Results for 'Phillip Nieburg'

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  1. Public Health Ethics: Mapping the Terrain.James F. Childress, Ruth R. Faden, Ruth D. Gaare, Lawrence O. Gostin, Jeffrey Kahn, Richard J. Bonnie, Nancy E. Kass, Anna C. Mastroianni, Jonathan D. Moreno & Phillip Nieburg - 2002 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 30 (2):170-178.
    Public health ethics, like the field of public health it addresses, traditionally has focused more on practice and particular cases than on theory, with the result that some concepts, methods, and boundaries remain largely undefined. This paper attempts to provide a rough conceptual map of the terrain of public health ethics. We begin by briefly defining public health and identifying general features of the field that are particularly relevant for a discussion of public health ethics.Public health is primarily concerned with (...)
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  2.  9
    Thoughts on Alternative Designs for Clinical Trials for Ebola Treatment Research.Ronald Waldman & Phillip Nieburg - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (4):38-40.
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  3. Nieburg Phillip.F. Childress James, R. Faden Ruth, D. Gaare Ruth, O. Gostin Lawrence, Bonnie Richard J. Kahn Jeffrey, E. Kass Nancy, C. Mastroianni Anna & D. Moreno Jonathan - 2002 - Public Health Ethics: Mapping the Terrain. J Law Med Ethics 30 (2):170-178.
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  4.  91
    Self-Defence and Innocence: Aggressors and Active Threats: Phillip Montague.Phillip Montague - 2000 - Utilitas 12 (1):62-78.
    Although people generally agree that innocent targets of culpable aggression are justified in harming the aggressors in self-defence, there is considerable disagreement regarding whether innocents are justified in defending themselves when their doing so would harm other innocent people. I argue in this essay that harming innocent aggressors and active innocent threats in self-defence is indeed justified under certain conditions, but that defensive actions in such cases are justified as permissions rather than as claim rights. This justification therefore differs from (...)
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  5.  31
    Certain Hope: A. Phillips Griffiths.A. Phillips Griffiths - 1990 - Religious Studies 26 (4):453-461.
    In his recent article 1 Stewart Sutherland rightly and trenchantly criticizes some accounts of hope which ignore, or radically misrepresent, how it is conceived in religious contexts. The most surprising, to me, is Chesterton's, that hope is ‘the power of being cheerful in circumstances which we know to be desperate’. Surprising, not so much for its content as for its source. However, this particular example could be of one who would risk giving scandal for the sake of wit; what he (...)
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  6.  51
    Response From Young, Sprengelmeyer, Phillips and Calder.A. W. Young, R. Sprengelmeyer, M. Phillips & A. J. Calder - 1997 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 1 (9):322-325.
  7.  66
    Representing Causation.Phillip Wolff - 2007 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 136 (1):82-111.
    The dynamics model, which is based on Talmy’s (1988) theory of force dynamics, characterizes causation as a pattern of forces and a position vector. In contrast to counterfactual and probabilistic models, the dynamics model naturally distinguishes between different cause-related concepts and explains the induction of causal relationships from single observations. Support for the model is provided in experiments in which participants categorized 3D animations of realistically rendered objects with trajectories that were wholly determined by the force vectors entered into a (...)
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  8.  99
    Plato and Pythagoreanism.Phillip Sidney Horky - 2013 - Oxford University Press USA.
    Was Plato a Pythagorean? Plato's students and earliest critics thought so, but scholars since the nineteenth century have been more skeptical. With this probing study, Phillip Sidney Horky argues that a specific type of Pythagorean philosophy, called "mathematical" Pythagoreanism, exercised a decisive influence on fundamental aspects of Plato's philosophy. The progenitor of mathematical Pythagoreanism was the infamous Pythagorean heretic and political revolutionary Hippasus of Metapontum, a student of Pythagoras who is credited with experiments in harmonics that led to innovations (...)
