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  31. The Scientific Limits of Understanding the Relationship Between Complex Social Phenomena: The Case of Democracy and Inequality.Alexander Krauss - 2015 - Journal of Economic Methodology 23 (1):97-109.
    This paper outlines the methodological and empirical limitations of analysing the potential relationship between complex social phenomena such as democracy and inequality. It shows that the means to assess how they may be related is much more limited than recognised in the existing literature that is laden with contradictory hypotheses and findings. Better understanding our scientific limitations in studying this potential relationship is important for research and policy because many leading economists and other social scientists such as Acemoglu and (...)
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  32.  1
    Comment: Do Emotions Influence Action? – Of Course, They Are Hypo-Phenomena of Motivation.H. E. Gendolla Guido - 2017 - Emotion Review 9 (4):348-350.
    The target articles in this special section shed new light on the old question whether and how emotions influence action. However, what is missing is a straightforward motivational analysis—considering what we have learned from the science of explaining the “why” and “how” of behavior. I posit that emotions can influence the motivation process and thus action by fulfilling at least three functions: First, being grounded in needs, experienced emotions can function as strong need-like motivational states. Second, anticipated emotions can function (...)
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  33.  71
    Can Classical Structures Explain Quantum Phenomena?Alisa Bokulich - 2008 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 59 (2):217-235.
    In semiclassical mechanics one finds explanations of quantum phenomena that appeal to classical structures. These explanations are prima facie problematic insofar as the classical structures they appeal to do not exist. Here I defend the view that fictional structures can be genuinely explanatory by introducing a model-based account of scientific explanation. Applying this framework to the semiclassical phenomenon of wavefunction scarring, I argue that not only can the fictional classical trajectories explain certain aspects of this quantum phenomenon, but also (...)
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  34.  29
    The Phenomena of Inner Experience.C. Heavey & R. HuRlburt - 2008 - Consciousness and Cognition 17 (3):798-810.
    This study provides a survey of phenomena that present themselves during moments of naturally occurring inner experience. In our previous studies using Descriptive Experience Sampling we have discovered five frequently occurring phenomena—inner speech, inner seeing, unsymbolized thinking, feelings, and sensory awareness. Here we quantify the relative frequency of these phenomena. We used DES to describe 10 randomly identified moments of inner experience from each of 30 participants selected from a stratified sample of college students. We found that (...)
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  35. Multistable Phenomena: Changing Views in Perception.David A. Leopold & Nikos K. Logothetis - 1999 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 3 (7):254-264.
    Traditional explanations of multistable visual phenomena (e.g. ambiguous figures, perceptual rivalry) suggest that the basis for spontaneous reversals in perception lies in antagonistic connectivity within the visual system. In this review, we suggest an alternative, albeit speculative, explanation for visual multistability – that spontaneous alternations reflect responses to active, programmed events initiated by brain areas that integrate sensory and non-sensory information to coordinate a diversity of behaviors. Much evidence suggests that perceptual reversals are themselves more closely related to the (...)
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  36. Brentano's Classification of Mental Phenomena.Uriah Kriegel - 2017 - In U. Kriegel (ed.), Routledge Handbook of Franz Brentano and the Brentano School. London and New York: Routledge. pp. 97-102.
    In Chapter 3 of Book I of Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint, Brentano articulates what he takes to be the four most basic and central tasks of psychology. One of them is to discover the ‘fundamental classification’ of mental phenomena. Brentano attends to this task in Chapters 5-9 of Book II of the Psychology, reprinted (with appendices) in 1911 as a standalone book (Brentano 1911a). The classification is further developed in an essay entitled “A Survey of So-Called Sensory and (...)
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  37.  51
    On the Quantum Mechanics of Consciousness, with Application to Anomalous Phenomena.Robert G. Jahn & Brenda J. Dunne - 1986 - Foundations of Physics 16 (8):721-772.
    Theoretical explication of a growing body of empirical data on consciousness-related anomalous phenomena is unlikely to be achieved in terms of known physical processes. Rather, it will first be necessary to formulate the basic role of consciousness in the definition of reality before such anomalous experience can adequately be represented. This paper takes the position that reality is constituted only in the interaction of consciousness with its environment, and therefore that any scheme of conceptual organization developed to represent that (...)
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  38. Speech and Phenomena, and Other Essays on Husserl's Theory of Signs.Jacques Derrida - 1973 - Evanston: Northwestern University Press.
  39.  34
    Causal Systems Categories: Differences in Novice and Expert Categorization of Causal Phenomena.Benjamin M. Rottman, Dedre Gentner & Micah B. Goldwater - 2012 - Cognitive Science 36 (5):919-932.
    We investigated the understanding of causal systems categories—categories defined by common causal structure rather than by common domain content—among college students. We asked students who were either novices or experts in the physical sciences to sort descriptions of real-world phenomena that varied in their causal structure (e.g., negative feedback vs. causal chain) and in their content domain (e.g., economics vs. biology). Our hypothesis was that there would be a shift from domain-based sorting to causal sorting with increasing expertise in (...)
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  40. The Metaphysics of Constitutive Mechanistic Phenomena.Marie I. Kaiser & Beate Krickel - 2016 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science:axv058.
    The central aim of this article is to specify the ontological nature of constitutive mechanistic phenomena. After identifying three criteria of adequacy that any plausible approach to constitutive mechanistic phenomena must satisfy, we present four different suggestions, found in the mechanistic literature, of what mechanistic phenomena might be. We argue that none of these suggestions meets the criteria of adequacy. According to our analysis, constitutive mechanistic phenomena are best understood as what we will call ‘object-involving occurrents’. (...)
