31 found
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  1. Empathy≠sharing: Perspectives from phenomenology and developmental psychology.Dan Zahavi & Philippe Rochat - 2015 - Consciousness and Cognition 36:543-553.
  2. The uncanny mirror: A re-framing of mirror self-experience.Philippe Rochat & Dan Zahavi - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (2):204-213.
    Mirror self-experience is re-casted away from the cognitivist interpretation that has dominated discussions on the issue since the establishment of the mirror mark test. Ideas formulated by Merleau-Ponty on mirror self-experience point to the profoundly unsettling encounter with one’s specular double. These ideas, together with developmental evidence are re-visited to provide a new, psychologically and phenomenologically more valid account of mirror self-experience: an experience associated with deep wariness.
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  3. Five levels of self-awareness as they unfold early in life.Philippe Rochat - 2003 - Consciousness and Cognition 12 (4):717-731.
    When do children become aware of themselves as differentiated and unique entity in the world? When and how do they become self-aware? Based on some recent empirical evidence, 5 levels of self-awareness are presented and discussed as they chronologically unfold from the moment of birth to approximately 4-5 years of age. A natural history of children's developing self-awareness is proposed as well as a model of adult self-awareness that is informed by the dynamic of early development. Adult self-awareness is viewed (...)
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  4. Fairness in Distributive Justice by 3- and 5-Year-Olds Across Seven Cultures.Philippe Rochat, Maria D. G. Dias, Guo Liping, Tanya Broesch, Claudia Passos-Ferreira, Ashley Winning & Britt Berg - 2009 - Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 40 (3):416-442.
    This research investigates 3- and 5-year-olds' relative fairness in distributing small collections of even or odd numbers of more or less desirable candies, either with an adult experimenter or between two dolls. The authors compare more than 200 children from around the world, growing up in seven highly contrasted cultural and economic contexts, from rich and poor urban areas, to small-scale traditional and rural communities. Across cultures, young children tend to optimize their own gain, not showing many signs of self-sacrifice (...)
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  5. Ownership reasoning in children across cultures.Philippe Rochat, Erin Robbins, Claudia Passos-Ferreira, Angela Donato Oliva, Maria D. G. Dias & Liping Guo - 2014 - Cognition 132 (3):471-484.
    To what extent do early intuitions about ownership depend on cultural and socio-economic circumstances? We investigated the question by testing reasoning about third party ownership conflicts in various groups of three- and five-year-old children (N = 176), growing up in seven highly contrasted social, economic, and cultural circumstances (urban rich, poor, very poor, rural poor, and traditional) spanning three continents. Each child was presented with a series of scripts involving two identical dolls fighting over an object of possession. The child (...)
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  6.  60
    What is it like to be a newborn?Philippe Rochat - 2011 - In Shaun Gallagher (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of the Self. Oxford University Press.
    This article examines what might constitute the first manifestation of consciousness in the life of an individual, focusing on the subjective starting state of newborns. It presents evidence showing that we are born with some minimal self-awareness, a kind of awareness that might even be present in foetuses depending on the criteria used. It investigates the mechanisms that might account for how self-awareness quickly evolves from being minimal and phenomenal in the context of sensation, perception, and action and discusses the (...)
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  7.  48
    Self-conscious roots of human normativity.Philippe Rochat - 2015 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 14 (4):741-753.
    What are the roots of human normativity and when do children begin to behave according to standards and norms? Empirical observations demonstrate that we are born with built-in orientation toward what is predictable and of the same - henceforth what deviates from it -, what is the norm or the standard in the generic sense of the word. However, what develop in humans is self-consciousness, transforming norms from “should” to “ought” and making human normativity profoundly different from any other forms (...)
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  8.  45
    Social awareness and early self-recognition.Philippe Rochat, Tanya Broesch & Katherine Jayne - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (3):1491-1497.
    Self-recognition by 86 children was assessed using the mirror mark test in two different social contexts. In the classic mirror task condition, only the child was marked prior to mirror exposure . In the social norm condition, the child, experimenter, and accompanying parent were marked prior to the child’s mirror exposure . Results indicate that in both conditions children pass the test in comparable proportion, with the same increase as a function of age. However, in the Norm condition, children displayed (...)
