Results for 'Policy evaluation'

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  1. Public Value Mapping and Science Policy Evaluation.Barry Bozeman & Daniel Sarewitz - 2011 - Minerva 49 (1):1-23.
    Here we present the framework of a new approach to assessing the capacity of research programs to achieve social goals. Research evaluation has made great strides in addressing questions of scientific and economic impacts. It has largely avoided, however, a more important challenge: assessing (prospectively or retrospectively) the impacts of a given research endeavor on the non-scientific, non-economic goals—what we here term public values —that often are the core public rationale for the endeavor. Research programs are typically justified in (...)
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  2.  12
    Policy Evaluation: Design and Utilization.Erik Albaek - 1989 - Knowledge in Society 2 (4):6-19.
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  3.  21
    Moral Uncertainty Over Policy Evaluation.Kian Mintz-Woo - 2018 - Erasmus Journal for Philosophy and Economics 11 (2):291-294.
    [Dissertation summary] When performing intertemporal cost-benefit analyses of policies, both in terms of climate change and other long-term problems, the discounting problem becomes critical. The question is how to weight intertemporal costs and benefits to generate present value equivalents. This thesis argues that those best placed to answer the discounting problem are domain experts, not moral philosophers or the public at large. It does this by arguing that the discounting problem is a special case of an interesting class of problems, (...)
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  4.  66
    A Strategy of Decision: Policy Evaluation as a Social Process.Gordon Tullock - 1964 - Ethics 75 (1):67-68.
  5.  76
    Policy Evaluation Under Severe Uncertainty: A Cautious, Egalitarian Approach.Alex Voorhoeve - forthcoming - In Conrad Heilmann & Julian Reiss (eds.), Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Economics.
    In some severely uncertain situations, exemplified by climate change and novel pandemics, policymakers lack a reasoned basis for assigning probabilities to the possible outcomes of the policies they must choose between. I outline and defend an uncertainty averse, egalitarian approach to policy evaluation in these contexts. The upshot is a theory of distributive justice which offers especially strong reasons to guard against individual and collective misfortune.
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  6.  7
    Policy Evaluation in a Time of Fiscal Stress: Some Reflections From British Experience.Andrew Gray & Bill Jenkins - 1989 - Knowledge in Society 2 (4):20-30.
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  7.  30
    On the Possibility of Rational Policy Evaluation.Thomas Schwartz - 1970 - Theory and Decision 1 (1):89-106.
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  8.  30
    Choices Without Reasons: Citizens' Juries and Policy Evaluation.D. Price - 2000 - Journal of Medical Ethics 26 (4):272-276.
    Citizens' juries are commended as a new technique for democratising health service reviews. Their usefulness is said to derive from a reliance on citizens' rational deliberation rather than on the immediate preferences of the consumer. The author questions the assertion of critical detachment and asks whether juries do in fact employ reason as a means of resolving fundamental disagreements about service provision. He shows that juries promote not so much a critically detached point of view as a particular evaluative framework (...)
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  9.  12
    Reassessing Quasi-Experiments: Policy Evaluation, Induction, and SUTVA.Tom Boesche - forthcoming - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science:axz006.
    This paper defends the use of quasi-experiments for causal estimation in economics against the widespread objection that quasi-experimental estimates lack external validity. The defence is that quasi-experimental replication of estimates can yield defeasible evidence for external validity. The paper then develops a different objection. The stable unit treatment value assumption, on which quasi-experiments rely, is argued to be implausible due to the influence of social interaction effects on economic outcomes. A more plausible stable marginal unit treatment value assumption is proposed, (...)
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  10.  29
    The Possibility of Rational Policy Evaluation.Ilmar Waldner - 1973 - Theory and Decision 4 (1):85-90.
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  11.  25
    Evaluating Equity Critiques in Food Policy: The Case of Sugar‐Sweetened Beverages.Anne Barnhill & Katherine F. King - 2013 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 41 (1):301-309.