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  9. Defining 'Business Ethics': Like Nailing Jello to a Wall. [REVIEW]Phillip V. Lewis - 1985 - Journal of Business Ethics 4 (5):377 - 383.
    Business ethics is a topic receiving much attention in the literature. However, the term 'business ethics' is not adequately defined. Typical definitions refer to the rightness or wrongness of behavior, but not everyone agrees on what is morally right or wrong, good or bad, ethical or unethical. To complicate the problem, nearly all available definitions exist at highly abstract levels. This article focuses on contemporary definitions of business ethics by business writers and professionals and on possible areas of agreement among (...)
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  10.  42
    Augustine's Invention of the Inner Self: The Legacy of a Christian Platonist.Phillip Cary - 2000 - Oup Usa.
    Phillip Cary argues that Augustine invented or created the concept of self as an inner space--as space into which one can enter and in which one can find God. This concept of inwardness, says Cary, has worked its way deeply into the intellectual heritage of the West and many Western individuals have experienced themselves as inner selves. After surveying the idea of inwardness in Augustine's predecessors, Cary offers a re-examination of Augustine's own writings, making the controversial point that in (...)
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  11. Defining ‘Business Ethics’: Like Nailing Jello to a Wall.Phillip V. Lewis - 1985 - Journal of Business Ethics 4 (5):377-383.
    Business ethics is a topic receiving much attention in the literature. However, the term 'business ethics' is not adequately defined. Typical definitions refer to the rightness or wrongness of behavior, but not everyone agrees on what is morally right or wrong, good or bad, ethical or unethical. To complicate the problem, nearly all available definitions exist at highly abstract levels. This article focuses on contemporary definitions of business ethics by business writers and professionals and on possible areas of agreement among (...)
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  12. Composition as a Kind of Identity.Phillip Bricker - 2016 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 59 (3):264-294.
    Composition as identity, as I understand it, is a theory of the composite structure of reality. The theory’s underlying logic is irreducibly plural; its fundamental primitive is a generalized identity relation that takes either plural or singular arguments. Strong versions of the theory that incorporate a generalized version of the indiscernibility of identicals are incompatible with the framework of plural logic, and should be rejected. Weak versions of the theory that are based on the idea that composition is merely analogous (...)
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  13.  20
    Wittgenstein, Schopenhauer, and Ethics1: A. Phillips Griffiths.A. Phillips Griffiths - 1973 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 7:96-116.
    Wittgenstein always thought that he had not been understood, and indeed that it was very unlikely that many people ever would understand him. Russell not only failed to understand Wittgenstein's later work; according to Wittgenstein himself, Russell profoundly failed to understand even the Tractatus. Professor Anscombe says even she did not understand him, and that to attempt to give an account of what he says is only to express one's own ordinariness or mediocrity or lack of complexity. Certainly, most people (...)
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  14.  37
    The Darwinian Revolution: Science Red in Tooth and Claw. Michael Ruse.Phillip R. Sloan - 1981 - Philosophy of Science 48 (4):623-627.
  15.  34
    Evolutionary Theory and the Ultimate-Proximate Distinction in the Human Behavioral Sciences.T. C. Scott-Phillips, T. E. Dickins & S. A. West - unknown
    To properly understand behavior, we must obtain both ultimate and proximate explanations. Put briefly, ultimate explanations are concerned with why a behavior exists, and proximate explanations are concerned with how it works. These two types of explanation are complementary and the distinction is critical to evolutionary explanation. We are concerned that they have become conflated in some areas of the evolutionary literature on human behavior. This article brings attention to these issues. We focus on three specific areas: the evolution of (...)
