Results for 'Philosophy of Evidence-Based Medicine'

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  1. The philosophy of evidence-based medicine.Jeremy H. Howick - 2011 - Chichester, West Sussex, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, BMJ Books.
    The philosophy of evidence-based medicine -- What is EBM? -- What is good evidence for a clinical decision? -- Ruling out plausible rival hypotheses and confounding factors : a method -- Resolving the paradox of effectiveness : when do observational studies offer the same degree of evidential support as randomized trials? -- Questioning double blinding as a universal methodological virtue of clinical trials : resolving the Philip's paradox -- Placebo controls : problematic and misleading baseline (...)
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  2. Philosophy of Evidence Based Medicine (Oxford Bibliography: http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780195396577/obo-9780195396577-0253.xml).Jeremy Howick, Ashley Graham Kennedy & Alexander Mebius - 2015 - Oxford Bibliography.
    Since its introduction just over two decades ago, evidence-based medicine (EBM) has come to dominate medical practice, teaching, and policy. There are a growing number of textbooks, journals, and websites dedicated to EBM research, teaching, and evidence dissemination. EBM was most recently defined as a method that integrates best research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values and circumstances in the treatment of patients. There have been debates throughout the early 21st century about what counts (...)
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    Research gaps in the philosophy of evidencebased medicine.Alexander Mebius, Ashley Graham Kennedy & Jeremy Howick - 2016 - Philosophy Compass 11 (11):757-771.
    Increasing philosophical attention is being directed to the rapidly growing discipline of evidence-based medicine. Philosophical discussions of EBM, however, remain narrowly focused on randomization, mechanisms, and the sociology of EBM. Other aspects of EBM have been all but ignored, including the nature of clinical reasoning and the question of whether it can be standardized; the application of EBM principles to the logic, value, and ethics of diagnosis and prognosis; evidence synthesis ; and the nature and ethics (...)
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    The Philosophy of Evidence-Based Medicine by Jeremy Howick. [REVIEW]Leemon McHenry - 2017 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 27 (3):1-5.
    The idea that prescribing physicians should be guided by the most reliable scientific evidence seems obvious, but the actual methodology of evidence-based medicine was only introduced in the early 1990s by an international group of clinicians and researchers led by Gordon Guyatt. Since then it has provided a new paradigm for the scientific foundation of medicine and has influenced other disciplines outside of medicine, for example, evidence-based psychotherapy, science and government. The novel (...)
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    The Illusion of Evidence-Based Medicine: Exposing the Crisis of Credibility in Clinical Research.Leemon McHenry & Jon Jureidini - 2020 - Adelaide SA, Australia: Wakefield Press.
    We live in an age alleged devoted to evidence-based medicine. Evidence-based medicine, however, depends on reliable data and if the data are largely, if not completely, manipulated by the manufacturer of pharmaceuticals, then the data are not reliable. Evidence-based medicine is an illusion. This book raises and attempts to answer the following questions: What are the ways in which the profit motive of industry undermines the integrity of science? How is science (...)
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    Not a philosophy of clinical medicine: a commentary on 'The Philosophy of Evidencebased Medicine' Howick, J. ed. (2001).Mark R. Tonelli - 2011 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 17 (5):1013-1017.
  7.  51
    Jeremy Howick: The Philosophy of Evidence-Based Medicine[REVIEW]James A. Marcum - 2011 - Medicine Studies 3 (2):125-128.
  8.  13
    Epistemologies of evidence-based medicine: a plea for corpus-based conceptual research in the medical humanities.Jan Buts, Mona Baker, Saturnino Luz & Eivind Engebretsen - 2021 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 24 (4):621-632.
    Evidence-based medicine has been the subject of much controversy within and outside the field of medicine, with its detractors characterizing it as reductionist and authoritarian, and its proponents rejecting such characterization as a caricature of the actual practice. At the heart of this controversy is a complex linguistic and social process that cannot be illuminated by appealing to the semantics of the modifier evidence-based. The complexity lies in the nature of evidence as a (...)
