Results for 'Platonist Reason'

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  1.  18
    Platonism and Planetary Motion: Reason, Balance and Order in Proclus’ Commentary on Republic 617a4–B4.David Blair Pass - 2016 - Apeiron 49 (3):369-408.
  2. Aristotle's Perceptual Functions Permeated by Platonist Reason.Richard Sorabji - 2004 - In Carlos G. Steel, Gerd van Riel, Caroline Macé & Leen van Campe (eds.), Platonic Ideas and Concept Formation in Ancient and Medieval Thought. Leuven University Press.
  3.  7
    Paragraph Two Aristotle's Perceptual Functions Permeated by Platonist Reason.Richard Sorabji - 2004 - In Carlos G. Steel, Gerd van Riel, Caroline Macé & Leen van Campe (eds.), Platonic Ideas and Concept Formation in Ancient and Medieval Thought. Leuven University Press. pp. 32--99.
  4. Paragraph Two.Platonist Reason & Richard Sorabji - 2004 - In Carlos G. Steel, Gerd van Riel, Caroline Macé & Leen van Campe (eds.), Platonic Ideas and Concept Formation in Ancient and Medieval Thought. Leuven University Press. pp. 32--99.
     
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  5.  14
    Reason, Recollection and the Cambridge Platonists.Dominic Scott - unknown
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  6.  39
    Reason, Faith, and Authority: Some Platonist Debates About the Authority of the Teacher.Harold Tarrant - 2000 - Sophia 39 (1):46-63.
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  7. Mathematical Platonism and the Nature of Infinity.Gilbert B. Côté - 2013 - Open Journal of Philosophy 3 (3):372-375.
    An analysis of the counter-intuitive properties of infinity as understood differently in mathematics, classical physics and quantum physics allows the consideration of various paradoxes under a new light (e.g. Zeno’s dichotomy, Torricelli’s trumpet, and the weirdness of quantum physics). It provides strong support for the reality of abstractness and mathematical Platonism, and a plausible reason why there is something rather than nothing in the concrete universe. The conclusions are far reaching for science and philosophy.
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  8. Deep Platonism.Chad Carmichael - 2016 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 92 (2):307-328.
    According to the traditional bundle theory, particulars are bundles of compresent universals. I think we should reject the bundle theory for a variety of reasons. But I will argue for the thesis at the core of the bundle theory: that all the facts about particulars are grounded in facts about universals. I begin by showing how to meet the main objection to this thesis (which is also the main objection to the bundle theory): that it is inconsistent with the possibility (...)
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  9.  8
    Abolishing Platonism in Multiverse Theories.Stathis Livadas - 2020 - Axiomathes 32 (2):321-343.
    A debated issue in the mathematical foundations in at least the last two decades is whether one can plausibly argue for the merits of treating undecidable questions of mathematics, e.g., the Continuum Hypothesis, by relying on the existence of a plurality of set-theoretical universes except for a single one, i.e., the well-known set-theoretical universe V associated with the cumulative hierarchy of sets. The multiverse approach has some varying versions of the general concept of multiverse yet my intention is to primarily (...)
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  10.  40
    Platonism Vs. Nominalism in Contemporary Musical Ontology.Andrew Kania - 2013 - In Christy Mag Uidhir (ed.), Art and Abstract Objects. Oxford University Press. pp. 197.
    In this essay I first outline contemporary Platonism about musical works – the theory that musical works are abstract objects. I then consider reasons to be suspicious of such a view, motivating a consideration of nominalist theories of musical works. I argue for two conclusions: first, that there are no compelling reasons to be a nominalist about musical works in particular, i.e. that nominalism about musical works rests on arguments for thoroughgoing nominalism, and, second, that if Platonism fails, fictionalism about (...)
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  11.  31
    Heidegger's Platonism.Mark Ralkowski - 2009 - Continuum.
    Introduction -- What is platonism? -- Schleiermacher's pedagogical interpretation of Plato -- What's wrong with the current debate -- The romantic rediscovery of Plato's ineffable ontology -- Conclusions: Ineffability and dialogue form -- Untying Schleiermacher's gordian knot -- Metaphysical ineffability : the argument from language and human finitude -- Spiritual ineffability: the argument from self-transformation -- Existential ineffability : the argument from life choice -- Platonism reconsidered -- The context of Heidegger's interpretation of Plato -- What it all means and (...)
