Results for 'Philip Nicholas Johnson-Laird'

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  1.  40
    Conditionals: A Theory of Meaning, Pragmatics, and Inference.Philip Johnson-Laird & Ruth M. J. Byrne - 2002 - Psychological Review 109 (4):646-678.
    The authors outline a theory of conditionals of the form If A then C and If A then possibly C. The 2 sorts of conditional have separate core meanings that refer to sets of possibilities. Knowledge, pragmatics, and semantics can modulate these meanings. Modulation can add information about temporal and other relations between antecedent and consequent. It can also prevent the construction of possibilities to yield 10 distinct sets of possibilities to which conditionals can refer. The mental representation of a (...)
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  2.  43
    How We Reason.Philip Johnson-Laird - 2006 - Oxford University Press.
    Good reasoning can lead to success; bad reasoning can lead to catastrophe. Yet, it's not obvious how we reason, and why we make mistakes. This new book by one of the pioneers of the field, Philip Johnson-Laird, looks at the mental processes that underlie our reasoning. It provides the most accessible account yet of the science of reasoning.
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  3.  22
    Rules and Illusions: A Critical Study of Rips's the Psychology of Proof. [REVIEW]Philip N. Johnson-Laird - 1997 - Minds and Machines 7 (3):387-407.
  4.  14
    Propositional Reasoning by Model.Philip N. Johnson-Laird, Ruth M. Byrne & Walter Schaeken - 1992 - Psychological Review 99 (3):418-439.
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  5.  18
    Naive Probability: A Mental Model Theory of Extensional Reasoning.Philip Johnson-Laird, Paolo Legrenzi, Vittorio Girotto, Maria Sonino Legrenzi & Jean-Paul Caverni - 1999 - Psychological Review 106 (1):62-88.
    This article outlines a theory of naive probability. According to the theory, individuals who are unfamiliar with the probability calculus can infer the probabilities of events in an extensional way: They construct mental models of what is true in the various possibilities. Each model represents an equiprobable alternative unless individuals have beliefs to the contrary, in which case some models will have higher probabilities than others. The probability of an event depends on the proportion of models in which it occurs. (...)
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  6.  75
    Mental Models and Deduction.Philip N. Johnson-Laird - 2001 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 5 (10):434-442.
  7.  28
    Modal Reasoning, Models, and Manktelow and Over.Philip N. Johnson-Laird & Ruth M. J. Byrne - 1992 - Cognition 43 (2):173-182.
  8.  13
    Reasoning About Relations.Geoffrey P. Goodwin & Philip Johnson-Laird - 2005 - Psychological Review 112 (2):468-493.
    Inferences about spatial, temporal, and other relations are ubiquitous. This article presents a novel model-based theory of such reasoning. The theory depends on 5 principles. The structure of mental models is iconic as far as possible. The logical consequences of relations emerge from models constructed from the meanings of the relations and from knowledge. Individuals tend to construct only a single, typical model. They spontaneously develop their own strategies for relational reasoning. Regardless of strategy, the difficulty of an inference depends (...)
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  9.  57
    Procedural Semantics.Philip N. Johnson-Laird - 1977 - Cognition 5 (3):189-214.
  10. The Mental Model Theory of Conditionals: A Reply to Guy Politzer.Philip N. Johnson-Laird, Ruth M. J. Byrne & Vittorio Girotto - 2009 - Topoi 28 (1):75-80.
    This paper replies to Politzer’s ( 2007 ) criticisms of the mental model theory of conditionals. It argues that the theory provides a correct account of negation of conditionals, that it does not provide a truth-functional account of their meaning, though it predicts that certain interpretations of conditionals yield acceptable versions of the ‘paradoxes’ of material implication, and that it postulates three main strategies for estimating the probabilities of conditionals.
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  11.  70
    The Acquisition of Boolean Concepts.Geoffrey P. Goodwin & Philip N. Johnson-Laird - 2013 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 17 (3):128-133.
  12.  12
    Illusions in Quantified Reasoning: How to Make the Impossible Seem Possible, and Vice Versa.Yingrui Yang & Philip Johnson-Laird - 2000 - Memory and Cognition 28 (3):452-465.
