Results for 'Philip James Nickel'

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  1. The Importance of Linkage Arguments for the Theory and Practice of Human Rigths. A Response to James Nickel.Pablo Gilabert - 2010 - Human Rights Quarterly 32 (2):425-438.
  2. Moral Testimony and its Authority.Philip Nickel - 2001 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 4 (3):253-266.
    A person sometimes forms moral beliefs by relying on another person''s moral testimony. In this paper I advance a cognitivist normative account of this phenomenon. I argue that for a person''s actions to be morally good, they must be based on a recognition of the moral reasons bearing on action. Morality requires people to act from an understanding of moral claims, and consequently to have an understanding of moral claims relevant to action. A person sometimes fails to meet this requirement (...)
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  3. Making Sense of Human Rights.James W. Nickel - 1987 - University of California Press.
  4.  96
    Voluntary Belief on a Reasonable Basis.Philip J. Nickel - 2010 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 81 (2):312-334.
    A person presented with adequate but not conclusive evidence for a proposition is in a position voluntarily to acquire a belief in that proposition, or to suspend judgment about it. The availability of doxastic options in such cases grounds a moderate form of doxastic voluntarism not based on practical motives, and therefore distinct from pragmatism. In such cases, belief-acquisition or suspension of judgment meets standard conditions on willing: it can express stable character traits of the agent, it can be responsive (...)
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  5. Trust in Technological Systems.Philip J. Nickel - 2013 - In M. J. de Vries, S. O. Hansson & A. W. M. Meijers (eds.), Norms in technology: Philosophy of Engineering and Technology, Vol. 9. Springer.
    Technology is a practically indispensible means for satisfying one’s basic interests in all central areas of human life including nutrition, habitation, health care, entertainment, transportation, and social interaction. It is impossible for any one person, even a well-trained scientist or engineer, to know enough about how technology works in these different areas to make a calculated choice about whether to rely on the vast majority of the technologies she/he in fact relies upon. Yet, there are substantial risks, uncertainties, and unforeseen (...)
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  6. The Ethics of Uncertainty for Data Subjects.Philip Nickel - 2019 - In Jenny Krutzinna & Luciano Floridi (eds.), The Ethics of Medical Data Donation. Springer Verlag. pp. 55-74.
    Modern health data practices come with many practical uncertainties. In this paper, I argue that data subjects’ trust in the institutions and organizations that control their data, and their ability to know their own moral obligations in relation to their data, are undermined by significant uncertainties regarding the what, how, and who of mass data collection and analysis. I conclude by considering how proposals for managing situations of high uncertainty might be applied to this problem. These emphasize increasing organizational flexibility, (...)
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  7.  68
    Trust in Medicine.Philip J. Nickel & Lily Frank - 2020 - In Judith Simon (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Trust and Philosophy.
    In this chapter, we consider ethical and philosophical aspects of trust in the practice of medicine. We focus on trust within the patient-physician relationship, trust and professionalism, and trust in Western (allopathic) institutions of medicine and medical research. Philosophical approaches to trust contain important insights into medicine as an ethical and social practice. In what follows we explain several philosophical approaches and discuss their strengths and weaknesses in this context. We also highlight some relevant empirical work in the section on (...)
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  8.  73
    Trust and Obligation-Ascription.Philip J. Nickel - 2007 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 10 (3):309-319.
    This paper defends the view that trust is a moral attitude, by putting forward the Obligation-Ascription Thesis: If E trusts F to do X, this implies that E ascribes an obligation to F to do X. I explicate the idea of obligation-ascription in terms of requirement and the appropriateness of blame. Then, drawing a distinction between attitude and ground, I argue that this account of the attitude of trust is compatible with the possibility of amoral trust, that is, trust held (...)
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  9.  25
    Equal Opportunity in a Pluralistic Society: JAMES W. NICKEL.James W. Nickel - 1987 - Social Philosophy and Policy 5 (1):104-119.
