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Phoebe Friesen
McGill University
  1.  37
    Personal Responsibility Within Health Policy: Unethical and Ineffective.Phoebe Friesen - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (1):53-58.
    This paper argues against incorporating assessments of individual responsibility into healthcare policies by expanding an existing argument and offering a rebuttal to an argument in favour of such policies. First, it is argued that what primarily underlies discussions surrounding personal responsibility and healthcare is not causal responsibility, moral responsibility or culpability, as one might expect, but biases towards particular highly stigmatised behaviours. A challenge is posed for proponents of taking personal responsibility into account within health policy to either expand the (...)
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  2. Ethical Issues in Text Mining for Mental Health.Joshua Skorburg & Phoebe Friesen - forthcoming - In M. Dehghani & R. Boyd (ed.), The Atlas of Language Analysis in Psychology.
    A recent systematic review of Machine Learning (ML) approaches to health data, containing over 100 studies, found that the most investigated problem was mental health (Yin et al., 2019). Relatedly, recent estimates suggest that between 165,000 and 325,000 health and wellness apps are now commercially available, with over 10,000 of those designed specifically for mental health (Carlo et al., 2019). In light of these trends, the present chapter has three aims: (1) provide an informative overview of some of the recent (...)
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  3.  36
    Rethinking the Belmont Report?Phoebe Friesen, Lisa Kearns, Barbara Redman & Arthur L. Caplan - 2017 - American Journal of Bioethics 17 (7):15-21.
    This article reflects on the relevance and applicability of the Belmont Report nearly four decades after its original publication. In an exploration of criticisms that have been raised in response to the report and of significant changes that have occurred within the context of biomedical research, five primary themes arise. These themes include the increasingly vague boundary between research and practice, unique harms to communities that are not addressed by the principle of respect for persons, and how growing complexity and (...)
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  4.  16
    Pain, Placebo, and Cognitive Penetration.Henry Shevlin & Phoebe Friesen - forthcoming - Mind and Language.
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  5.  7
    Trust, Trustworthiness and Sharing Patient Data for Research.Mark Sheehan, Phoebe Friesen, Adrian Balmer, Corina Cheeks, Sara Davidson, James Devereux, Douglas Findlay, Katharine Keats-Rohan, Rob Lawrence & Kamran Shafiq - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics:medethics-2019-106048.
    When it comes to using patient data from the National Health Service for research, we are often told that it is a matter of trust: we need to trust, we need to build trust, we need to restore trust. Various policy papers and reports articulate and develop these ideas and make very important contributions to public dialogue on the trustworthiness of our research institutions. But these documents and policies are apparently constructed with little sustained reflection on the nature of trust (...)
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  6.  38
    Educational Pelvic Exams on Anesthetized Women: Why Consent Matters.Phoebe Friesen - 2018 - Bioethics 32 (5):298-307.
    It is argued here that the practice of medical students performing pelvic exams on women who are under anesthetic and have not consented is immoral and indefensible. This argument begins by laying out the ethical justification for the practice of informed consent, which can be found in autonomy and basic rights. Foregoing the process of consent within medicine can result in violations of both autonomy and basic rights, as well as trust, forming the basis of the wrong of unauthorized pelvic (...)
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  7.  30
    National Standards for Public Involvement in Research: Missing the Forest for the Trees.Matthew S. McCoy, Karin Rolanda Jongsma, Phoebe Friesen, Michael Dunn, Carolyn Plunkett Neuhaus, Leah Rand & Mark Sheehan - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (12):801-804.
    Biomedical research funding bodies across Europe and North America increasingly encourage—and, in some cases, require—investigators to involve members of the public in funded research. Yet there remains a striking lack of clarity about what ‘good’ or ‘successful’ public involvement looks like. In an effort to provide guidance to investigators and research organisations, representatives of several key research funding bodies in the UK recently came together to develop the National Standards for Public Involvement in Research. The Standards have critical implications for (...)
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  8.  6
    Transforming Bioethics: The Need for Strong Objectivity and Standpoints.Phoebe Friesen - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (2):58-60.
    In their target article, Zamina Mithani, Jane Cooper, and J. Wesley Boyd make a compelling case for the importance of “counter storytelling” in bioethics. They obse...
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  9.  4
    Equitable Access to Research Benefits: Considerations for COVID-19 Vaccine Development and Clinical Trial Crossover.Danish Zaidi, Jennifer Miller, Tanvee Varma, Dowin Boatright & Phoebe Friesen - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (3):86-88.
    COVID-19 vaccine research success and emergency use authorizations have shown the life sciences’ potential for positive health impact. But they also underscore potentially divergent and conf...
