In the paper we discuss criticisms against David Armstrong’s general theory of truthmaking by Gonzalo Rodriguez-Pereyra, Peter Schulte and Benjamin Schnieder, and conclude that Armstrong’s theory survives these criticisms. Special attention is given to the problems concerning Entailment Principle, Conjunction Thesis, Disjunction Thesis and to the notion of explanation.
The aim of the thesis is to provide the foundations for a representation-based theory of meaning, i.e. a theory of meaning that encompasses the psychological level of cognitive representations. This is in opposition to the antipsychologist goals of the Fregean philosophy of language and represents the results of a joint analysis of multiple philosophical problems in contemporary philosophy of language, which, as argued in the tesis, stem from the lack of recognition of a cognitive level in language. In the thesis, (...) I first provide and argue a definition of cognitive/mental representations based on results in developmental psychology as well as theoretical considerations. Then, I use the definition to build upon it a richer theory of concepts and apply it to various philosophical conundra. The problems tackled include the problem of proper names (for which a solution is proposed that respects the post-Kripkean criticism), a unified meaning postulate for modalities and the epistemology and ontology of mathematical terms. The thesis concludes with a proposed application of the newly acquired framework to select social aspects of language use. (shrink)
During the oppressive reign of Louis XIV, Gabrielle Suchon was the most forceful female voice in France, advocating women’s freedom and self-determination, access to knowledge, and assertion of authority. This volume collects Suchon’s writing from two works—_Treatise on Ethics and Politics_ and _On the Celibate Life Freely Chosen; or, Life without Commitments _—and demonstrates her to be an original philosophical and moral thinker and writer. Suchon argues that both women and men have inherently similar intellectual, corporeal, and spiritual capacities, which (...) entitle them equally to essentially human prerogatives, and she displays her breadth of knowledge as she harnesses evidence from biblical, classical, patristic, and contemporary secular sources to bolster her claim. Forgotten over the centuries, these writings have been gaining increasing attention from feminist historians, students of philosophy, and scholars of seventeenth-century French literature and culture. This translation, from Domna C. Stanton and Rebecca M. Wilkin, marks the first time these works will appear in English. (shrink)
Pragmatics, Micropragmatics, Macropragmatics The paper addresses the distinction between micropragmatics and macropragmatics. It is postulated that this differentiation, a consequence of a number of controversies surrounding the core field of pragmatics, does manifest a number of conceptual merits and methodological feasibility. The article also aims to elaborate on the four concepts central to the methodology of pragmatics, i.e. deixis, presupposition, implicature and speech acts, from an essentially ‘micropragmatic’ perspective, describing their contribution to the proposition of an utterance, its illocutionary force, (...) and a wide range of effects the utterance may produce. At the same time, however, three relativities-regularities are indicated and presented as prompts for an integrated study of intentionality at the macro level of discourse/text. (shrink)
It is necessary for a prince to understand how to avail himself of the beast and the man.Having taken the Romagna in 1502, Cesare Borgia, the Italian nobleman and model for Machiavelli's political treatise The Prince, soon learned how unruly the newly acquired province was. Armed robbery, theft, impudent nepotism, imprecise law, and the racket made by the rebellious common people—all of this demanded the introduction of some kind of order. Messer Ramiro d'Orco, a thirtysomething, dynamic, decisive, resolute, and morally (...) incorruptible man, seemed to be the ideal candidate for the position of governor of the disobedient province. With the protection and consent of the prince, he introduced a strong rule of law that... (shrink)
This essay examines the determination by Cartesians to explain the maternal imagination's alleged role in the formation of birthmarks and the changing notion of monstrosity. Cartesians saw the formation of birthmarks as a challenge through which to demonstrate the heuristic capacity of mechanism. Descartes claimed to be able to explain the transmission of a perception from the mother's imagination to the fetus' skin without having recourse to the little pictures postulated by his contemporaries. La Forge offered a detailed account stating (...) that the failure to explain the maternal imagination's impressions would cast doubt on mechanism. Whereas both characterized the birthmark as a deformation or monstrosity in miniature, Malebranche attributed a role to the maternal imagination in fashioning family likenesses. However, he also charged the mother's imagination with the transmission of original sin. (shrink)
We generalize the Bolzano-Weierstrass theorem on ideal convergence. We show examples of ideals with and without the Bolzano-Weierstrass property, and give characterizations of BW property in terms of submeasures and extendability to a maximal P-ideal. We show applications to Rudin-Keisler and Rudin-Blass orderings of ideals and quotient Boolean algebras. In particular we show that an ideal does not have BW property if and only if its quotient Boolean algebra has a countably splitting family.
