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  1.  81
    Online information of vaccines: information quality, not only privacy, is an ethical responsibility of search engines.Pietro Ghezzi, Peter Bannister, Gonzalo Casino, Alessia Catalani, Michel Goldman, Jessica Morley, Marie Neunez, Andreu Prados-Bo, Pierre Robert Smeeters, Mariarosaria Taddeo, Tania Vanzolini & Luciano Floridi - 2021 - Frontiers in Medicine 7.
    The fact that Internet companies may record our personal data and track our online behavior for commercial or political purpose has emphasized aspects related to online privacy. This has also led to the development of search engines that promise no tracking and privacy. Search engines also have a major role in spreading low-quality health information such as that of anti-vaccine websites. This study investigates the relationship between search engines’ approach to privacy and the scientific quality of the information they return. (...)
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  2.  89
    Oxidative stress and inflammation induced by environmental and psychological stressors: a biomarker perspective.Pietro Ghezzi, Luciano Floridi, Diana Boraschi, Antonio Cuadrado, Gina Manda, Snezana Levic, Fulvio D'Acquisito, Alice Hamilton, Toby J. Athersuch & Liza Selley - 2018 - Antioxidants and Redox Signaling 28 (9):852-872.
    The environment can elicit biological responses such as oxidative stress (OS) and inflammation as a consequence of chemical, physical, or psychological changes. As population studies are essential for establishing these environment-organism interactions, biomarkers of OS or inflammation are critical in formulating mechanistic hypotheses. By using examples of stress induced by various mechanisms, we focus on the biomarkers that have been used to assess OS and inflammation in these conditions. We discuss the difference between biomarkers that are the result of a (...)
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  3.  47
    The oxidative stress theory of disease: levels of evidence and epistemological aspects.Pietro Ghezzi, Vincent Jaquet, Fabrizio Marcucci & Harald H. H. W. Schmidt - unknown
    The theory stating that oxidative stress is at the root of several diseases is extremely popular. However, so far, no antioxidant is recommended or offered by healthcare systems neither approved as therapy by regulatory agencies that base their decisions on evidence-based medicine. This is simply because, so far, despite many preclinical and clinical studies indicating a beneficial effect of antioxidants in many disease conditions, randomised clinical trials have failed to provide the evidence of efficacy required for drug approval. In this (...)
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  4. Theory of signs and statistical approach to big data in assessing the relevance of clinical biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress.Pietro Ghezzi, Kevin Davies, Aidan Delaney & Luciano Floridi - 2018 - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 115 (10):2473-2477.
    Biomarkers are widely used not only as prognostic or diagnostic indicators, or as surrogate markers of disease in clinical trials, but also to formulate theories of pathogenesis. We identify two problems in the use of biomarkers in mechanistic studies. The first problem arises in the case of multifactorial diseases, where different combinations of multiple causes result in patient heterogeneity. The second problem arises when a pathogenic mediator is difficult to measure. This is the case of the oxidative stress (OS) theory (...)
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