    Many anti-obesity policies face a variety of ethical objections. We consider one kind of anti-obesity policy — modifications to food assistance programs meant to improve participants' diet — and one kind of criticism of these policies, that they are inequitable. We take as our example the recent, unsuccessful effort by New York State to exclude sweetened beverages from the items eligible for purchase in New York City with Supplemental Nutrition Support Program assistance. We distinguish two equity-based ethical objections that (...)
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  12.  10
    Evaluating Equity Critiques in Food Policy: The Case of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages.Anne Barnhill & Katherine F. King - 2013 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 41 (1):301-309.
    As concerns about the negative health effects of unhealthy eating and overweight/obesity increase, so too do efforts to combat obesity. Both the federal government, as well as state and local governments, have proposed and implemented a variety of healthy eating and obesity prevention policies. Many of these policies are controversial, facing objections that range from the practical to the ethical. In this paper, we consider one such policy — restrictions on food assistance programs that are meant to improve participants’ (...)
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  13.  21
    Using Evaluation Research as a Means for Policy Analysis in a ‘New’ Mission-Oriented Policy Context.Effie Amanatidou, Paul Cunningham, Abdullah Gök & Ioanna Garefi - 2014 - Minerva 52 (4):419-438.
    Grand challenges stress the importance of multi-disciplinary research, a multi-actor approach in examining the current state of affairs and exploring possible solutions, multi-level governance and policy coordination across geographical boundaries and policy areas, and a policy environment for enabling change both in science and technology and in society. The special nature of grand challenges poses certain needs in evaluation practice: the need for learning at the operational, policy and, especially, system level; and the importance of (...)
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  14. Developing Interdisciplinary Maternity Services Policy in Canada. Evaluation of a Consensus Workshop.Carmel M. Martin & Jan Kasperski - 2010 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (1):238-245.
  15.  8
    Evaluation of the Environmental and Social Sustainability Policy of a Mass Tourism Resort: A Narrative Account.Isabel Swart & André C. Horn - 2012 - Hts Theological Studies 68 (1).
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  16.  1
    Evaluating European Climate Change Policy: An Ecological Justice Approach.Kamala Muhovic-Dorsner - 2005 - Bulletin of Science, Technology and Society 25 (3):238-246.
    To date, the concept of ecological justice, when applied to international climate change policy, has largely focused on the North-South dichotomy and has yet to be extended to Central and Eastern European countries. This article argues that current formulations of climate change policy cannot address potential issues of ecological injustice to Central and Eastern European countries. Several Central and Eastern European countries recently joined the European Union, but ecological justice discourse in the EU is shown to be underdeveloped. (...)
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  17. An Ethical Evaluation of Evidence: A Stewardship Approach to Public Health Policy.M. Walton & E. Mengwasser - 2012 - Public Health Ethics 5 (1):16-21.
    This article aims to contribute to the application of ethical frameworks to public health policy. In particular, the article considers the use of the Nuffield Council on Bioethics stewardship model, as an applied framework for the evaluation of evidence within public health policymaking. The ‘Stewardship framework’ was applied to a policy proposal to restrict marketing of food and beverages to children. Reflections on applying the stewardship model as a framework are provided. The article concludes that the questions (...)
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  18.  11
    Paradox in Compound Educational Policy Slogans: Evaluating Equal Opportunities in Subject Choice.Andrew Stables - 1996 - British Journal of Educational Studies 44 (2):159-167.
    This paper argues that some educational policy slogans, particularly compound slogans, are inherently paradoxical, and that while this may have a strong motivational effect, in appealing to a wide range of ideals and aspirations, it renders both the implementation and the evaluation of certain policies problematic. The example is given of equal opportunities in relation to gender and subject choice.
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  19.  7
    Bias in the Evaluation of Conflict of Interest Policies.Zachariah Sharek, Robert E. Schoen & George Loewenstein - 2012 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (2):368-382.