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    Jeremy Howick: The philosophy of evidence-based medicine: Wiley-Blackwell, West Sussex, UK, 2011, 229 pp, $58.95 , ISBN: 9781405196673. [REVIEW]Robyn Bluhm - 2011 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 32 (6):423-427.
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    Jeremy Howick The Philosophy of EvidenceBased Medicine.Wiley‐Blackwell & BMJ Books, 2011. xiv + 229 pp. ISBN 978‐1‐4051‐9667‐3 (paperback). [REVIEW]Jesper Jerkert - 2013 - Theoria 79 (2):180-186.
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    The challenges of evidence-based medicine: A philosophical perspective.Abhaya V. Kulkarni - 2005 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 8 (2):255-260.
    Although evidence-based medicine (EBM) has gained prominence in current medical practice and research, it has also had to deal with a number of problems and inconsistencies. For example, how do clinicians reconcile discordant results of randomized trials or how do they apply results of randomized trials to individual patients? In an attempt to examine such problems in a structured way, this essay describes EBM within a philosophical framework of science. Using this approach, some of the problems and (...)
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    Critically Appraising Pragmatist Critiques of Evidence-Based Medicine: Is EBM Defensible on Pragmatist Grounds?S. Joshua Thomas - 2022 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 48 (1):73-83.
    Significant contributions to debates in the philosophy of evidence-based medicine (EBM) have come from a variety of different philosophical quarters, yet mainstream discourse in the field has been largely devoid of contributions from scholars working in the pragmatist tradition. This is a particularly conspicuous omission, given pragmatism’s commitment to the melioristic view that philosophy both can, and should, be about the business of concretely bettering the human estate. Two exceptions to this oversight come from Brian (...)
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  13. On Evidence and Evidence-Based Medicine: Lessons from the Philosophy of Science.Maya J. Goldenberg - 2006 - Social Science and Medicine 62 (11):2621-2632.
    The evidence-based medicine (EBM) movement is touted as a new paradigm in medical education and practice, a description that carries with it an enthusiasm for science that has not been seen since logical positivism flourished (circa 1920–1950). At the same time, the term ‘‘evidence-based medicine’’ has a ring of obviousness to it, as few physicians, one suspects, would claim that they do not attempt to base their clinical decision-making on available evidence. However, the (...)
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  14. Corroborating evidencebased medicine.Alexander Mebius - 2014 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 20 (6):915-920.
    Proponents of evidence-based medicine have argued convincingly for applying this scientific method to medicine. However, the current methodological framework of the EBM movement has recently been called into question, especially in epidemiology and the philosophy of science. The debate has focused on whether the methodology of randomized controlled trials provides the best evidence available. This paper attempts to shift the focus of the debate by arguing that clinical reasoning involves a patchwork of evidential approaches (...)
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  15.  75
    Ethics, philosophy, and evidence based medicine.R. Ashcroft - 2004 - Journal of Medical Ethics 30 (2):119-119.
    The editors of the symposium hope it will provide a balanced appraisal of evidence based medicine.This symposium is devoted to evidence based medicine and the ethical issues it raises. Since Sir Archie Cochrane’s seminal Nuffield Provincial Hospitals Trust lectures in 1972 and their publication as the Rock Carling monograph for that year, Effectiveness and Efficiency: Random Reflections on Health Services, the idea that medical interventions and health services should be evaluated and selected on the (...)
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    Evidencebased medicine and philosophy of science.Robyn Bluhm - 2010 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (2):363-364.
  17.  8
    Evidence-based Medicine and Mechanistic Evidence: The Case of the Failed Rollout of Efavirenz in Zimbabwe.Andrew Park, Daniel Steel & Elicia Maine - 2023 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 48 (4):348-358.
    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) has long deemphasized mechanistic reasoning and pathophysiological rationale in assessing the effectiveness of interventions. The EBM+ movement has challenged this stance, arguing that evidence of mechanisms and comparative studies should both be seen as necessary and complementary. Advocates of EBM+ provide a combination of theoretical arguments and examples of mechanistic reasoning in medical research. However, EBM+ proponents have not provided recent examples of how downplaying mechanistic reasoning resulted in worse medical results than would (...)