    The mental model theory postulates that reasoners build models of the situations described in premises, and that these models normally represent only what is true. The theory has an unexpected consequence. It predicts the existence ofillusions in inferences. Certain inferences should have compelling but erroneous conclusions. Two experiments corroborated the occurrence of such illusions in inferences about what is possible from disjunctions of quantified assertions, such as, “at least some of the plastic beads are not red.” Experiment 1 showed that (...)
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  13.  59
    Basic Emotions in Social Relationships, Reasoning, and Psychological Illnesses.Keith Oatley & Philip N. Johnson-Laird - 2011 - Emotion Review 3 (4):424-433.
    The communicative theory of emotions postulates that emotions are communications both within the brain and between individuals. Basic emotions owe their evolutionary origins to social mammals, and they enable human beings to use repertoires of mental resources appropriate to recurring and distinctive kinds of events. These emotions also enable them to cooperate with other individuals, to compete with them, and to disengage from them. The human system of emotions has also grafted onto basic emotions propositional contents about the cause of (...)
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  14.  27
    Deductive Reasoning.Philip Johnson-Laird - 1999 - Annual Review of Psychology 50 (1):109-135.
    This chapter describes the main accounts of deductive competence, which explain what is computed in carrying out deductions. It argues that people have a modicum of competence, which is useful in daily life and a prerequisite for acquiring logical expertise. It outlines the three main sorts of theory of deductive performance, which explain how people make deductions: They rely on factual knowledge, formal rules, or mental models. It reviews recent experimental studies of deductive reasoning in order to help readers to (...)
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  15.  17
    Conditionals and Possibilities.Ruth Mj Byrne, Philip N. Johnson-Laird, M. Oaksford & N. Chater - 2010 - In M. Oaksford & N. Chater (eds.), Cognition and Conditionals: Probability and Logic in Human Thought. Oxford University Press.
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  16.  40
    Strategies in Temporal Reasoning.Walter Schaeken & Philip N. Johnson-Laird - 2000 - Thinking and Reasoning 6 (3):193 – 219.
    This paper reports three studies of temporal reasoning. A problem of the following sort, where the letters denote common everyday events: A happens before B. C happens before B. D happens while B. E happens while C. What is the relation between D and EEfficacylls for at least two alternative models to be constructed in order to give the right answer for the right reason. However, the first premise is irrelevant to this answer, and so if reasoners were to ignore (...)
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  17.  34
    Mental Models and Probabilistic Thinking.Philip N. Johnson-Laird - 1994 - Cognition 50 (1-3):189-209.
  18. A Computational Analysis of Consciousness.Philip N. Johnson-Laird - 1983 - Cognition and Brain Theory 6:499-508.
  19.  11
    The Three-Term Series Problem.Philip N. Johnson-Laird - 1972 - Cognition 1 (1):57-82.
  20.  3
    Illusory Inferences About Probabilities.Philip Johnson-Laird & Fabien Savary - 1996 - Acta Psychologica 93 (1–3):69-90.
    The mental model theory postulates that reasoners build models of the situations described in premises. A conclusion is possible if it holds in at least one model of the premises; it is probable if it holds in most of the models; and it is necessary if it holds in all of the models. The theory also postulates that reasoners represent as little information as possible in explicit models and, in particular, that they represent only information about what is true. One (...)
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  21.  45
    Mental Models and Thought.Philip N. Johnson-Laird - 2005 - In K. Holyoak & B. Morrison (eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning. Cambridge University Press. pp. 185--208.
  22.  13
    Conditionals and Probability.Vittorio Girotto & Philip N. Johnson-Laird - 2010 - In M. Oaksford & N. Chater (eds.), Cognition and Conditionals: Probability and Logic in Human Thought. Oxford University Press. pp. 103--115.
  23.  35
    Précis of Deduction.Philip N. Johnson-Laird & Ruth M. J. Byrne - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (2):323-333.
    How do people make deductions? The orthodox view in psychology is that they use formal rules of inference like those of a “natural deduction” system.Deductionargues that their logical competence depends, not on formal rules, but on mental models. They construct models of the situation described by the premises, using their linguistic knowledge and their general knowledge. They try to formulate a conclusion based on these models that maintains semantic information, that expresses it parsimoniously, and that makes explicit something not directly (...)