    A wide range of medical institutions have developed and implemented policies to mitigate the adverse consequences of conflicts of interest. These newly implemented policies, which include regulation of industry contact with physicians and hospitals, controls on gifts from industry, and greater transparency in industry sponsored activities, have generated considerable controversy.Formulating and evaluating policies in a neutral, unbiased fashion can be difficult for those personally affected. When people have a stake in an issue, they tend to process information in a selective (...)
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  20.  54
    Local Food Policy Coalitions: Evaluation Issues as Seen by Academics, Project Organizers, and Funders. [REVIEW]Karen L. Webb, David Pelletier, Audrey N. Maretzki & Jennifer Wilkins - 1998 - Agriculture and Human Values 15 (1):65-75.
    Several different evaluation issuesare perceived as important by people involved withinnovative projects intended to improve local food andnutrition systems; particularly the establishment oflocal food policy coalitions. Several such coalitionshave been formed in North America, Europe, andAustralia with the goal of improving community foodsecurity and promoting sustainable local food systems.Pioneer coalitions have served as models, yet therehas been little systematic evaluation of thesemodels. A qualitative study was conducted to identifyfactors that may hinder evaluation efforts. In grouptelephone interviews, (...)
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  21.  12
    Evaluating the Pros and Cons of Different Peer Review Policies Via Simulation.Jia Zhu, Gabriel Fung, Wai Hung Wong, Zhixu Li & Chuanhua Xu - 2016 - Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (4):1073-1094.
    In the academic world, peer review is one of the major processes in evaluating a scholars contribution. In this study, we are interested in quantifying the merits of different policies in a peer review process, such as single-blind review, double-blind review, and obtaining authors feedback. Currently, insufficient work has been undertaken to evaluate the benefits of different peer review policies. One of the major reasons for this situation is the inability to conduct any empirical study because data are presently unavailable. (...)
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  22.  15
    Bias in the Evaluation of Conflict of Interest Policies.Zachariah Sharek, Robert E. Schoen & George Loewenstein - 2012 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (2):368-382.
    Physicians are affected by the conflict of interest (COI) policies they help formulate. This study examines whether physicians evaluate these policies impartially. One hundred and seventy-nine physicians, 224 financial advisors, and 1,430 members of the general public evaluated the fairness and efficacy of a COI policy in either a medical or financial context. Physicians were more critical of the medical COI policy compared to a financial COI policy, while financial professionals displayed the reverse pattern and control respondents (...)
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  23.  22
    Sex Drugs and Corporate Ventriloquism: How to Evaluate Science Policies Intended to Manage Industry-Funded Bias.Bennett Holman & Sally Geislar - 2018 - Philosophy of Science 85 (5):869-881.
    “Female sexual dysfunction” is the type of contested disease that has sparked concern about the role of the pharmaceutical industry in medical science. Many policies have been proposed to manage industry influence without carefully evaluating whether the proposed policies would be successful. We consider a proposal for incorporating citizen stakeholders into scientific research and show, via a detailed case study of the pharmaceutical regulation of flibanserin, that such programs can be co-opted. In closing, we use Holman’s asymmetric arms race framework (...)
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  24.  3
    Putting Peace Into Practice: Evaluating Policy on Local and Global Levels.Nancy Nyquist Potter (ed.) - 2004 - Brill | Rodopi.
    This book examines the role and limits of policies in shaping attitudes and actions toward war, violence, and peace. Authors examine militaristic language and metaphor, effects of media violence on children, humanitarian intervention, sanctions, peacemaking, sex offender treatment programs, nationalism, cosmopolitanism, community, and political forgiveness to identify problem policies and develop better ones.
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  25.  21
    Policy Issues Raised by for-Profit Spinoffs From Professional Associations: An Evaluation of a Recent AICPA Initiative. [REVIEW]William E. Shafer & Dwight Owsen - 2003 - Journal of Business Ethics 42 (2):181 - 195.