    The United States has never been culturally or religiously homogeneous, but its diversity has greatly increased over the last century. Although the U.S. was first a multicultural nation through conquest and enslavement, its present diversity is due equally to immigration. In this paper I try to explain the difference it makes for one area of thought and policy – equal opportunity – if we incorporate cultural and religious pluralism into our national self-image. Formulating and implementing a policy of equal opportunity (...)
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  10.  57
    Vulnerable Populations in Research: The Case of the Seriously Ill.Philip J. Nickel - 2006 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 27 (3):245-264.
    This paper advances a new criterion of a vulnerable population in research. According to this criterion, there are consent-based and fairness-based reasons for calling a group vulnerable. The criterion is then applied to the case of people with serious illnesses. It is argued that people with serious illnesses meet this criterion for reasons related to consent. Seriously ill people have a susceptibility to “enticing offers” that hold out the prospect of removing or alleviating illness, and this susceptibility reduces their ability (...)
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  11. Testimonial Entitlement, Norms of Assertion and Privacy.Philip J. Nickel - 2013 - Episteme 10 (2):207-217.
    According to assurance views of testimonial justification, in virtue of the act of testifying a speaker provides an assurance of the truth of what she asserts to the addressee. This assurance provides a special justificatory force and a distinctive normative status to the addressee. It is thought to explain certain asymmetries between addressees and other unintended hearers (bystanders and eavesdroppers), such as the phenomenon that the addressee has a right to blame the speaker for conveying a falsehood but unintended hearers (...)
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  12.  17
    Multicultural Citizenship: A Liberal Theory of Minority Rights. [REVIEW]James W. Nickel - 1996 - Journal of Philosophy 93 (9):480-482.
  13.  29
    Trust, Staking, and Expectations.Philip J. Nickel - 2009 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 39 (3):345-362.
    Trust is a kind of risky reliance on another person. Social scientists have offered two basic accounts of trust: predictive expectation accounts and staking accounts. Predictive expectation accounts identify trust with a judgment that performance is likely. Staking accounts identify trust with a judgment that reliance on the person's performance is worthwhile. I argue that these two views of trust are different, that the staking account is preferable to the predictive expectation account on grounds of intuitive adequacy and coherence with (...)
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  14. Risk and Trust.Philip J. Nickel & Krist Vaesen - 2012 - In Sabine Roeser, Rafaela Hillerbrand, Martin Peterson & Per Sandin (eds.), Handbook of Risk Theory. Springer.
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  15.  40
    Trust, Staking, and Expectations.Philip J. Nickel - 2009 - Journal of the Theory of Social Behaviour 39 (3):345–362.
    Trust is a kind of risky reliance on another person. Social scientists have offered two basic accounts of trust: predictive expectation accounts and staking (betting) accounts. Predictive expectation accounts identify trust with a judgment that performance is likely. Staking accounts identify trust with a judgment that reliance on the person’s performance is worthwhile. I argue (1) that these two views of trust are different, (2) that the staking account is preferable to the predictive expectation account on grounds of intuitive adequacy (...)
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  16.  3
    Philip James Jones 1921-2006.Trevor Dean - 2009 - In Proceedings of the British Academy, Volume 161, Biographical Memoirs of Fellows, VIII. pp. 207.
    Philip James Jones, a Fellow of the British Academy, was one of the most distinguished, complex, and challenging of medieval historians. His works on the Italian city-states of the thirteenth to fifteenth centuries and on Italy's agrarian history are monuments built to last, benchmarks that defined the field for a generation. Jones was elected a Fellow of the British Academy in 1984 and was awarded the Serena Medal for Italian studies in 1988. He won a major open scholarship (...)
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  17.  93
    Trust and Testimony.Philip J. Nickel - 2012 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 93 (3):301-316.