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  24.  28
    Facts and Possibilities: A Model‐Based Theory of Sentential Reasoning.Sangeet S. Khemlani, Ruth M. J. Byrne & Philip N. JohnsonLaird - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (6):1887-1924.
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  25. Mental Models of Meaning.Philip N. Johnson-Laird - 1981 - In A. Joshi, Bruce H. Weber & Ivan A. Sag (eds.), Elements of Discourse Understanding. Cambridge University Press. pp. 106--126.
     
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  26.  34
    What's Wrong with Grandma's Guide to Procedural Semantics: A Reply to Jerry Fodor.Philip N. Johnson-Laird - 1978 - Cognition 9 (September):249-61.
  27.  96
    An End to the Controversy? A Reply to Rips.Philip N. Johnson-Laird - 1997 - Minds and Machines 7 (3):425-432.
  28.  22
    Mental Models or Formal Rules?Philip N. Johnson-Laird & Ruth M. J. Byrne - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (2):368-380.
  29.  8
    In Reply to Philip Johnson-Laird.Jerry A. Fodor - 1979 - Cognition 7 (1):93-95.
  30.  56
    Mental Models, Deductive Reasoning, and the Brain.Philip N. Johnson-Laird - 1995 - In Michael S. Gazzaniga (ed.), The Cognitive Neurosciences. MIT Press. pp. 999--1008.
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  31.  22
    A Priori True and False Conditionals.Ana Cristina Quelhas, Célia Rasga & Philip N. Johnson-Laird - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (S5):1003-1030.
    The theory of mental models postulates that meaning and knowledge can modulate the interpretation of conditionals. The theory's computer implementation implied that certain conditionals should be true or false without the need for evidence. Three experiments corroborated this prediction. In Experiment 1, nearly 500 participants evaluated 24 conditionals as true or false, and they justified their judgments by completing sentences of the form, It is impossible that A and ___ appropriately. In Experiment 2, participants evaluated 16 conditionals and provided their (...)
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  32. Philip Johnson-Laird, How We Reason. [REVIEW]Konrad Talmont-Kaminski - 2008 - Philosophy in Review 28 (6):416-418.
     
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  33.  32
    Naive Probability: Model‐Based Estimates of Unique Events.Sangeet S. Khemlani, Max Lotstein & Philip N. Johnson-Laird - 2015 - Cognitive Science 39 (6):1216-1258.
    We describe a dual-process theory of how individuals estimate the probabilities of unique events, such as Hillary Clinton becoming U.S. President. It postulates that uncertainty is a guide to improbability. In its computer implementation, an intuitive system 1 simulates evidence in mental models and forms analog non-numerical representations of the magnitude of degrees of belief. This system has minimal computational power and combines evidence using a small repertoire of primitive operations. It resolves the uncertainty of divergent evidence for single events, (...)
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  34.  9
    How is Meaning Mentally Represented.Philip N. Johnson-Laird - 1988 - In Umberto Eco (ed.), Meaning and Mental Representations. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. pp. 496--99.
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  35.  18
    If Bears Eat in the Woods?Philip N. Johnson-Laird - 2005 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9 (2):43-44.
  36.  45
    Flying Bicycles: How the Wright Brothers Invented the Airplane. [REVIEW]Philip N. Johnson-Laird - 2005 - Mind and Society 4 (1):27-48.
    This paper explores the ways in which Wilbur and Orville Wright thought as they tackled the problem of designing and constructing a heavier-than-air craft that would fly under its own power and under their control. It argues that their use of analogy and their use of knowledge in diagnostic reasoning lies outside the scope of current psychological theories and their computer implementations. They used analogies based on mental models of one system, such as the wings, to help them to develop (...)
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  37.  16
    A Model Theory of Induction.Philip N. JohnsonLaird - 1994 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 8 (1):5 – 29.
    Abstract Theories of induction in psychology and artificial intelligence assume that the process leads from observation and knowledge to the formulation of linguistic conjectures. This paper proposes instead that the process yields mental models of phenomena. It uses this hypothesis to distinguish between deduction, induction, and creative forms of thought. It shows how models could underlie inductions about specific matters. In the domain of linguistic conjectures, there are many possible inductive generalizations of a conjecture. In the domain of models, however, (...)
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  38.  19
    Strategies in Sentential Reasoning.Jean-Baptiste Van Der Henst, Yingrui Yang & Johnson-Laird N. Philip - 2002 - Cognitive Science 26 (4):425-468.