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  9. Dynamic mental representation in infancy1Portions of this research have been presented at the International Conference on Infant Studies, Society for Research in Child Development, and Association for Research in Vision and Opthamology.1.Susan J. Hespos & Philippe Rochat - 1997 - Cognition 64 (2):153-188.
  10.  42
    The self as phenotype.Philippe Rochat - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (1):109-119.
    Self-awareness is viewed here as the phenotypic expression of an interaction between genes and the environment. Brain and behavioral development of fetuses and newborn infants are a rich source of information regarding what might constitute minimal self-awareness. Research indicates that newborns have feeling experience. Unlike automata, they do not just sense and respond to proximal stimulations. In light of the explosive brain growth that takes place inside and outside of the womb, first signs of feeling as opposed to sensing experience (...)
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  11.  39
    Three Levels of Intersubjectivity in Early Development.Philippe Rochat, Claudia Passos-Ferreira & Pedro Salem - 2009 - In Antonella Carassa, Francesca Morganti & Giuseppe Riva (eds.), Enacting Intersubjectivity. Paving the way for a dialogue between cognitive science, social cognition and neuroscience. Como: Larioprint. pp. 173-90.
    The sense of shared values is a specific aspect of human sociality. It originates from reciprocal social exchanges that include imitation, and empathy, but also negotiation from which meanings, values and norms are eventually constructed with others. Research suggests that this process starts from birth via imitation and mirroring processes that are important foundations of sociality providing a basic sense of social connectedness and mutual acknowledgment with others. From the second month, mirroring, imitative and other contagious responses are bypassed. Neonatal (...)
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  12.  23
    The Self in Infancy: Theory and Research.Philippe Rochat (ed.) - 1995 - Elsevier.
    This book is a collection of current theoretical views and research on the self in early infancy, prior to self-identification and the well-documented emergence ...
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  13.  23
    Der unheimliche Spiegel. Eine Neubewertung der Spiegel-Selbsterfahrungsexperimente als Test für das Vorliegen von begrifflichem Selbstbewusstsein.Philippe Rochat & Dan Zahavi - 2014 - Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 62 (5).
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  14.  22
    Dynamic mental representation in infancy1Portions of this research have been presented at the International Conference on Infant Studies, Society for Research in Child Development, and Association for Research in Vision and Opthamology.1.Susan J. Hespos & Philippe Rochat - 1997 - Cognition 64 (2):153-188.
  15. Emerging co-awareness.Philippe Rochat - 2004 - In Gavin Bremner & Alan Slater (eds.), Theories of Infant Development. Blackwell. pp. 258-283.
     
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  16.  10
    Self-Unity as Ground Zero of Learning and Development.Philippe Rochat - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  17.  46
    Humans evolved to become homo negotiatus . . . The rest followed.Philippe Rochat - 2005 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (5):714-715.
    Social animals need to share space and resources, whether sexual partners, parents, or food. Humans, however, are unique in the way they share as they evolved to become Homo negotiatus; a species that is prone to bargain and to dispute the value of things until some agreement is reached. This evolution had far-reaching consequences on the specific makeup of human psychology – a psychology that has for trademark a compulsive preoccupation with the self in relation to others. I propose that (...)
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  18. Homo Negotiatus. Ontogeny of the Unique Ways Humans Own, Share and Deal With Each Other.Claudia Passos-Ferreira & Philippe Rochat - 2008 - In S. Itakura & K. Fujita (eds.), Origins of the Social Mind. Springer. pp. 141-156.
    Social animals need to share space and resources, whether sexual partners, parents, or food. Sharing is indeed at the core of social life. Humans, however, of all social animals, have distinct ways of sharing. They evolved to become Homo Negotiatus; a species that is prone to bargain and to dispute the value of things until some agreement is reached.
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  19.  16
    What is really wrong with a priori claims of universality? Sampling, validity, process level, and the irresistible drive to reduce.Philippe Rochat - 2010 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (2-3):107-108.
    Catchy acronyms such as are good mnemonics. However, they carry the danger of distracting us from deeper issues: how to sample populations, the validity of measuring instruments, the levels of processing involved. These need to be considered when assessing claims of universality regarding how the mind works – a dominant and highly rewarded drive in the behavioral and brain sciences.