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  16.  45
    The Niche Construction Perspective: A Critical Appraisal.Thomas C. Scott-Phillips, Kevin N. Laland, David M. Shuker, Thomas E. Dickins & Stuart A. West - unknown
    Niche construction refers to the activities of organisms that bring about changes in their environments, many of which are evolutionarily and ecologically consequential. Advocates of niche construction theory (NCT) believe that standard evolutionary theory fails to recognize the full importance of niche construction, and consequently propose a novel view of evolution, in which niche construction and its legacy over time (ecological inheritance) are described as evolutionary processes, equivalent in importance to natural selection. Here, we subject NCT to critical evaluation, in (...)
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  17. Structure-Mapping in Metaphor Comprehension.Phillip Wolff & Dedre Gentner - 2011 - Cognitive Science 35 (8):1456-1488.
    Metaphor has a double life. It can be described as a directional process in which a stable, familiar base domain provides inferential structure to a less clearly specified target. But metaphor is also described as a process of finding commonalities, an inherently symmetric process. In this second view, both concepts may be altered by the metaphorical comparison. Whereas most theories of metaphor capture one of these aspects, we offer a model based on structure-mapping that captures both sides of metaphor processing. (...)
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  18. Concrete Possible Worlds.Phillip Bricker - 2008 - In Theodore Sider, John Hawthorne & Dean W. Zimmerman (eds.), Contemporary Debates in Metaphysics. Blackwell. pp. 111--134.
    In this chapter, I survey what I call Lewisian approaches to modality: approaches that analyze modality in terms of concrete possible worlds and their parts. I take the following four theses to be characteristic of Lewisian approaches to modality. (1) There is no primitive modality. (2) There exists a plurality of concrete possible worlds. (3) Actuality is an indexical concept. (4) Modality de re is to be analyzed in terms of counterparts, not transworld identity. After an introductory section in which (...)
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  19. Language Evolution in the Laboratory.Thomas C. Scott-Phillips & Simon Kirby - 2010 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 14 (9):411-417.
  20. Island Universes and the Analysis of Modality.Phillip Bricker - 2001 - In G. Preyer & F. Siebelt (eds.), Reality and Humean Supervenience: Essays on the Philosophy of David Lewis. Rowman & Littlefield.
    It follows from Humean principles of plenitude, I argue, that island universes are possible: physical reality might have 'absolutely isolated' parts. This makes trouble for Lewis's modal realism; but the realist has a way out. First, accept absolute actuality, which is defensible, I argue, on independent grounds. Second, revise the standard analysis of modality: modal operators are 'plural', not 'individual', quantifiers over possible worlds. This solves the problem of island universes and confers three additional benefits: an 'unqualified' principle of compossibility (...)
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  21. Developing Human-Nonhuman Chimeras in Human Stem Cell Research: Ethical Issues and Boundaries.Phillip Karpowicz, Cynthia B. Cohen & Derek J. Van der Kooy - 2005 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 15 (2):107-134.
    : The transplantation of adult human neural stem cells into prenatal non-humans offers an avenue for studying human neural cell development without direct use of human embryos. However, such experiments raise significant ethical concerns about mixing human and nonhuman materials in ways that could result in the development of human-nonhuman chimeras. This paper examines four arguments against such research, the moral taboo, species integrity, "unnaturalness," and human dignity arguments, and finds the last plausible. It argues that the transfer of human (...)
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  22.  53
    On Giving Practice its Due – a Reply: D. Z. PHILLIPS.D. Z. Phillips - 1995 - Religious Studies 31 (1):121-127.
  23. Philosophies of Exclusion: Liberal Political Theory and Immigration.Phillip Cole - 2000 - Edinburgh University Press.
    The mass movement of people across the globe constitutes a major feature of world politics today. -/- Whatever the cause of the movement - often war, famine, economic hardship, political repression or climate change - the governments of western capitalist states see this 'torrent of people in flight' as a serious threat to their stability and the scale of this migration indicates a need for a radical re-thinking of both political theory and practice, for the sake of political, social and (...)
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  24. Absolute Actuality and the Plurality of Worlds.Phillip Bricker - 2006 - Philosophical Perspectives 20 (1):41–76.