    Four experiments examined the strategies that individuals develop in sentential reasoning. They led to the discovery of five different strategies. According to the theory proposed in the paper, each of the strategies depends on component tactics, which all normal adults possess, and which are based on mental models. Reasoners vary their use of tactics in ways that are not deterministic. This variation leads different individuals to assemble different strategies, which include the construction of incremental diagram corresponding to mental models, and (...)
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  39.  8
    Reasoning From Suppositions.Ruth M. J. Byrne, Simon J. Handley & Philip N. Johnson-Laird - 1995 - Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Section A 48 (4):915-944.
    Two experiments investigated inferences based on suppositions. In Experiment 1, the subjects decided whether suppositions about individuals' veracity were consistent with their assertions—for example, whether the supposition “Ann is telling the truth and Beth is telling a lie”, is consistent with the premises: “Ann asserts: I am telling the truth and Beth is telling the truth. Beth asserts: Ann is telling the truth”. It showed that these inferences are more difficult than ones based on factual premises: “Ann asserts: I live (...)
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  40.  56
    Reasoning From Double Conditionals: The Effects of Logical Structure and Believability.Carlos Santamaria, Juan A. Garcia-Madruga & Philip N. Johnson-Laird - 1998 - Thinking and Reasoning 4 (2):97-122.
    We report three experimental studies of reasoning with double conditionals, i.e. problems based on premises of the form: If A then B. If B then C. where A, B, and C, describe everyday events. We manipulated both the logical structure of the problems, using all four possible arrangements (or “figures” of their constituents, A, B, and C, and the believability of the two salient conditional conclusions that might follow from them, i.e. If A then C, or If C then A. (...)
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  41.  3
    How the Mind Thinks.Philip N. Johnson-Laird - 1993 - In George A. Miller & Gilbert Harman (eds.), Conceptions of the Human Mind: Essays in Honor of George A. Miller. L. Erlbaum Associates.
  42.  3
    Science as Heuristic Search: Some Comments on Simon 's Theory.Philip JohnsonLaird & Paolo Legrenzi - 1992 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 6 (1):35 – 39.
  43. In Reply to Philip Johnson-Laird.Jerry A. Fodor - 1979 - Cognition 7 (March):93-95.
     
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  44.  50
    Reasoning From Double Conditionals: The Effects of Logical Structure and Believability.Carlos Santamaria Juan A. Garcia-Madruga Philip & N. Johnson-Laird - 1998 - Thinking and Reasoning 4 (2):97 – 122.
    We report three experimental studies of reasoning with double conditionals, i.e. problems based on premises of the form: If A then B. If B then C. where A, B, and C, describe everyday events. We manipulated both the logical structure of the problems, using all four possible arrangements (or ''figures" of their constituents, A, B, and C, and the believability of the two salient conditional conclusions that might follow from them, i.e. If A then C , or If C then (...)
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  45.  13
    Strategies in Sentential Reasoning.Yingrui van Der HenstYang & Philip N. Johnson-Laird - 2002 - Cognitive Science 26 (4):425-468.
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  46.  21
    Corrigendum: ‘If’ and the Problems of Conditional Reasoning.Ruth M. J. Byrne & Philip N. Johnson-Laird - 2009 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 13 (9):371.
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  47.  32
    Models Redux: Response to Evans and Over.Ruth M. J. Byrne & Philip N. Johnson-Laird - 2010 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 14 (1):6.
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  48. Human Thinking and Mental Models.Philip N. Johnson-Laird - 1990 - In K. A. Mohyeldin Said, W. H. Newton-Smith, R. Viale & K. V. Wilkes (eds.), Modelling the Mind. Clarendon Press. pp. 155--170.
     
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  49. How to Make the Impossible Seem Possible.Philip Johnson-Laird & Yevgeniya Goldvarg - 1997 - Proceedings of the Nineteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society.
     
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  50. Numbers L-2.Philip N. Johnson-Laird, Eldar Shafir, Itamar Simonson, Amos Tversky, P. Legrenzi, V. Girotto, Pn Johnson-Laird, Edward E. Smith, Daniel Osherson & Nancy Pennington - 1993 - Cognition 49 (297):297.
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