    Some recent accounts of testimonial warrant base it on trust, and claim that doing so helps explain asymmetries between the intended recipient of testimony and other non-intended hearers, e.g. differences in their entitlement to challenge the speaker or to rebuke the speaker for lying. In this explanation ‘dependence-responsiveness’ is invoked as an essential feature of trust: the trustor believes the trustee to be motivationally responsive to the fact that the trustor is relying on the trustee. I argue that dependence-responsiveness is (...)
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  18. Pythagoras and Early Pythagoreanism.James A. Philip - 1966 - University of Toronto Press.
  19.  26
    Plato's Psychology. By T. M. Robinson. Toronto: University of Toronto Press; Phoenix Supplementary Volume 8, 1970. Pp. Ix, 202. $6.50. [REVIEW]James Philip - 1971 - Dialogue 10 (2):347-349.
  20.  18
    The Philosophy of Chrysippus. By Josiah B. Gould. Albany: State University of New York Press. 1970. Pp. Vii, 222.James Philip - 1971 - Dialogue 10 (4):802-804.
  21.  24
    Can We Make Sense of the Notion of Trustworthy Technology?Philip J. Nickel, Maarten Franssen & Peter Kroes - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (3):429-444.
    In this paper we raise the question whether technological artifacts can properly speaking be trusted or said to be trustworthy. First, we set out some prevalent accounts of trust and trustworthiness and explain how they compare with the engineer’s notion of reliability. We distinguish between pure rational-choice accounts of trust, which do not differ in principle from mere judgments of reliability, and what we call “motivation-attributing” accounts of trust, which attribute specific motivations to trustworthy entities. Then we consider some examples (...)
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  22.  69
    Can We Make Sense of the Notion of Trustworthy Technology?Philip J. Nickel, Maarten Franssen & Peter Kroes - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (3-4):429-444.
    In this paper we raise the question whether technological artifacts can properly speaking be trusted or said to be trustworthy. First, we set out some prevalent accounts of trust and trustworthiness and explain how they compare with the engineer’s notion of reliability. We distinguish between pure rational-choice accounts of trust, which do not differ in principle from mere judgments of reliability, and what we call “motivation-attributing” accounts of trust, which attribute specific motivations to trustworthy entities. Then we consider some examples (...)
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  23.  94
    Ethics in E-Trust and E-Trustworthiness: The Case of Direct Computer-Patient Interfaces.Philip J. Nickel - 2011 - Ethics and Information Technology 13 (2):355-363.
    In this paper, I examine the ethics of e - trust and e - trustworthiness in the context of health care, looking at direct computer-patient interfaces (DCPIs), information systems that provide medical information, diagnosis, advice, consenting and/or treatment directly to patients without clinicians as intermediaries. Designers, manufacturers and deployers of such systems have an ethical obligation to provide evidence of their trustworthiness to users. My argument for this claim is based on evidentialism about trust and trustworthiness: the idea that trust (...)
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  24. On Testimony and Transmission.J. Adam Carter & Philip J. Nickel - 2014 - Episteme 11 (2):145-155.
    Jennifer Lackey’s case “Creationist Teacher,” in which students acquire knowledge of evolutionary theory from a teacher who does not herself believe the theory, has been discussed widely as a counterexample to so-called transmission theories of testimonial knowledge and justification. The case purports to show that a speaker need not herself have knowledge or justification in order to enable listeners to acquire knowledge or justification from her assertion. The original case has been criticized on the ground that it does not really (...)
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  25.  40
    Poverty and Rights.James W. Nickel - 2005 - Philosophical Quarterly 55 (220):385–402.
    I defend economic and social rights as human rights, and as a feasible approach to addressing world poverty. I propose a modest conception of economic and social rights that includes rights to subsistence, basic health care and basic education. The second part of the paper defends these three rights. I begin by sketching a pluralistic justificatory framework that starts with abstract norms pertaining to life, leading a life, avoiding severely cruel treatment, and avoiding severe unfairness. I argue that economic and (...)