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  12. Should Scientific Realists Be Platonists?Jacob Busch & Joe Morrison - 2016 - Synthese 193 (2):435-449.
    Enhanced indispensability arguments claim that Scientific Realists are committed to the existence of mathematical entities due to their reliance on Inference to the best explanation. Our central question concerns this purported parity of reasoning: do people who defend the EIA make an appropriate use of the resources of Scientific Realism to achieve platonism? We argue that just because a variety of different inferential strategies can be employed by Scientific Realists does not mean that ontological conclusions concerning which things we should (...)
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  13. Platonism and the 'Epistemic Role Puzzle'.Mark McEvoy - 2012 - Philosophia Mathematica 20 (3):289-304.
    Jody Azzouni has offered the following argument against the existence of mathematical entities: if, as it seems, mathematical entities play no role in mathematical practice, we therefore have no reason to believe in them. I consider this argument as it applies to mathematical platonism, and argue that it does not present a legitimate novel challenge to platonism. I also assess Azzouni's use of the ‘epistemic role puzzle’ (ERP) to undermine the platonist's alleged parallel between skepticism about mathematical entities (...)
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  14.  15
    The Cambridge Platonists.C. A. Patrides - 1970 - Cambridge University Press.
    This volume contains the selected discourses of four seventeenth-century philosophers, carefully chosen to illustrate the tenets characteristic of the influential movement known as Cambridge Platonism. Fundamental to their beliefs is the statement most clearly voiced by Benjamin Whichcote, their leader by common consent, that the spiritual is not opposed to the rational, nor Grace to nature. Religion is based on reason, even in the presence of 'mystery'. Free will and Grace are not mutually exclusive. The editor's comprehensive introduction delineates (...)
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  15.  18
    The Sovereignty of Reason: The Defense of Rationality in the Early English Enlightenment.Frederick C. Beiser - 1996 - Princeton University Press.
    The Sovereignty of Reason is a survey of the rule of faith controversy in seventeenth-century England. It examines the arguments by which reason eventually became the sovereign standard of truth in religion and politics, and how it triumphed over its rivals: Scripture, inspiration, and apostolic tradition. Frederick Beiser argues that the main threat to the authority of reason in seventeenth-century England came not only from dissident groups but chiefly from the Protestant theology of the Church of England. (...)
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  16.  37
    Is Platonism a Bad Bet?Mark Colyvan - 1998 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 76 (1):115 – 119.
    Recently Colin Cheyne and Charles Pigden have challenged supporters of mathematical indispensability arguments to give an account of how causally inert mathematical entities could be indispensable to science. Failing to meet this challenge, claim Cheyne and Pigden, would place Platonism in a no win situation: either there is no good reason to believe in mathematical entities or mathematical entities are not causally inert. The present paper argues that Platonism is well equipped to meet this challenge.
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  17. Analyticity, Platonism, and A Priori Knowledge.Deke Gould - 2011 - Dissertation,
    In this dissertation, I defend a view that combines an analytic conception of a priori knowledge with a version of reliabilist platonism. Roughly put, the analytic theory is the view that our a priori knowledge can be explained by our grasp of analytic truths. Platonism is the view that there are abstract objects and those objects are partly responsible for some of our knowledge. My primary goal is to show that the hybrid account I develop solves central problems that arise (...)
     
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  18.  40
    The Achilles of Rationalist Arguments: The Simplicity, Unity, and Identity of Thought and Soul From the Cambridge Platonists to Kant: A Study in the History of an Argument.Ben Lazare Mijuskovic - 1974 - Martinus Nijhoff.
    INTRODUCTION TO THE ARGUMENT AND ITS HISTORY PRIOR TO THE AND CENTURIES In the history of ideas, there is an argument that has been used repeatedly, ...
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  19.  18
    Platonism About Abstracta.Travis Dumsday - 2021 - Philosophia Christi 23 (1):141-158.
    I present a new argument to the effect that platonism about abstract entities undermines metaphysical naturalism and provides some support to theism. I further suggest that there are ways of extending this line of reasoning to point toward one or another more specific varieties of Christian theism.