    According to David Lewis, a realist about possible worlds must hold that actuality is relative: the worlds are ontologically all on a par; the actual and the merely possible differ, not absolutely, but in how they relate to us. Call this 'Lewisian realism'. The alternative, 'Leibnizian realism', holds that actuality is an absolute property that marks a distinction in ontological status. Lewis presents two arguments against Leibnizian realism. First, he argues that the Leibnizian realist cannot account for the contingency of (...)
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  25.  35
    Signalling Signalhood and the Emergence of Communication.Thomas C. Scott-Phillips, Simon Kirby & Graham R. S. Ritchie - 2009 - Cognition 113 (2):226-233.
  26.  75
    Direct Causation in the Linguistic Coding and Individuation of Causal Events.Phillip Wolff - 2003 - Cognition 88 (1):1-48.
  27.  28
    Experiencing Silence.Phillip John Meadows - 2020 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 50 (2):238-250.
    This paper identifies three claims that feature prominently in recent discussions concerning the experience of silence: that experiences of silence are the most “negative” of perceptions, that we do not hear silences because those silences cause our experiences of silence, and that to hear silence is to hear a temporal region devoid of sound. The principal proponents of this approach are Phillips and Soteriou, and here I present a series of objections to common elements of their attempts to place these (...)
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  28.  57
    Dislocating the Soul: D. Z. PHILLIPS.D. Z. Phillips - 1995 - Religious Studies 31 (4):447-462.
    Many analyses of belief in the soul ignore the soul in the words. Dislocations of concepts occur when words are divorced from their normal implications. The ‘soul’ is sometimes the dislocated utterer of such words. Pictures, including pictures of the soul leaving the body, may mislead us by suggesting applications which they, in fact, do not have. But pictures of the soul may enter people's lives as desires for a temporal eternity. Contrasting conceptions of immortality and eternal life depend on (...)
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  29.  24
    For Want of a Nail: How Absences Cause Events.Phillip Wolff, Aron K. Barbey & Matthew Hausknecht - 2010 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 139 (2):191-221.
  30. Prudence.Phillip Bricker - 1980 - Journal of Philosophy 77 (7):381-401.
    The article explicates a notion of prudence according to which an agent acts prudently if he acts so as to satisfy not only his present preferences, but his past and future preferences as well. A simplified decision-theoretic framework is developed within which three analyses of prudence are presented and compared. That analysis is defended which can best handle cases in which an agent's present act will affect his future preferences.
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  31. Isolation and Unification: The Realist Analysis of Possible Worlds.Phillip Bricker - 1996 - Philosophical Studies 84 (2-3):225 - 238.
    If realism about possible worlds is to succeed in eliminating primitive modality, it must provide an 'analysis' of possible world: nonmodal criteria for demarcating one world from another. This David Lewis has done. Lewis holds, roughly, that worlds are maximal unified regions of logical space. So far, so good. But what Lewis means by 'unification' is too narrow, I think, in two different ways. First, for Lewis, all worlds are (almost) 'globally' unified: at any world, (almost) every part is directly (...)
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  32.  63
    Determinants of Individual Differences During Skill Acquisition: Cognitive Abilities and Information Processing.Phillip L. Ackerman - 1988 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 117 (3):288-318.
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  33.  46
    Modal Matters: Essays in Metaphysics.Phillip Bricker (ed.) - 2020 - Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
    This volume contains eighteen papers, three with new postscripts, that were written over the past 35 years. Five of the papers have not been previously published. Together they provide a comprehensive account of modal reality—the realm of possible worlds—from a Humean perspective, with excursions into neighboring topics in metaphysics. Part 1 sketches an account of reality as a whole, both the mathematical and the modal, defending a form of plenitudinous realism: every consistent proposition is true of some portion of reality. (...)
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  34.  52
    Kant on the History of Nature: The Ambiguous Heritage of the Critical Philosophy for Natural History.Phillip R. Sloan - 2006 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 37 (4):627-648.