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    The Limits of Evidence-Based Medicine in Psychiatry.Philip Thomas, Pat Bracken & Sami Timimi - 2012 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 19 (4):295-308.
    It has often been emphasised that psychiatry is still an ‘expertise’ and has not yet reached the status of a science. Science calls for systematic, conceptual thinking which can be communicated to others. Only in so far as psychopathology does this can it claim to be regarded as a science. What in psychiatry is just expertise and art can never be accurately formulated and can at best be mutually sensed by another colleague. It is therefore hardly a matter for textbooks (...)
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  19. Book Review Jeremy Howick , The Philosophy of Evidence-Based Medicine . Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell (2011), 248 pp., $61.95 (paper). [REVIEW]Alex Broadbent - 2013 - Philosophy of Science 80 (1):165-168.
  20. Evidence-Based Medicine Must Be ..A. La Caze - 2009 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 34 (5):509-527.
    Proponents of evidence-based medicine (EBM) provide the “hierarchy of evidence” as a criterion for judging the reliability of therapeutic decisions. EBM's hierarchy places randomized interventional studies (and systematic reviews of such studies) higher in the hierarchy than observational studies, unsystematic clinical experience, and basic science. Recent philosophical work has questioned whether EBM's special emphasis on evidence from randomized interventional studies can be justified. Following the critical literature, and in particular the work of John Worrall, I (...)
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  21. Evidence based medicine and evidence based public health.Benjamin Smart - 2019 - In Maria Lasonen-Aarnio & Clayton Littlejohn (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of the Philosophy of Evidence. Routledge.
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  22. EvidenceBased Medicine Can’t Be….Adam La Caze - 2008 - Social Epistemology 22 (4):353 – 370.
    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) puts forward a hierarchy of evidence for informing therapeutic decisions. An unambiguous interpretation of how to apply EBM's hierarchy has not been provided in the clinical literature. However, as much as an interpretation is provided proponents suggest a categorical interpretation. The categorical interpretation holds that all the results of randomised trials always trump evidence from lower down the hierarchy when it comes to informing therapeutic decisions. Most of the critical replies to EBM (...)
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    Who’s afraid of EBM? Medical professionalism from the perspective of evidence-based medicine.Sabine Salloch - 2017 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 20 (1):61-66.
    Evidence-based medicine and medical professionalism are two prominent notions in current medical debates. However, proponents of professionalism fear a restriction in doctors’ freedom to make their best decisions for individual patients caused by the influence of EBM and highly standardised decision procedures. The challenge which EBM allegedly poses to physicians’ discretion forms the starting point for an analysis of the relationship between professionalism, as an inherent value system of medical practice, and EBM, as an approach to optimise (...)
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  24. Just a paradigm: evidence-based medicine in epistemological context.Miriam Solomon - 2011 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 1 (3):451-466.
    Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) developed from the work of clinical epidemiologists at McMaster University and Oxford University in the 1970s and 1980s and self-consciously presented itself as a "new paradigm" called "evidence-based medicine" in the early 1990s. The techniques of the randomized controlled trial, systematic review and meta-analysis have produced an extensive and powerful body of research. They have also generated a critical literature that raises general concerns about its methods. This paper is a systematic (...)
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    Evidence-Based Medicine: A new tool for resource allocation?Rui Nunes - 2003 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 6 (3):297-301.
    Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) is defined as the conscious, and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients. The greater the level of evidence the greater the grade of recommendation. This pioneering explicit concept of EBM is embedded in a particular view of medical practice namely the singular nature of the patient-physician relation and the commitment of the latter towards a specific goal: the treatment and the well being of (...)
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  26. The role of basic science in evidence-based medicine.Adam La Caze - 2011 - Biology and Philosophy 26 (1):81-98.
    Proponents of Evidence-based medicine (EBM) do not provide a clear role for basic science in therapeutic decision making. Of what they do say about basic science, most of it is negative. Basic science resides on the lower tiers of EBM's hierarchy of evidence. Therapeutic decisions, according to proponents of EBM, should be informed by evidence from randomised studies (and systematic reviews of randomised studies) rather than basic science. A framework of models explicates the links between (...)