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  20.  99
    From Full Blooded Platonism to Really Full Blooded Platonism.Jc Beall - 1999 - Philosophia Mathematica 7 (3):322-325.
    Mark Balaguer argues for full blooded platonism (FBP), and argues that FBP alone can solve Benacerraf's familiar epistemic challenge. I note that if FBP really can solve Benacerraf's epistemic challenge, then FBP is not alone in its capacity so to solve; RFBP—really full blooded platonism—can do the trick just as well, where RFBP differs from FBP by allowing entities from inconsistent mathematics. I also argue briefly that there is positive reason for endorsing RFBP.
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  21.  33
    Platonism in Moral Education: Two Varieties.R. M. Hare - 1974 - The Monist 58 (4):568-580.
    Plato can claim a preeminent place in the philosophy of education, for two reasons at least. The first is that he started the subject; the second is that he expressed with a force which has not since been surpassed a particular, seemingly authoritarian, view about it. Any liberal has to come to grips with this view, for which ‘Platonism’ is still the most appropriate name; and the first step is to determine more exactly what, in essence, the view is. This (...)
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  22.  96
    The Roots of Contemporary Platonism.Penelope Maddy - 1989 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 54 (4):1121-1144.
    Though many working mathematicians embrace a rough and ready form of Platonism, that venerable position has suffered a checkered philosophical career. Indeed the three schools of thought with which most of us began our official philosophizing about mathematics—Intuitionism, Formalism, and Logicism—all stand in fundamental disagreement with Platonism. Nevertheless, various versions of Platonistic thinking survive in contemporary philosophical circles. The aim of this paper is to describe these views, and, as my title suggests, to trace their roots.I'll begin with some preliminary (...)
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  23. Mathematical Platonism.Stuart Cornwell - 1991 - Dissertation, University of Southern California
    The present dissertation includes three chapters: chapter one 'Challenges to platonism'; chapter two 'counterparts of non-mathematical statements'; chapter three 'Nominalizing platonistic accounts of the predictive success of mathematics'. The purpose of the dissertation is to articulate a fundamental problem in the philosophy of mathematics and explore certain solutions to this problem. The central problematic is that platonistic mathematics is involved in the explanation and prediction of physical phenomena and hence its role in such explanations gives us good reason to (...)
     
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  24. Whichcote and the Cambridge Platonists on Human Nature: An Interpretation and Defense.John Russell Roberts - 2012 - Oxford Studies in Early Modern Philosophy VI.
    Draft version of essay. ABSTRACT: Benjamin Whichcote developed a distinctive account of human nature centered on our moral psychology. He believed that this view of human nature, which forms the foundation of “Cambridge Platonism,” showed that the demands of reason and faith are not merely compatible but dynamically supportive of one another. I develop an interpretation of this oft-neglected and widely misunderstood account of human nature and defend its viability against a key objection.
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  25. An Epistemology for the Platonist? Platonism, Field’s Dilemma, and Judgment-Dependent Truth.Tommaso Piazza - 2011 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 83 (1):67-92.
    According to Hartry Field, the mathematical Platonist is hostage of a dilemma. Faced with the request of explaining the mathematicians’ reliability, one option could be to maintain that the mathematicians are reliably responsive to a realm populated with mathematical entities; alternatively, one might try to contend that the mathematical realm conceptually depends on, and for this reason is reliably reflected by, the mathematicians’ (best) opinions; however, both alternatives are actually unavailable to the Platonist: the first one because (...)
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  26.  90
    Reason Turned Into Sense”: John Smith on Spiritual Sensation.Derek A. Michaud - 2017 - Leuven: Peeters.
    John Smith (1618-1652), long known for the elegance of his prose and the breadth of his erudition, has been underappreciated as a philosophical theologian. This book redresses this by showing how the spiritual senses became an essential tool for responding to early modern developments in philosophy, science, and religion for Smith. Through a close reading of the Select Discourses (1660) it is shown how Smith’s theories of theological knowledge, method, and prophecy as well as his prescriptive account of Christian piety (...)
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  27.  74
    Aristotle’s Critique of Platonist Mathematical Objects: Two Test Cases From Metaphysics M 2.Emily Katz - 2013 - Apeiron 46 (1):26-47.