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  10.  6
    Public Involvement in the Governance of Population-Level Biomedical Research: Unresolved Questions and Future Directions.Sonja Erikainen, Phoebe Friesen, Leah Rand, Karin Jongsma, Michael Dunn, Annie Sorbie, Matthew McCoy, Jessica Bell, Michael Burgess, Haidan Chen, Vicky Chico, Sarah Cunningham-Burley, Julie Darbyshire, Rebecca Dawson, Andrew Evans, Nick Fahy, Teresa Finlay, Lucy Frith, Aaron Goldenberg, Lisa Hinton, Nils Hoppe, Nigel Hughes, Barbara Koenig, Sapfo Lignou, Michelle McGowan, Michael Parker, Barbara Prainsack, Mahsa Shabani, Ciara Staunton, Rachel Thompson, Kinga Varnai, Effy Vayena, Oli Williams, Max Williamson, Sarah Chan & Mark Sheehan - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics:medethics-2020-106530.
    Population-level biomedical research offers new opportunities to improve population health, but also raises new challenges to traditional systems of research governance and ethical oversight. Partly in response to these challenges, various models of public involvement in research are being introduced. Yet, the ways in which public involvement should meet governance challenges are not well understood. We conducted a qualitative study with 36 experts and stakeholders using the World Café method to identify key governance challenges and explore how public involvement can (...)
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  11.  15
    The Challenge of Demandingness in Citizen Science and Participatory Research.Karin Jongsma & Phoebe Friesen - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (8):33-35.
    Volume 19, Issue 8, August 2019, Page 33-35.
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  12.  37
    Placebo Effects and Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities: An Unjust and Underexplored Connection.Phoebe Friesen & Charlotte Blease - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics Recent Issues 44 (11):774-781.
    While a significant body of bioethical literature considers how the placebo effect might introduce a conflict between autonomy and beneficence, the link between justice and the placebo effect has been neglected. Here, we bring together disparate evidence from the field of placebo studies and research on health inequalities related to race and ethnicity, and argue that, collectively, this evidence may provide the basis for an unacknowledged route by which health disparities are exacerbated. This route is constituted by an uneven distribution (...)
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  13.  8
    On Female Genital Cutting: Factors to Be Considered When Confronted With a Request to Re-Infibulate.Mona Saleh, Phoebe Friesen & Veronica Ades - 2018 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 15 (4):549-555.
    According to the World Health Organization, female genital cutting affects millions of girls and women worldwide, particularly on the African continent and in the Middle East. This paper presents a plausible, albeit hypothetical, clinical vignette and then explores the legal landscape as well as the ethical landscape physicians should use to evaluate the adult patient who requests re-infibulation. The principles of non-maleficence, beneficence, justice, and autonomy are considered for guidance, and physician conscientious objection to this procedure is discussed as well. (...)
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  14.  21
    A Place for Subjectivity in Psychiatry.Phoebe Friesen - 2017 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 8 (2):116-117.
  15.  11
    Extending Ethical Strides: From Tribal IRBs to the Bronx Community Research Review Board.Phoebe Friesen, Lisa Kearns, Barbara K. Redman & Arthur L. Caplan - 2017 - American Journal of Bioethics 17 (11):W5-W8.
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  16.  8
    Expanding Outcome Measures in Schizophrenia Research: Does the Research Domain Criteria Pose a Threat?Phoebe Friesen - 2019 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 26 (3):243-260.
    In the introduction to a recent anthology of contemporary issues in philosophy of psychiatry, editors Jeffrey Poland and Şerife Tekin declare this to be a moment of crisis within the field. They suggest that the state of psychiatry today reflects Thomas Kuhn's conception of a period of extraordinary science, which occurs when anomalies begin to build up, confidence in the dominant paradigm is shook, competing theories arise, and philosophical questions come to the fore. Although perhaps not all would agree that (...)
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  17.  16
    Extraordinary Science and Psychiatry: Responses to the Crisis in Mental Health Research. [REVIEW]Phoebe Friesen - 2018 - Philosophical Psychology 31 (1):146-150.
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  18.  14
    Governing AI-Driven Health Research: Are IRBs Up to the Task?Phoebe Friesen, Rachel Douglas-Jones, Mason Marks, Robin Pierce, Katherine Fletcher, Abhishek Mishra, Jessica Lorimer, Carissa Véliz, Nina Hallowell, Mackenzie Graham, Mei Sum Chan, Huw Davies & Taj Sallamuddin - 2021 - Ethics and Human Research 2 (43):35-42.