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  27. Evidence: philosophy of science meets medicine.John Worrall - 2010 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (2):356-362.
    Obviously medicine should be evidence-based. The issues lie in the details: what exactly counts as evidence? Do certain kinds of evidence carry more weight than others? (And if so why?) And how exactly should medicine be based on evidence? When it comes to these details, the evidence-based medicine (EBM) movement has got itself into a mess – or so it will be argued. In order to start to resolve this (...)
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    Evidence-Based Medicine and Modernism: Still Better Than the Alternatives.Peter Zachar - 2012 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 19 (4):313-316.
    Thomas, Bracken, and Timimi (2012) make an important contribution in critiquing the extent to which the profession of psychiatry can be so bureaucratic that patients are treated as problems to be solved in an ‘efficient’ assembly line fashion rather than as individual persons. The trouble with bureaucracies is that they promote a cold and impersonal accounting approach in which critical reflection on purposes is circumvented by decision-making algorithms (Zachar and Bartlett 2009). Psychotherapy treatment manuals definitely satisfy the bureaucratic instinct, and (...)
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  29. Philosophical controversies in the evaluation of medical treatments : With a focus on the evidential roles of randomization and mechanisms in Evidence-Based Medicine.Alexander Mebius - 2015 - Dissertation, Kth Royal Institute of Technology
    This thesis examines philosophical controversies surrounding the evaluation of medical treatments, with a focus on the evidential roles of randomised trials and mechanisms in Evidence-Based Medicine. Current 'best practice' usually involves excluding non-randomised trial evidence from systematic reviews in cases where randomised trials are available for inclusion in the reviews. The first paper challenges this practice and evaluates whether adding of evidence from non-randomised trials might improve the quality and precision of some systematic reviews. The (...)
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  30. What evidence in evidence-based medicine?John Worrall - 2002 - Proceedings of the Philosophy of Science Association 2002 (3):S316-S330.
    Evidence-Based Medicine is a relatively new movement that seeks to put clinical med- icine on a firmer scientific footing. I take it as uncontroversial that medical practice should be based on best evidence-the interesting questions concern the details. This paper tries to move towards a coherent and unified account of best evidence in medicine, by exploring in particular the EBM position on RCTs (randomized controlled trials).
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    What Evidence in EvidenceBased Medicine?John Worrall - 2002 - Philosophy of Science 69 (S3):S316-S330.
    Evidence-Based Medicine is a relatively new movement that seeks to put clinical medicine on a firmer scientific footing. I take it as uncontroversial that medical practice should be based on best evidence—the interesting questions concern the details. This paper tries to move towards a coherent and unified account of best evidence in medicine, by exploring in particular the EBM position on RCTs.
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    Evidence-based Medicine in Context: A Pragmatist Approach to Psychiatric Practice.Jorid Moen - 2015 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 22 (1):53-62.
    The increased demand for evidence-based medicine has proven much more challenging for psychiatry to accept than for medicine in general. Among the concerns is a perception that EBM does not respond appropriately to the character and complexity of psychiatric disorders and treatments, that the concept of ‘evidence’ is too narrowly construed, and that it may encourage a false sense of competence. It has also been claimed that EBM may encourage a kind of ‘cookbook medicine,’ (...)
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  33. Evidence-Based Medicine.Robyn Bluhm & Kirstin Borgerson - 2011 - In Fred Gifford (ed.), Philosophy of Medicine. Elsevier.
  34.  4
    Evidence-Based Medicine and Modernism: Still Better Than the Alternatives.Tim Thornton - 2012 - Philosophy Psychiatry and Psychology 19 (4):313-316.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:Evidence-Based Medicine and EvaluativismTim Thornton (bio)KeywordsPhilosophy, psychiatry, values, causalThe rise of evidence-based medicine (EBM) in psychiatry has brought, in its train, a concentration on the validity of psychiatric taxonomy to augment the previous focus on reliability (in the medical sense of inter-subject agreement). This is not surprising. If EBM is to be a trustworthy guide to future events, such as patient recovery, it (...)