    Books M and N of Aristotle's Metaphysics receive relatively little careful attention. Even scholars who give detailed analyses of the arguments in M-N dismiss many of them as hopelessly flawed and biased, and find Aristotle's critique to be riddled with mistakes and question-begging. This assessment of the quality of Aristotle's critique of his predecessors (and of the Platonists in particular), is widespread. The series of arguments in M 2 (1077a14-b11) that targets separate mathematical objects is the subject of particularly strong (...)
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  28.  40
    Neutrality and Force in Field's Epistemological Objection to Platonism.Ylwa Sjölin Wirling - forthcoming - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy.
    Field’s challenge to platonists is the challenge to explain the reliable match between mathematical truth and belief. The challenge grounds an objection claiming that platonists cannot provide such an explanation. This objection is often taken to be both neutral with respect to controversial epistemological assumptions, and a comparatively forceful objection against platonists. I argue that these two characteristics are in tension: no construal of the objection in the current literature realises both, and there are strong reasons to think that no (...)
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  29. Pythagorean Powers or a Challenge to Platonism.Colin Cheyne & Charles R. Pigden - 1996 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 74 (4):639 – 645.
    The Quine/Putnam indispensability argument is regarded by many as the chief argument for the existence of platonic objects. We argue that this argument cannot establish what its proponents intend. The form of our argument is simple. Suppose indispensability to science is the only good reason for believing in the existence of platonic objects. Either the dispensability of mathematical objects to science can be demonstrated and, hence, there is no good reason for believing in the existence of platonic objects, (...)
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  30. Potentiality: Actualism Minus Naturalism Equals Platonism.Giacomo Giannini & Matthew Tugby - 2020 - Philosophical Inquiries 1 (8):117-40.
    Vetter (2015) develops a localised theory of modality, based on potentialities of actual objects. Two factors play a key role in its appeal: its commitment to Hardcore Actualism, and to Naturalism. Vetter’s commitment to Naturalism is in part manifested in her adoption of Aristotelian universals. In this paper, we argue that a puzzle concerning the identity of unmanifested potentialities cannot be solved with an Aristotelian conception of properties. After introducing the puzzle, we examine Vetter’s attempt at amending the Aristotelian conception (...)
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  31.  19
    Worlds Without End: A Platonist Theory of Fiction.Patrick Grafton-Cardwell - 2021 - Dissertation, University of Massachusetts, Amherst
    I first ask what it is to make up a story. In order to answer that question, I give existence and identity conditions for stories. I argue that a story exists whenever there is some narrative content that has intentionally been made accessible. I argue that stories are abstract types, individuated by the conditions that must be met by something in order to be a properly formed token of the type. However, I also argue that the truth of our story (...)
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  32. Shades of Platonism in Franciscan Metaphysics: The Problem of Divine Ideas. Remarks on a Recent Work. [REVIEW]Simone Guidi - 2020 - Freiburger Zeitschrift für Philosophie Und Theologie 67.
    The problem of Divine Ideas is one of the most consequential in the entire history of Western Thought, and effects of the Medieval debate on exempla-rism can still be found in Early Modern and Modern metaphysics. Speaking of the Middle Ages, such a topic provides a vivid example of the prominent role played by Platonism in the tradition of the Schools in the 13th and the 14th century, often associated with the sole authority of Aristotle. Among the different traditions animating (...)
     
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  33.  95
    4. Badiou’s Platonism: The Mathematical Ideas of Post-Cantorian Set Theory.Simon Duffy - 2012 - In Sean Bowden & Simon Duffy (eds.), Badiou and Philosophy. Edinburgh University Press. pp. 59-78.
    Plato’s philosophy is important to Badiou for a number of reasons, chief among which is that Badiou considered Plato to have recognised that mathematics provides the only sound or adequate basis for ontology. The mathematical basis of ontology is central to Badiou’s philosophy, and his engagement with Plato is instrumental in determining how he positions his philosophy in relation to those approaches to the philosophy of mathematics that endorse an orthodox Platonic realism, i.e. the independent existence of a realm of (...)
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  34.  21
    Arnold and Cambridge Platonists.M. A. - unknown
    Matthew arnold maintains in the nineteenth century the renaissance school of the cambridge platonists. for them, reason and religion are by no means at odds: reason is in fact "the candle of the lord." for matthew arnold in "literature and dogma", christianity will prevail only by being shorn of its supernaturalist elements and set on its true rational ground. ernst cassirer has shown how the cambridge platonists bridge the gap between the italian renaissance and the german humanists of (...)