    This paper provides an evaluation of the spinoff of a for-profit company from the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA), a nonprofit professional association. The evaluation is based on a review of the literature on public policy issues surrounding organizational conversions from nonprofit to for-profit legal status. Many criticisms of this for-profit spinoff were voiced by professional leaders and accounting regulators, and we demonstrate that these criticisms are grounded in widely recognized policy principles relating to (...)
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  26.  27
    Opening the Black Box of Ethics Policy Work: Evaluating a Covert Practice.Andrea Frolic, Katherine Drolet, Kim Bryanton, Carole Caron, Cynthia Cupido, Barb Flaherty, Sylvia Fung & Lori McCall - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics 12 (11):3-15.
    Hospital ethics committees (HECs) and ethicists generally describe themselves as engaged in four domains of practice: case consultation, research, education, and policy work. Despite the increasing attention to quality indicators, practice standards, and evaluation methods for the other domains, comparatively little is known or published about the policy work of HECs or ethicists. This article attempts to open the ?black box? of this health care ethics practice by providing two detailed case examples of ethics policy reviews. (...)
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  27.  23
    Policy Theories, Knowledge Utilization, and Evaluation.Frans L. Leeuw - 1991 - Knowledge and Policy 4 (3):73-91.
    Recent publications on policy theories, similarities and dissimilarities of auditing and evaluation research and on the utilization of policy research by government officials.
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  28. Policy-Oriented Argumentation or Ironic Evaluation: A Study of Verbal Quoting and Positioning in Austrian Politicians’ Parliamentary Debate Contributions.Helmut Gruber - 2015 - Discourse Studies 17 (6):682-702.
    This article explores the different uses of forms of direct verbal quotes in follow-up utterances delivered during the parliamentary debates after the inaugural speech of a new chancellor in the Austrian parliament and investigates their positioning effects for members of parliament who have the first opportunity of publicly ‘doing being a government or opposition MP’ in the new legislative term. Representing the first public confrontation between government and opposition MPs, the debates foreshadow topical and interpersonal aspects of the political frontstage (...)
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  29.  18
    An Evaluation of Japan's Current Energy Policy in the Context of the Azadegan Oil Field Agreement Signed in 2004.Raquel Shaoul - 2005 - Japanese Journal of Political Science 6 (3):411-437.
    In 2004, a government-backed Japanese consortium signed an agreement with the government of Iran to develop the major Azadegan oil field. Not only has the project been given the go-ahead despite numerous political obstacles and poor prospects attributed it, but the agreement also appears to be in conflict with Japan's energy policy, materializing from the mid 1980s to date. Consequently it is important to evaluate Azadegan in terms of Japan's evolving oil policy. Three alternative arguments are proposed to (...)
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  30. Evaluating Interactive Policy Making on Biotechnology: The Case of the Dutch Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport.Joske F. G. Bunders, Anneloes Roelofsen, Tjard de Cock Buning & Jacqueline E. W. Broerse - 2009 - Bulletin of Science, Technology and Society 29 (6):447-463.
    Public engagement is increasingly advocated and applied in the development and implementation of technological innovations. However, initiatives so far are rarely considered effective. There is a need for more methodological rigor and insight into conducive conditions. The authors developed an evaluative framework and assessed accordingly the effectiveness of a project of the Dutch Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport in which the application of interactive policy making was piloted in medical biotechnology, among others, to increase the legitimacy and quality (...)
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  31. Evaluating Implementation of the Transparency and Openness Promotion (TOP) Guidelines: The TRUST Process for Rating Journal Policies, Procedures, and Practices.David Mellor, Alex DeHaven, Afsah Amin, Sina Kianersi, Lauren Supplee, Sean Grant & Evan Mayo-Wilson - 2021 - Research Integrity and Peer Review 6 (1).
    BackgroundThe Transparency and Openness Promotion Guidelines describe modular standards that journals can adopt to promote open science. The TOP Factor is a metric to describe the extent to which journals have adopted the TOP Guidelines in their policies. Systematic methods and rating instruments are needed to calculate the TOP Factor. Moreover, implementation of these open science policies depends on journal procedures and practices, for which TOP provides no standards or rating instruments.MethodsWe describe a process for assessing journal policies, procedures, and (...)