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  41.  69
    The Phenomena of Homology.Paul E. Griffiths - 2007 - Biology and Philosophy 22 (5):643-658.
    Philosophical discussions of biological classification have failed to recognise the central role of homology in the classification of biological parts and processes. One reason for this is a misunderstanding of the relationship between judgments of homology and the core explanatory theories of biology. The textbook characterisation of homology as identity by descent is commonly regarded as a definition. I suggest instead that it is one of several attempts to explain the phenomena of homology. Twenty years ago the ‘new experimentalist’ (...)
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  42.  69
    Moorean Phenomena in Epistemic Logic.Wesley H. Holliday & Thomas F. Icard - 2010 - In Lev Beklemishev, Valentin Goranko & Valentin B. Shehtman (eds.), Advances in Modal Logic 8. College Publications.
    A well-known open problem in epistemic logic is to give a syntactic characterization of the successful formulas. Semantically, a formula is successful if and only if for any pointed model where it is true, it remains true after deleting all points where the formula was false. The classic example of a formula that is not successful in this sense is the “Moore sentence” p ∧ ¬BOXp, read as “p is true but you do not know p.” Not only is the (...)
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  43. Phenomena of Illusory Form: Can We Bridge the Gap Between Levels of Explanation?Lothar Spillmann & Birgitta Dresp - 1995 - Perception 24:1333-1364.
    The major theoretical framework relative to the perception of illusory figures is reviewed and discussed in the attempt to provide a unifying explanatory account for these phenomena.
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  44.  42
    Leibnizian Bodies: Phenomena, Aggregates of Monads, or Both?Stephen Puryear - 2016 - The Leibniz Review 26:99-127.
    I propose a straightforward reconciliation of Leibniz’s conception of bodies as aggregates of simple substances (i.e., monads) with his doctrine that bodies are the phenomena of perceivers, without in the process saddling him with any equivocations. The reconciliation relies on the familiar idea that in Leibniz’s idiolect, an aggregate of Fs is that which immediately presupposes those Fs, or in other words, has those Fs as immediate requisites. But I take this idea in a new direction. I argue that (...)
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  45.  51
    Deflationism and the Gödel Phenomena.Neil Tennant - 2002 - Mind 111 (443):551-582.
    consistent and sufficiently strong system of first-order formal arithmetic fails to decide some independent Gödel sentence. We examine consistent first-order extensions of such systems. Our purpose is to discover what is minimally required by way of such extension in order to be able to prove the Gödel sentence in a non-trivial fashion. The extended methods of formal proof must capture the essentials of the so-called ‘semantical argument’ for the truth of the Gödel sentence. We are concerned to show that the (...)
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  46.  81
    Saving Unobservable Phenomena.M. Massimi - 2007 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 58 (2):235-262.
    In this paper I argue-against van Fraassen's constructive empiricism-that the practice of saving phenomena is much broader than usually thought, and includes unobservable phenomena as well as observable ones. My argument turns on the distinction between data and phenomena: I discuss how unobservable phenomena manifest themselves in data models and how theoretical models able to save them are chosen. I present a paradigmatic case study taken from the history of particle physics to illustrate my argument. The (...)
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  47.  68
    Mechanistic Models of Population-Level Phenomena.John Matthewson & Brett Calcott - 2011 - Biology and Philosophy 26 (5):737-756.
    This paper is about mechanisms and models, and how they interact. In part, it is a response to recent discussion in philosophy of biology regarding whether natural selection is a mechanism. We suggest that this debate is indicative of a more general problem that occurs when scientists produce mechanistic models of populations and their behaviour. We can make sense of claims that there are mechanisms that drive population-level phenomena such as macroeconomics, natural selection, ecology, and epidemiology. But talk of (...)
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  48.  39
    In Excess: Studies of Saturated Phenomena.Jean-Luc Marion - 2002 - Fordham University Press.
    In the third book in the trilogy that includes Reduction and Givenness and Being Given. Marion renews his argument for a phenomenology of givenness, with penetrating analyses of the phenomena of event, idol, flesh, and icon. Turning explicitly to hermeneutical dimensions of the debate, Marion masterfully draws together issues emerging from his close reading of Descartes and Pascal, Husserl and Heidegger, Levinas and Henry. Concluding with a revised version of his response to Derrida, In the Name: How to Avoid (...)
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  49.  61
    Data, Phenomena, and Reliability.Jim Woodward - 2000 - Philosophy of Science 67 (3):179.
    This paper explores how data serve as evidence for phenomena. In contrast to standard philosophical models which invite us to think of evidential relationships as logical relationships, I argue that evidential relationships in the context of data-to-phenomena reasoning are empirical relationships that depend on holding the right sort of pattern of counterfactual dependence between the data and the conclusions investigators reach on the phenomena themselves.
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  50. Interpreting Excess: Jean-Luc Marion, Saturated Phenomena, and Hermeneutics.Shane Mackinlay - 2010 - Fordham University Press.
    Introduction -- Marion's claims -- The hermeneutic structure of phenomenality -- The theory of saturated phenomena -- Events -- Dazzling idols and paintings -- Flesh as absolute -- The face as irregardable icon -- Revelation : the phenomenon of God's appearing -- Conclusion: Revising the phenomenology of givenness.
     
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