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  35.  19
    Reasoning Under a Presupposition and the Export Problem: The Case of Applied Mathematics.Mary Leng - 2017 - Australasian Philosophical Review 1 (2):133-142.
    ABSTRACT‘expressionist’ accounts of applied mathematics seek to avoid the apparent Platonistic commitments of our scientific theories by holding that we ought only to believe their mathematics-free nominalistic content. The notion of ‘nominalistic content’ is, however, notoriously slippery. Yablo's account of non-catastrophic presupposition failure offers a way of pinning down this notion. However, I argue, its reliance on possible worlds machinery begs key questions against Platonism. I propose instead that abstract expressionists follow Geoffrey Hellman's lead in taking the assertoric content of (...)
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  36.  12
    The Naturalization of Scriptural Reason in Seventeenth‐Century Epistemology.Jon W. Thompson - 2021 - Zygon 56 (1):188-208.
  37.  2
    Galileo and Platonistic Methodology.T. R. Girill - 1970 - Journal of the History of Ideas 31 (4):501.
    This paper is a critical examination the claim that Galileo was a Platonist. It contends that neither his use of mathematics (as Koyre asserts), nor his hypothetic-deductive method of testing (as Cassirer maintains), nor a realistic interpretation of this abstract theories (as Crombie argues) offers reasonable and consistent evidence that Galileo shared or advocated the metaphysics or methods of Plato.
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  38.  22
    Reason, Intuition, and Choice: Pascal’s Augustinian Voluntarism.Bernard Wills - 2006 - International Philosophical Quarterly 46 (1):43-58.
    Pascal is well known to be an early modern disciple of Augustine, but it has not always been sufficiently emphasized that Pascal’s Augustinianism differs profoundly from its source in many ways. The following essay examines his re-ordering of Augustine’s psychology and its implications for philosophy and religion in the modern period. For Augustine, intellect and will are equal moments in the activity of mens, but Pascal is radically voluntarist. For him, the will’s relation to the good radically transcends intellect’s relation (...)
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  39. "Reason Turned Into Sense: John Smith on Spiritual Sensation".Derek Michaud - 2015 - Dissertation, Boston University
    John Smith (1618-1652), the 17th century Cambridge Platonist, employed the traditional language of the spiritual senses of the soul to develop an early modern theological aesthetic central to his religious epistemology and thus to his philosophy of religion and systematic theology. As a Christian Platonist, Smith advocated intellectual intuition of Divine Goodness as the key to theological knowledge and spiritual practice. Additionally, Smith’s theory of prophecy rests on the reception of sensible images in the imagination. Chapter one lays (...)
     
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  40.  49
    Conclusive Reasons That We Perceive Sets.David MacCallum - 2000 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 14 (1):25 – 42.
    Penelope Maddy has defended a modified version of mathematical platonism that involves the perception of some sets. Frederick Suppe has developed a conclusive reasons account of empirical knowledge that, when applied to the sets of interest to Maddy, yields that we have knowledge of these sets. Thus, Benacerraf's challenge to the platonist to account for mathematical knowledge has been met, at least in part. Moreover, it is argued that the modalities involved in Suppe's conclusive reasons account of knowledge can (...)
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  41.  50
    Abstract Objects and Causation: Bringing Causation Back Into Contemporary Platonism.Charles Taliaferro - 2015 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 71 (4):769-780.
    Resumo O autor defenderá, por um lado, a existência dos objectos abstractos e, por outro, o seu papel causal, numa ontologia platónica, tal como enquadrada por Roderick Chisholm. Se plausível, a natureza e o papel dos abstracta sob a forma de estados de coisas, oferecem-nos razões para acreditar em uma descrição bem-sucedida e explicativa da intencionalidade humana e animal que não está encerrada no mundo físico. Palavras-chave : causalidade, encerramento causal, fisicalismo, objectos abstractos, platonismo, Roderick ChisholmA defense of the existence (...)
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  42.  44
    Is the Enhanced Indispensability Argument a Useful Tool in the Hands of Platonists?Vladimir Drekalović - 2019 - Philosophia 47 (4):1111-1126.