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  20.  25
    From Imitation to Reciprocation and Mutual Recognition.Claudia Passos-Ferreira & Philippe Rochat - 2008 - In Jaime A. Pineda (ed.), Mirror Neuron Systems: The Role of Mirroring Processes in Social Cognition. Springer Science. pp. 191-212.
    Imitation and mirroring processes are necessary but not sufficient conditions for children to develop human sociality. Human sociality entails more than the equivalence and connectedness of perceptual experiences. It corresponds to the sense of a shared world made of shared values. It originates from complex ‘open’ systems of reciprocation and negotiation, not just imitation and mirroring processes that are by definition ‘closed’ systems. From this premise, we argue that if imitation and mirror processes are important foundations for sociality, human inter-subjectivity (...)
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  21.  15
    Innate valuation, existential framing, and one head for multiple moral hats.Bree Beal & Philippe Rochat - 2018 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 41.
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  22.  28
    Dynamic mental representation in infancy1Portions of this research have been presented at the International Conference on Infant Studies, Society for Research in Child Development, and Association for Research in Vision and Opthamology.1.Susan J. Hespos & Philippe Rochat - 1997 - Cognition 64 (2):153-188.
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  23. Brief article.John C. Marshall, Peter W. Halligan, Josja van Berkum, Susan J. Hespos & Philippe Rochat - 1997 - Cognition 64:353-354.
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  24.  12
    Ego function of morality and developing tensions that are “within”.Philippe Rochat & Erin Robbins - 2013 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (1):98-99.
    We applaud Baumard et al.'s mutualistic account of morality but detect circularity in their articulation of how morality emerged. Contra the authors, we propose that mutualism might account for a sensitivity to convention (the ways things are done within a group) rather than for a sense of fairness. An ontogenetic perspective better captures the complexity of what it means to be moral.
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  25.  4
    Moral acrobatics: how we avoid ethical ambiguity by thinking in Black and white.Philippe Rochat - 2021 - New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
    I sometimes like to daydream that if we were all somehow simultaneously outed as lechers and perverts and sentimental slobs, it might be, after the initial shock of disillusionment, liberating. It might be a relief to quit maintaining this rigid pose of normalcy and own up to the outlaws and monsters we are.
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  26.  6
    Origins of social fusion.Philippe Rochat - 2018 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 41.
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  27.  4
    Primordial feeling of possession in development.Philippe Rochat - 2023 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 46:e348.
    Boyer's minimalist model of human ownership psychology overlooks important cues that children provide in their development leading them from pre-conceptual to conceptual (symbolic) expressions of the basic feeling experience of control over things, qua ownership in the most basic psychological sense. Appeal for innate core knowledge and evolutionary logic blows out the light of this rich and unique ontogenetic progression.
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  28.  33
    Social-affective origins of mindreading and metacognition.Philippe Rochat - 2009 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (2):160-161.
    The engineer's look at how the mind works omits a central piece of the puzzle. It ignores the dynamic of motivations and the social context in which mindreading and metacognition evolved and developed in the first place. Mindreading and metacognition derive from a primacy of affective mindreading and meta-affectivity (e.g., secondary emotions such as shame or pride), both co-emerging in early development.
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  29. Trust in Early Development.Philippe Rochat - 2010 - In Arne Grøn & Claudia Welz (eds.), Trust, Sociality, Selfhood. Mohr Siebeck.
     
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  30.  56
    Various kinds of empathy as revealed by the developing child, not the monkey's brain.Philippe Rochat - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (1):45-46.
    The comparative study of empathy should be based on the developmental taxonomy of vicarious experiences offered by the abundant literature on infants and children's cognitive, social, and emotional development. Comparative research on the topic should refer to the various kinds of empathy emerging in an orderly fashion early in human development.
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  31.  6
    White Bias in 3–7-Year-Old Children across Cultures.Bentley Gibson, Erin Robbins & Philippe Rochat - 2015 - Journal of Cognition and Culture 15 (3-4):344-373.
    In three studies we report data confirming and extending the finding of a tendency toward a White preference bias by young children of various ethnic backgrounds. European American preschoolers who identify with a White doll also prefer it to a Black doll. In contrast, same age African American children who identify with a Black doll do not show a significant preference for it over a White doll. These results are comparable in African American children attending either a racially mixed, or (...)
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