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  32.  22
    How to Evaluate Conflict of Interest Policies.Daniel Strech & Hannes Knüppel - 2011 - American Journal of Bioethics 11 (1):37 - 39.
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  33. Evaluating School Choice Policies: A Response to Harry Brighouse.Johannes Giesinger - 2009 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 43 (4):589-596.
    In his writings on school choice and educational justice, Harry Brighouse presents normative evaluations of various choice systems. This paper responds to Brighouse's claim that it is inadequate to criticise these evaluations with reference to empirical data concerning the effects of school choice.
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  34.  6
    Evaluating the Redistributiin Policy and the Right to Social Welfare in Kant’s Philosophy.Hamidreza Saadat Niaki & Ali Fath Taheri - forthcoming - Heythrop Journal.
    The notion of social welfare was created by the paradigm shift from duty‐based to right‐based morality, in which the satisfaction of human needs is a right in line with preserving human dignity. This paper investigates Kant’s view on social welfare in light of redistribution policy. Kant bases his political philosophy on external freedom. Notwithstanding the ethical principles of his philosophy, he is the first prominent thinker to clearly emphasize the necessity of a redistribution policy by the government toward (...)
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  35.  7
    Abortion Policy: An Evaluation of the Consequences for Maternal and Infant Health.Jerome S. Legge Jr - 1985 - State University of New York Press.
    Until now, however, little has been devoted to the results of various abortion policy changes. Legge examines the effects of abortion policy changes on maternal and infant health in the United States, Great Britain, and Eastern Europe.
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  36. Uncertainty in Econometrics: Evaluating Policy Counterfactuals.Nancy Cartwright & J. Reiss - unknown
  37.  8
    Defense Policies and the Evaluation of Risk.Leslie Stevenson - 1988 - Social Theory and Practice 14 (2):215-234.
  38.  33
    Evaluation of Chloroquine as a Potent Anti‐Malarial Drug: Issues of Public Health Policy and Healthcare Delivery in Post‐War Liberia.Moses B. F. Massaquoi & Stephen B. Kennedy - 2003 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 9 (1):83-87.
    Chloroquine-resistant plasmodium falciparum malaria is a serious public health threat that is spreading rapidly across Sub-Saharan Africa. It affects over three quarters (80%) of malarial endemic countries. Of the estimated 300-500 million cases of malaria reported annually, the vast majority of malarial-related morbidities occur among young children in Africa, especially those concentrated in the remote rural areas with inadequate access to appropriate health care services. In Liberia, in vivo studies conducted between 1993 and 2000 observed varying degrees of plasmodium falciparum (...)
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  39. Evaluating Social Policy.Daniel M. Hausman - 2012 - In Harold Kincaid (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Social Science. Oxford University Press.
     
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  40.  2
    Evaluation of Policy Simulation Models by Robert E. Pugh.Irwin Bross - 1978 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 21 (4):629-632.
  41. Ex Post Evaluation: A More Effective Role for Scientific Assessments in Environmental Policy.Daniel Sarewitz & Charles Herrick - 2000 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 25 (3):309-331.
    Unreasonable expectations about the nature and character of scientific knowledge support the widespread political assumption that predictive scientific assessments are a necessary precursor to environmental decision making. All too often, the practical outcome of this assumption is that scientific uncertainty becomes a ready-made dodge for what is in reality just a difficult political decision. Interdisciplinary assessments necessary to address complex environmental policy issues invariably result in findings that are inherently contestable, especially when applied in the unrestrained realm of partisan (...)
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  42.  13
    Historical Data and Policy-Decisions: A Key to Evaluating Philosophies of History.Berkley B. Eddins - 1966 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 26 (3):427-430.
  43.  23
    Why the “Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation” Instrument Can and Should Further Inform Ethics Policy Work.Daniel Strech & Jan Schildmann - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics 12 (11):25-27.