The term 'primary health care' (PHC) has come into widespread use by policy-makers, managers and health professionals in the past two decades. There is a variety of definitions and an even wider variety of uses of the term. The purpose of this paper is to examine critically existing definitions and uses, with a particular focus on their usefulness in health policy, clinical practice and research relating to health care systems. The paper has three parts. First, we examine the principal types (...) of definition and identify core features of primary care common to most definitions. Second, we discuss the application of these criteria to a range of services in the UK National Health Service (NHS). Lastly, we examine the ways in which policymakers, health professionals, researchers and lay people use the term, also drawing primarily on UK experience. We conclude by reflecting on the likelihood of achieving a single unambiguous definition and the usefulness of the term for different purposes. (shrink)
This paper discusses the findings of an enquiry into teachers’ perceptions of troublesome behaviour. A questionnaire was distributed to 54 first and middle school teachers on the island of St Helena, in the South Atlantic. The enquiry forms one part of a broader study which is monitoring the effects of the introduction of broadcast television upon preschool and school‐aged children's social and academic behaviour and leisure habits, in St Helena. A total of 50 teachers returned completed questionnaires, resulting in a (...) return rate of 93%. Only 28% of teachers considered that they were spending more time than they ought on problems of order and control. Out of the total sample, 42% of teachers considered ‘talking out of turn’ to be the most disruptive behaviour. ‘Facing away from work’ was the next most disruptive behaviour . ‘Talking out of turn’ and facing away from work’ were also identified as the most commonly occurring behaviours . ‘Talking out of turn’ was also identified as the most disruptive and most frequently occurring behaviour of particularly troublesome children. The survey also examined the perceived frequency of occurrence of particular behaviours ‘around the school’, the most commonly occurring of which was ‘unruliness whilst waiting’. The paper concludes with discussion of the kinds of proactive and reactive responses which teachers can make to the above mentioned misbehaviours. (shrink)
This article examines the performance of masculinity by Piotr Odmieniec Włast in the poetry manuscript “In Grabów during the War:Book of Idyllic Poetry” . Following feminist arguments about the interdependence of the categories of gender and nationness, it argues that Włast uses Polish Romantic messianic discourse to make credible his staging of masculinity. Consequently, it participates in the discussions about the relations between nationness and non-normative gender scenarios.
Taking full measure of Rorty's influence and legacy demands encountering his reception outside North America. One such case, Eastern Europe, where Rorty spent considerable time and enjoys a committed following, is especially interesting, given the post-1989 resonance of his claims about the priority of democracy to philosophy.Polish philosopher Krzysztof Skowroński's attention to the underappreciated normative dimension of Rorty's pragmatism opens a window into this reception. This wide-ranging book advances a core – and, in my view, essential – insight: there is (...) a "profoundly axiological character" to Rorty's philosophy. Even though Rorty consciously eschewed a theory of values or a system of axiology, for... (shrink)
In eleven first-rate essays, the normative thought of C. S. Peirce is not just exegetically exhumed from out of a sprawled corpus, a challenging task in its own right, but actually resuscitated to new life to address contemporary concerns. The goal of this collection is stated simply by de Waal and Skowronski in their introduction. Because there are “an increasing number of people . . . beginning to look at what Peirce has to offer more generally to contemporary esthetics and (...) moral philosophy . . . this volume will prove a valuable starting point for this [interest]” . While this volume is valuable and a successful contribution to Peirce studies, it is by no means a starting point for this kind of elaboration .. (shrink)