    Many are calling for concrete mechanisms of oversight for health research involving artificial intelligence (AI). In response, institutional review boards (IRBs) are being turned to as a familiar model of governance. Here, we examine the IRB model as a form of ethics oversight for health research that uses AI. We consider the model's origins, analyze the challenges IRBs are facing in the contexts of both industry and academia, and offer concrete recommendations for how these committees might be adapted in order (...)
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  19.  15
    Medically Assisted Dying and Suicide: How Are They Different, and How Are They Similar?Phoebe Friesen - 2020 - Hastings Center Report 50 (1):32-43.
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  20.  8
    Towards an Account of the Placebo Effect: A Critical Evaluation Alongside Current Evidence.Phoebe Friesen - 2020 - Biology and Philosophy 35 (1):1-23.
    This paper offers a critical analysis of several accounts of the placebo effect that have been put forward. While the placebo effect is most often thought of as a control in research and as a deceptive tool in practice, a growing body of research suggests that it ought to be thought of as a powerful phenomenon in its own right. Several accounts that aim to draw boundaries around the placebo effect are evaluated in relation to current evidence and it is (...)
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  21.  3
    Surrogate Decision Making for Unrepresented Patients: Proposing a Harm Reduction Interpretation of the Best Interest Standard.Nada Gligorov & Phoebe Friesen - 2020 - Clinical Ethics 15 (2):57-64.
    Unrepresented patients are individuals who lack decision makingcapacity and have no family or friends to make medical decisions for them. This population is growing in number in the United States, particularly within emergency and intensive care settings. While some bioethical discussion has taken place in response to the question of who ought to make decisions for these patients, the issue of how surrogate medical decisions ought to be made for this population remains unexplored. In this paper, we argue that standard (...)
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  22.  3
    Recommendations for Responsible Development and Application of Neurotechnologies.Sara Goering, Eran Klein, Laura Specker Sullivan, Anna Wexler, Blaise Agüera Y. Arcas, Guoqiang Bi, Jose M. Carmena, Joseph J. Fins, Phoebe Friesen, Jack Gallant, Jane E. Huggins, Philipp Kellmeyer, Adam Marblestone, Christine Mitchell, Erik Parens, Michelle Pham, Alan Rubel, Norihiro Sadato, Mina Teicher, David Wasserman, Meredith Whittaker, Jonathan Wolpaw & Rafael Yuste - forthcoming - Neuroethics:1-22.
    Advancements in novel neurotechnologies, such as brain computer interfaces and neuromodulatory devices such as deep brain stimulators, will have profound implications for society and human rights. While these technologies are improving the diagnosis and treatment of mental and neurological diseases, they can also alter individual agency and estrange those using neurotechnologies from their sense of self, challenging basic notions of what it means to be human. As an international coalition of interdisciplinary scholars and practitioners, we examine these challenges and make (...)
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  23.  12
    More Harm Than Good: Neurotechnological Thought Apprehension in Forensic Psychiatry.Mackenzie Graham & Phoebe Friesen - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 10 (1):17-19.
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  24.  30
    Concerns About Genetic Testing for Schizophrenia Among Young Adults at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis.Ryan E. Lawrence, Phoebe Friesen, Gary Brucato, Ragy R. Girgis & Lisa Dixon - 2016 - Ajob Empirical Bioethics 7 (3):193-198.
    Background: Genetic tests for schizophrenia may introduce risks and benefits. Among young adults at clinical high risk for psychosis, little is known about their concerns and how they assess potential risks. Methods: We conducted semistructured interviews with 15 young adults at clinical high risk for psychosis to ask about their concerns. Results: Participants expressed concerns about test reliability, data interpretation, stigma, psychological harm, family planning, and privacy. Participants’ responses showed some departure from the ethics literature insofar as participants were primarily (...)
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  25.  4
    Ethics Review of Big Data Research: What Should Stay and What Should Be Reformed?Effy Vayena, Minerva Rivas Velarde, Mahsa Shabani, Gabrielle Samuel, Camille Nebeker, S. Matthew Liao, Peter Kleist, Walter Karlen, Jeff Kahn, Phoebe Friesen, Bobbie Farsides, Edward S. Dove, Alessandro Blasimme, Mark Sheehan, Marcello Ienca & Agata Ferretti - 2021 - BMC Medical Ethics 22 (1):1-13.
    BackgroundEthics review is the process of assessing the ethics of research involving humans. The Ethics Review Committee is the key oversight mechanism designated to ensure ethics review. Whether or not this governance mechanism is still fit for purpose in the data-driven research context remains a debated issue among research ethics experts.Main textIn this article, we seek to address this issue in a twofold manner. First, we review the strengths and weaknesses of ERCs in ensuring ethical oversight. Second, we map these (...)
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