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    Evidence-Based Medicine and Evaluativism.Tim Thornton - 2008 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 15 (2):175-178.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:Evidence-Based Medicine and EvaluativismTim Thornton (bio)KeywordsPhilosophy, psychiatry, values, causalThe rise of evidence-based medicine (EBM) in psychiatry has brought, in its train, a concentration on the validity of psychiatric taxonomy to augment the previous focus on reliability (in the medical sense of inter-subject agreement). This is not surprising. If EBM is to be a trustworthy guide to future events, such as patient recovery, it (...)
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  36.  50
    Causal knowledge in evidence-based medicine. In reply to Kerry et al.'s causation and evidence-based practice: an ontological review.Anders Strand & Veli-Pekka Parkkinen - 2014 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 20 (6):981-984.
    Kerry et al. criticize our discussion of causal knowledge in evidence-based medicine (EBM) and our assessment of the relevance of their dispositionalist ontology for EBM. Three issues need to be addressed in response: (1) problems concerning transfer of causal knowledge across heterogeneous contexts; (2) how predictions about the effects of individual treatments based on population-level evidence from RCTs are fallible; and (3) the relevance of ontological theories like dispositionalism for EBM.
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  37. Innovating Medical Knowledge: Undestanding Evidence-Based Medicine as a Socio-medical Phenomenon.Maya J. Goldenberg - 2012 - In Nikolaos Sitaras (ed.), Evidence-Based Medicine: Closer to Patients or Scientists? InTech Open Science.
    Because few would object to evidence-based medicine’s (EBM) principal task of basing medical decisionmaking on the most judicious and up-to-date evidence, the debate over this prolific movement may seem puzzling. Who, one may ask, could be against evidence (Carr-Hill, 2006)? Yet this question belies the sophistication of the evidence-based movement. This chapter presents the evidence-based approach as a socio-medical phenomenon and seeks to explain and negotiate the points of disagreement between supporters (...)
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  38.  23
    Expertise in evidence-based medicine: a tale of three models.Sarah Wieten - 2018 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 13:2.
    BackgroundExpertise has been a contentious concept in Evidence-Based Medicine. Especially in the early days of the movement, expertise was taken to be exactly what EBM was rebelling against—the authoritarian pronouncements about “best” interventions dutifully learned in medical schools, sometimes with dire consequences. Since then, some proponents of EBM have tried various ways of reincorporating the idea of expertise into EBM, with mixed results. However, questions remain. Is expertise evidence? If not, what is it good for, if (...)
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    Médecine de précision et Evidence-Based Medicine : quelle articulation?Élodie Giroux - 2017 - Lato Sensu: Revue de la Société de Philosophie des Sciences 4 (2):49-65.
    Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) and Personalized Medicine (PM) share a common goal: reducing the gap between the results of biomedical research and their clinical application. PM is, however, often presented as a “new paradigm” for medicine, just as EBM was in the 1990s. It covers a wide variety of projects but the core idea that generally unites them is the ambition of better taking account of individual specificities than did EBM with its statistical and population-centred approach. (...)
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  40. Evidence in medicine and evidence-based medicine.John Worrall - 2007 - Philosophy Compass 2 (6):981–1022.
    It is surely obvious that medicine, like any other rational activity, must be based on evidence. The interest is in the details: how exactly are the general principles of the logic of evidence to be applied in medicine? Focussing on the development, and current claims of the ‘Evidence-Based Medicine’ movement, this article raises a number of difficulties with the rationales that have been supplied in particular for the ‘evidence hierarchy’ and for (...)
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  41. Rationalism, Empiricism, and Evidence-Based Medicine: A Call for a New Galenic Synthesis.William Webb - 2018 - Medicines 5 (2).
    Thirty years after the rise of the evidence-based medicine (EBM) movement, formal training in philosophy remains poorly represented among medical students and their educators. In this paper, I argue that EBM’s reception in this context has resulted in a privileging of empiricism over rationalism in clinical reasoning with unintended consequences for medical practice. After a limited review of the history of medical epistemology, I argue that a solution to this problem can be found in the method (...)