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  26.  79
    Artificial Speech and Its Authors.Philip J. Nickel - 2013 - Minds and Machines 23 (4):489-502.
    Some of the systems used in natural language generation (NLG), a branch of applied computational linguistics, have the capacity to create or assemble somewhat original messages adapted to new contexts. In this paper, taking Bernard Williams’ account of assertion by machines as a starting point, I argue that NLG systems meet the criteria for being speech actants to a substantial degree. They are capable of authoring original messages, and can even simulate illocutionary force and speaker meaning. Background intelligence embedded in (...)
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  27.  32
    Winner of The Philosophical Quarterly Essay Prize 2004: Poverty and Rights.James W. Nickel - 2005 - Philosophical Quarterly 55 (220):385 - 402.
    I defend economic and social rights as human rights, and as a feasible approach to addressing world poverty. I propose a modest conception of economic and social rights that includes rights to subsistence, basic health care and basic education. The second part of the paper defends these three rights. I begin by sketching a pluralistic justificatory framework that starts with abstract norms pertaining to life, leading a life, avoiding severely cruel treatment, and avoiding severe unfairness. I argue that economic and (...)
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  28.  81
    Horror and the Idea of Everyday Life: On Skeptical Threats in Psycho and the Birds.Philip J. Nickel - 2010 - In Thomas Richard Fahy (ed.), The Philosophy of Horror. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 14--32.
  29.  27
    Can a Right to Health Care Be Justified by Linkage Arguments?James Nickel - 2016 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 37 (4):293-306.
    Linkage arguments, which defend a controversial right by showing that it is indispensable or highly useful to an uncontroversial right, are sometimes used to defend the right to health care. This article evaluates such arguments when used to defend RHC. Three common errors in using linkage arguments are neglecting levels of implementation, expanding the scope of the supported right beyond its uncontroversial domain, and giving too much credit to the supporting right for outcomes in its area. A familiar linkage argument (...)
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  30.  26
    Pluralism, Justice, and Equality.James W. Nickel, David Miller & Michael Walzer - 1997 - Philosophical Review 106 (1):127.
    This is an excellent collection of critical essays on Michael Walzer’s Spheres of Justice. David Miller provides a comprehensive and lucid introduction to Walzer’s views on justice, and Walzer offers a brief—perhaps too brief—response to his critics. Contributors are drawn from philosophy, political science, and sociology, and include Judith Andre, Richard Arneson, Brian Barry, Joseph Carens, Jon Elster, Amy Gutmann, David Miller, Susan Moller Okin, Michael Rustin, Adam Swift, and Jeremy Waldron.
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  31.  44
    The Value of Cultural Belonging: Expanding Kymlicka's Theory.James W. Nickel - 1994 - Dialogue 33 (4):635-.
  32. Is There a Human Right to Employment?James W. Nickel - 1978 - Philosophical Forum 10 (2):149.
     
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  33.  59
    Sound Trust and the Ethics of Telecare.Sander A. Voerman & Philip J. Nickel - 2017 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 42 (1):33-49.
    The adoption of web-based telecare services has raised multifarious ethical concerns, but a traditional principle-based approach provides limited insight into how these concerns might be addressed and what, if anything, makes them problematic. We take an alternative approach, diagnosing some of the main concerns as arising from a core phenomenon of shifting trust relations that come about when the physician plays a less central role in the delivery of care, and new actors and entities are introduced. Correspondingly, we propose an (...)
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  34. Ethical Issues in Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research.Philip J. Nickel - 2008 - In Kristen Renwick Monroe, Ronald B. Miller & Jerome Tobis (eds.), Fundamentals of the Stem Cell Debate: The Scientific, Religious, Ethical & Political Issues. University of California Press.