    This paper seeks to show Kant’s importance for the formal distinction between descriptive natural history and a developmental history of nature that entered natural history discussions in the late eighteenth century. It is argued that he developed this distinction initially upon Buffon’s distinctions of ‘abstract’ and ‘physical’ truths, and applied these initially in his distinction of ‘varieties’ from ‘races’ in anthropology. In the 1770s, Kant appears to have given theoretical preference to the ‘history’ of nature [Naturgeschichte] over ‘description’ of nature (...)
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  35. Realism Without Parochialism.Phillip Bricker - 2020 - In Modal Matters: Essays in Metaphysics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 40-76.
    I am a realist of a metaphysical stripe. I believe in an immense realm of "modal" and "abstract" entities, of entities that are neither part of, nor stand in any causal relation to, the actual, concrete world. For starters: I believe in possible worlds and individuals; in propositions, properties, and relations (both abundantly and sparsely conceived); in mathematical objects and structures; and in sets (or classes) of whatever I believe in. Call these sorts of entity, and the reality they comprise, (...)
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  36. Debating the Ethics of Immigration: Is There a Right to Exclude?Christopher Heath Wellman & Phillip Cole - 2011 - Oup Usa.
    Do states have the right to prevent potential immigrants from crossing their borders, or should people have the freedom to migrate and settle wherever they wish? Christopher Heath Wellman and Phillip Cole develop and defend opposing answers to this timely and important question.
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  37. Evolution and Devolution of Folkbiological Knowledge.Phillip Wolff, Douglas L. Medin & Connie Pankratz - 1999 - Cognition 73 (2):177-204.
  38. Is Bill Cosby Still Funny? On Separating the Art From the Artist in Standup Comedy.Phillip Deen - 2019 - Studies in American Humor 5 (2):288-308.
    Bill Cosby’s immorality has raised intriguing aesthetic and ethical issues. Do the crimes that he has been convicted of lessen the aesthetic value of his stand-up and, even if we can enjoy it, should we? This article first discusses the intimate relationship between the comedian and audience. The art form itself is structurally intimate, and at the same time the comedian claims to express an authentic self on stage. After drawing an analogy between the question of the moral character of (...)
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  39. Plenitude of Possible Structures.Phillip Bricker - 1991 - Journal of Philosophy 88 (11):607-619.
    Which mathematical structures are possible, that is, instantiated by the concrete inhabitants of some possible world? Are there worlds with four-dimensional space? With infinite-dimensional space? Whence comes our knowledge of the possibility of structures? In this paper, I develop and defend a principle of plenitude according to which any mathematically natural generalization of possible structure is itself possible. I motivate the principle pragmatically by way of the role that logical possibility plays in our inquiry into the world.
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  40.  83
    Epicurus' Ethical Theory: The Pleasures of Invulnerability.Phillip Mitsis - 1988 - Cornell University Press.
    By means of a comprehensive and penetrating examination of the main elements of Epicurean ethics, Phillip Mitsis forces us to reevaluate this widely misunderstood figure in the history of philosophy.
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  41.  56
    Is There a Humean Account of Quantities?Phillip Bricker - 2017 - Philosophical Issues 27 (1):26-51.
    Humeans have a problem with quantities. A core principle of any Humean account of modality is that fundamental entities can freely recombine. But determinate quantities, if fundamental, seem to violate this core principle: determinate quantities belonging to the same determinable necessarily exclude one another. Call this the problem of exclusion. Prominent Humeans have responded in various ways. Wittgenstein, when he resurfaced to philosophy, gave the problem of exclusion as a reason to abandon the logical atomism of the Tractatus with its (...)
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  42. Causal Superseding.Jonathan F. Kominsky, Jonathan Phillips, Tobias Gerstenberg, David Lagnado & Joshua Knobe - 2015 - Cognition 137:196-209.