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    Models in the balance: evidencebased medicine versus evidence‐informed individualized care.Andrew Miles & Michael Loughlin - 2011 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 17 (4):531-536.
  43.  36
    Justifying patient self-management – evidence based medicine or the primacy of the first person perspective.Søren Holm - 2005 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 8 (2):159-164.
    Patient self-management programs have become increasingly popular and are now also receiving official endorsements. This paper analyses two possible types of positive justifications for promoting patient self-management: evidence-based and patient-centred justifications. It is argued that evidence-based justifications, although important politically are deficient and that the primary justification for patient self-management must be a patient-centred justification focusing on the patient’s privileged access to his or her own lived body.
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  44. Epistemic causality and evidence-based medicine.Federica Russo & Jon Williamson - 2011 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 33 (4).
    Causal claims in biomedical contexts are ubiquitous albeit they are not always made explicit. This paper addresses the question of what causal claims mean in the context of disease. It is argued that in medical contexts causality ought to be interpreted according to the epistemic theory. The epistemic theory offers an alternative to traditional accounts that cash out causation either in terms of “difference-making” relations or in terms of mechanisms. According to the epistemic approach, causal claims tell us about which (...)
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  45. Evidencebased healthcare, clinical knowledge and the rise of personalised medicine.Andrew Miles, Michael Loughlin & Andreas Polychronis - 2008 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 14 (5):621-649.
  46.  24
    Emergence and Evidence: A Close Look at Bunge’s Philosophy of Medicine.Rainer J. Klement & Prasanta S. Bandyopadhyay - 2019 - Philosophies 4 (3):50.
    In his book “Medical Philosophy: Conceptual issues in Medicine”, Mario Bunge provides a unique account of medical philosophy that is deeply rooted in a realist ontology he calls “systemism”. According to systemism, the world consists of systems and their parts, and systems possess emergent properties that their parts lack. Events within systems may form causes and effects that are constantly conjoined via particular mechanisms. Bunge supports the views of the evidence-based medicine movement that randomized (...)
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    Critique of (im)pure reason: evidencebased medicine and common sense.James Michelson - 2004 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 10 (2):157-161.
  48.  22
    Response: Clinical Wisdom and Evidence-Based Medicine Are Complementary.Julian De Freitas, Omar S. Haque, Abilash A. Gopal & Harold J. Bursztajn - 2012 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 23 (1):28-36.
    A long-debated question in the philosophy of health, and contingent disciplines, is the extent to which wise clinical practice (“clinical wisdom”) is, or could be, compatible with empirically validated medicine (“evidence-based medicine”—EBM). Here we respond to Baum-Baicker and Sisti, who not only suggest that these two types of knowledge are divided due to their differing sources, but also that EBM can sometimes even hurt wise clinical practice. We argue that the distinction between EBM and clinical (...)
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    The power of meta-analysis: a challenge for evidence-based medicine.Paola Berchialla, Daniele Chiffi, Giovanni Valente & Ari Voutilainen - 2020 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 11 (1):1-18.
    This paper discusses the outstanding problem of replicability of empirical data in the context of recent work on meta-analysis, especially within the field of evidence-based medicine. Specifically, it deals with the methodological issue of how to determine the degrees of heterogeneity between different collected studies. After critically reviewing the standard measures used to quantify meta-analytical heterogeneity, we argue that they should be revised in such a way to take into account the statistical power of the individual studies. (...)
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    Whither our art? Clinical wisdom and evidence-based medicine.Malcolm Parker - 2002 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 5 (3):273-280.
    The relationship between evidence-based medicine (EBM) and clinical judgement is the subject of conceptual and practical dispute. For example, EBM and clinical guidelines are seen to increasingly dominate medical decision-making at the expense of other, human elements, and to threaten the art of medicine. Clinical wisdom always remains open to question. We want to know why particular beliefs are held, and the epistemological status of claims based in wisdom or experience. The paper critically appraises a (...)
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