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  44.  15
    The Influence of School Leadership on Teachers' Perception of Teacher Evaluation Policy.Melissa Tuytens & Geert Devos - 2010 - Educational Studies 36 (5):521-536.
    The understanding of teachers? perception of new educational policy is crucial since this perception shapes the policy?s implementation. However, quantitative research in this area is scarce. This article draws on empirical data to investigate whether the school leader might influence his teachers? perception of the new teacher evaluation policy. The conceptualisation of teachers? perception consists of three policy characteristics: practicality, need and clarifying function. Our results indicate that school leadership influences teachers? policy perception. More (...)
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  45. Stem Cell Research: An Ethical Evaluation of Policy Options.Nikolaus Knoepffler - 2004 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 14 (1):55-74.
    : In February 2004, South Korean researchers became the first in the world to successfully harvest stem cells and establish a stem cell line from a cloned human embryo. This is just one of eight possible policy options concerning human embryonic stem cell research. In practice, every kind of stem cell research can be done in one country or another. This paper evaluates the eight policy options concerning human embryonic stem cell research in light of the arguments and (...)
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  46.  48
    Avoiding policy failure.Steven E. Wallis - 2010 - Emergent Publications.
    Why do policies fail? How can we objectively choose the best policy from two (or more) competing alternatives? How can we create better policies? To answer these critical questions this book presents an innovative yet workable approach. Avoiding Policy Failure uses emerging metapolicy methodologies in case studies that compare successful policies with ones that have failed. Those studies investigate the systemic nature of each policy text to gain new insights into why policies fail. -/- In addition to (...)
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  47.  10
    Creating Legal Data for Public Health Monitoring and Evaluation: Delphi Standards for Policy Surveillance.David Presley, Thomas Reinstein, Damika Webb-Barr & Scott Burris - 2015 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (S1):27-31.
    Surveillance in public health is the means by which people who are responsible for preventing or controlling threats to health get the timely, ongoing, and reliable information they need about the occurrence, antecedents, time course, geographic spread, consequences, and nature of these threats among the populations they serve. “Policy surveillance” is the ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, and dissemination of information about laws and other policies of health importance.
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  48.  22
    Government Policy Experiments and the Ethics of Randomization.Douglas MacKay - 2020 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 48 (4):319-352.
    Governments are increasingly using randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate policy interventions. RCTs are often understood to provide the highest quality evidence regarding the causal efficacy of an intervention. While randomization plays an essential epistemic role in the context of policy RCTs however, it also plays an important distributive role. By randomly assigning participants to either the intervention or control arm of an RCT, people are subject to different policies and so, often, to different types and levels of (...)
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  49.  23
    Academic Evaluation: Universal Instrument? Tool for Development?Mariela Bianco, Natalia Gras & Judith Sutz - 2016 - Minerva 54 (4):399-421.
    Research agendas and academic evaluation are inevitably linked. By means of economic incentives, promotion, research funding, and reputation academic evaluation is a powerful influence on the production of knowledge; moreover, it is often conceived as a universal instrument without consideration of the context in which it is applied. Evaluation systems are social constructions in dispute, being the current focus of international debates regarding criteria, indicators, and their associated methods. A universalist type of productivity indicators is gaining centrality (...)
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    What Gets Measured, Gets Changed: Evaluating Law and Policy for Maximum Impact.Jamie F. Chriqui, Jean C. O'Connor & Frank J. Chaloupka - 2011 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 39 (s1):21-26.
    Does law matter regarding public health outcomes? Regardless of what one may think about the answer to this age-old question, in recent years the public health community has increasingly demonstrated and recognized the roles that public health laws and policies play in effectuating long-lasting and broad-based population-wide changes. Public health laws and policies have been instrumental in the following ways: reducing smoking prevalence; reducing underage alcohol-related drinking, driving, crashes, and fatalities; reducing exposure to second-hand smoke; eliminating vaccine–associated paralytic poliomyelitis ; (...)
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