    As a moral philosopher, the perspective I will take in this chapter is one of argumentation and informed judgment about two main questions: whether individuals should ever choose to conduct human embryonic stem cell research, and whether the law should permit this type of research. I will also touch upon a secondary question, that of whether the government ought to pay for this type of research. I will discuss some of the main arguments at stake, and explain how the ethical (...)
     
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  35.  16
    What Future for Human Rights?James W. Nickel - 2014 - Ethics and International Affairs 28 (2):213-223.
    Like people born shortly after World War II, the international human rights movement recently had its sixty-fifth birthday. This could mean that retirement is at hand and that death will come in a few decades. After all, the formulations of human rights that activists, lawyers, and politicians use today mostly derive from the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and the world in 1948 was very different from our world today: the cold war was about to break out, communism was (...)
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  36. Is Today's International Human Rights System a Global Governance Regime?James W. Nickel - 2002 - The Journal of Ethics 6 (4):353-371.
    Enthusiasts of the idea of globalization often view international human rights institutions as part of an emerging global governance regime. They claim that these institutions illustrate how state sovereignty is being diminished. This paper looks at the international system for thepromotion and protection of human rights aspart of normative globalization. It arguesthat this system does not constitute a systemof global governance, although in some areas itcomes close.
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  37.  59
    Are Human Rights Utopian?James W. Nickel - 1982 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 11 (3):246-264.
  38.  23
    Rawls on Political Community and Principles of Justice.James W. Nickel - 1990 - Law and Philosophy 9 (2):205 - 216.
  39. Should Reparations Be to Individuals or to Groups?James W. Nickel - 1974 - Analysis 34 (5):154 - 160.
  40.  18
    Should Undocumented Aliens Be Entitled to Health Care?James W. Nickel - 1986 - Hastings Center Report 16 (6):19-23.
    Congress recently decided that undocumented aliens are ineligible for medical benefits under the 1966 Medicaid Act, overruling a judicial decision that would have required the federal government to reimburse states partially for the costs of providing free care. Is providing such care simply a matter of prudence and charity? Or do illegal aliens have strong moral claims to medical care that generate duties for hospitals and government agencies?
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  41.  93
    Discrimination and Morally Relevant Characteristics.James W. Nickel - 1972 - Analysis 32 (4):113 - 114.
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  42.  16
    Classification by Race in Compensatory Programs.James W. Nickel - 1974 - Ethics 84 (2):146-150.
  43. Relativism, Self-Determination and Human Rights.James Nickel & David Reidy - 2008 - In Deen Chatterjee (ed.), Democracy in a Global World. Rowman&Littlefield.
  44.  18
    Book Review:Desert. George Sher. [REVIEW]James W. Nickel - 1991 - Ethics 101 (2):409-.
  45.  25
    Legislative Intent and Other Essays on Law, Politics and Morality. [REVIEW]James W. Nickel - 1993 - Ethics 106 (2):466-467.
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  46.  45
    Recent Work on the Concept of Rights.Rex Martin & James W. Nickel - 1980 - American Philosophical Quarterly 17 (3):165 - 180.
    This article is a critical review of work on the concept of rights, Including the concept of human rights, From 1963 to 1978. Our focus is mainly on issues of the analysis of rights and human rights. We do not deal with the closely related issues bearing on the normative foundations of moral and human rights. Nor have we attempted much in the way of historical treatment of our topic. Section I surveys general characterizations of rights. In section ii, We (...)
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  47.  16
    Ethnocide and Indigenous Peoples1.James W. Nickel - 1994 - Journal of Social Philosophy 25 (s1):84-98.
  48.  13
    Does Basing Rights on Autonomy Imply Obligations of Political Allegiance?James W. Nickel - 1989 - Dialogue 28 (4):531-.
  49.  14
    Lever Biting as an Avoidance Response.Philip N. Hineline & James F. Harrison - 1978 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 11 (4):223-226.
  50. Global Health and the Scientific Research Agenda.James H. Flory & Philip Kitcher - 2004 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 32 (1):36-65.