    Platonists in mathematics endeavour to prove the truthfulness of the proposal about the existence of mathematical objects. However, there have not been many explicit proofs of this proposal. One of the explicit ones is doubtlessly Baker’s Enhanced Indispensability Argument, formulated as a sort of modal syllogism. We aim at showing that the purpose of its creation – the defence of Platonist viewpoint – was not accomplished. Namely, the second premise of the Argument was imprecisely formulated, which gave space for (...)
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  43. Transformations of Plato's Ethics: Platonist Interpretations of Plato's Ethics From Antiochus to Porphyry.George Karamanolis - 2004 - Rhizai. A Journal for Ancient Philosophy and Science 1:73-105.
    The paper argues that ancient dogmatic Platonists, beginning with Antiochus, reconstructed Plato’s ethics in different ways, as a result of their different emphasis on parts of Plato’s work and often argued with each other about what Plato’s ethics actually was. This situation, it is argued, is due to the existence of different strands of ethical views found in Plato’s work itself, such as, for instance, the Protagoras and the Gorgias versus the central books of the Republic and the Philebus on (...)
     
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  44.  5
    CHAPTER 4. Cambridge Platonism.Frederick C. Beiser - 1996 - In The Sovereignty of Reason: The Defense of Rationality in the Early English Enlightenment. Princeton University Press. pp. 134-183.
  45.  13
    5. Are Platonism and Pragmatism Compatible?Victor Rodych - 2005 - In Kent A. Peacock & Andrew D. Irvine (eds.), Mistakes of Reason: Essays in Honour of John Woods. University of Toronto Press. pp. 78-92.
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  46.  50
    Reassessing the Epistemological Challenge to Mathematical Platonism.William J. Melanson - 2011 - Croatian Journal of Philosophy 11 (3):295-304.
    In his Realism, Mathematics, and Modality, Hartry Field attempted to revitalize the epistemological case against mathematical platontism by challenging mathematical platonists to explain how we could be epistemically reliable with regard to the abstract objects of mathematics. Field suggested that the seeming impossibility of providing such an explanation tends to undermine belief in the existence of abstract mathematical objects regardless of whatever reason we have for believing in their existence. After more than two decades, Field’s explanatory challenge remains among (...)
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  47.  59
    On the Meaning of the Word 'Platonism' in the Expression 'Mathematical Platonism'.Jacques Bouveresse - 2005 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 105 (1):55–79.
    The expression 'platonism in mathematics' or 'mathematical platonism' is familiar in the philosophy of mathematics at least since the use Paul Bernays made of it in his paper of 1934, 'Sur le Platonisme dans les Mathématiques'. But he was not the first to point out the similarities between the conception of the defenders of mathematical realism and the ideas of Plato. Poincaré had already stressed the 'platonistic' orientation of the mathematicians he called'Cantorian', as opposed to those who (like himself) were (...)
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  48.  9
    Galen on Reason and Appetite: A Study of the De Moribus.David Kaufman - 2017 - Apeiron 50 (3):367-392.
    Journal Name: Apeiron Issue: Ahead of print.
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  49.  29
    III *-on the Meaning of the Word 'Platonism' in the Expression 'Mathematical Platonism'.Jacques Bouveresse - 2005 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 105 (1):55-79.
    The expression 'platonism in mathematics' or 'mathematical platonism' is familiar in the philosophy of mathematics at least since the use Paul Bernays made of it in his paper of 1934, 'Sur le Platonisme dans les Math?matiques'. But he was not the first to point out the similarities between the conception of the defenders of mathematical realism and the ideas of Plato. Poincar? had already stressed the 'platonistic' orientation of the mathematicians he called 'Cantorian', as opposed to those who (like himself) (...)
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  50. Mind of God, Point of View of Man, or Spirit of the World? Platonism and Organicism in the Thought of Kant and Hegel.Paul Redding - manuscript
    In his account of Plato’s ideas in the first book of the “Transcendental Dialectic”, “On the concepts of pure reason”, Kant, in describing how for Plato ideas were “archetypes of things themselves”, adds that these ideas “flowed from the highest reason, through which human reason partakes in them”.1 Later, in the section of the Transcendental Dialectic treating the “ideals of pure reason”, he again attributes to Plato the notion of a “divine mind” within which the “ideas” (...)
     
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