    When agents violate norms, they are typically judged to be more of a cause of resulting outcomes. In this paper, we suggest that norm violations also affect the causality attributed to other agents, a phenomenon we refer to as "causal superseding." We propose and test a counterfactual reasoning model of this phenomenon in four experiments. Experiments 1 and 2 provide an initial demonstration of the causal superseding effect and distinguish it from previously studied effects. Experiment 3 shows that this causal (...)
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  43. Truthmaking: With and Without Counterpart Theory.Phillip Bricker - 2015 - In Barry Loewer & Jonathan Schaffer (eds.), The Blackwell Companion to David Lewis. Blackwell.
    According to the Truthmaker Principle: every truth has a truthmaker. Attempts to come to grips with the Truthmaker Principle played a prominent role in Lewis’s metaphysical writings over the last fifteen years of his career. Although Lewis agreed that the truth of propositions must somehow be ontologically grounded, the Truthmaker Principle was too strong: it conflicted with two of Lewis’s most fundamental metaphysical assumptions, the uniqueness of composition and the Humean denial of necessary connections. Lewis endorsed instead a weaker principle: (...)
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  44.  5
    Speed-Accuracy Tradeoffs in Brain and Behavior: Testing the Independence of P300 and N400 Related Processes in Behavioral Responses to Sentence Categorization. [REVIEW]Phillip M. Alday & Franziska Kretzschmar - 2019 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 13.
  45.  68
    Religion in Wittgenstein's Mirror: D. Z. Phillips.D. Z. Phillips - 1990 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 28:135-150.
    There is a well-known remark in Wittgenstein's Philosophical Investigations which even some philosophers sympathetic to his work have found very hard to accept. It reads: Philosophy may in no way interfere with the actual use of language; it can in the end only describe it. For it cannot give it any foundation either. It leaves everything as it is. Surely, it is said, that is carrying matters too far. Wittgenstein's hyperbole should be excused as a harmless stylistic flourish.
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  46. Supervisors and Academic Integrity: Supervisors as Exemplars and Mentors. [REVIEW]Phillip W. Gray & Sara R. Jordan - 2012 - Journal of Academic Ethics 10 (4):299-311.
    The inculcation of academic integrity among post-graduate students is an ongoing concern for universities across the world. While various researchers have focused on causal relations between forms of instruction, student characteristics, and possession of academic integrity, there is need for an increased examination of the role of supervisors in shaping student perceptions of academic integrity. Unlike the undergraduate level, where student interaction with professors is often limited, post-graduate students have an ongoing relationship with their supervisors, whether at the Masters or (...)
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  47.  15
    Phillips on Unconscious Perception and Overflow.Nicholas D’Aloisio-Montilla - 2019 - Philosophia 47 (3):649-662.
    Phillips argues that Block faces a “serious internal challenge” in defending the claim that unconscious perception is of the same fundamental kind as conscious perception. This challenge is said to result from Block’s commitment to phenomenal overflow. However, in this paper, I demonstrate that Phillips’ rejection of overflow likewise renders his view on unconscious perception “internally challenged” and therefore equally problematic.
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  48.  51
    Ethical Principles for Decision Makers: A Longitudinal Survey. [REVIEW]Phillip V. Lewis - 1989 - Journal of Business Ethics 8 (4):271 - 278.
    This paper is based on a five-year study of the ethical principles considered by executives, middle managers, and students as appropriate guidelines for making decisions. Out of the fourteen principles surveyed, nine seem to be standards that can be applied with no further thought or research required by the decision maker. The other six principles may suggest decisions makers need clearer guidelines as to what to do or what not to do when faced with an ethical dilemma that exists outside (...)
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  49.  21
    Foundations of Rational Choice Under Risk.David Phillips - 1995 - Philosophical Review 104 (3):474-476.
  50.  30
    Mass Terms and Model-Theoretic Semantics.Phillip Bricker & Harry C. Bunt - 1988 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 53 (2):653.
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