Results for 'Practical objectivity'

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  1.  21
    Practical Objectivity: The Excise, State, and Production in Eighteenth Century England.William J. Ashworth - 2004 - Social Epistemology 18 (2 & 3):181 – 197.
    During eighteenth century England the Excise Department was at the vanguard of negotiating the criteria and parameters of what I call "practical objectivity", namely, putting objectivity into administrative practice. This frequently required both the space of production and the actual product to be reconfigured to meet the criteria of the excise's form of measurement. As this essay shows this was a contested, mutable and ambiguous process. Within this context ultimate agreement over objectivity was administratively rather than (...)
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  2. Rawls's Practical Conception of Justice: Opinion, Tradition and Objectivity in Political Liberalism.Alexander Kaufman - 2006 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 3 (1):23-43.
    In Political Liberalism, Rawls emphasizes the practical character and aims of his conception of justice. Justice as fairness is to provide the basis of a reasoned, informed and willing political agreement by locating grounds for consensus in the fundamental ideas and values of the political culture. Critics urge, however, that such a politically liberal conception of justice will be designed merely to ensure the stability of political institutions by appealing to the currently-held opinions of actual citizens. In order to (...)
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  3. The Objectivity of Ethics and the Unity of Practical Reason.Katarzyna de Lazari-Radek & Peter Singer - 2012 - Ethics 123 (1):9-31.
    Evolutionary accounts of the origins of human morality may lead us to doubt the truth of our moral judgments. Sidgwick tried to vindicate ethics from this kind of external attack. However, he ended The Methods in despair over another problem—an apparent conflict between rational egoism and universal benevolence, which he called the “dualism of practical reason.” Drawing on Sidgwick, we show that one way of defending objectivity in ethics against Sharon Street’s recent evolutionary critique also puts us in (...)
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  4.  90
    Rawls on the Objectivity of Practical Reason.Carla Bagnoli - 2001 - Croatian Journal of Philosophy 1 (3):307-329.
    This article argues that Rawls’ history of ethics importantly contributes to the advancement of ethical theory, in that it correctly situates Kantian constructivism as an alternative to both sentimentalism and rational Intuitionism, and calls attention to the standards of objectivity in ethics. The author shows that by suggesting that both Intuitionist and Humean doctrines face the charge of heteronomy, Rawls appearsto adopt a Kantian conception of practical reason. Furthermore, Rawls follows Kant in assuming that ethical objectivity can (...)
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  5.  11
    Kant on “Moral Arguments”: What Does the Objectivity of a Postulate of Pure Practical Reason Consist In?Stephan Zimmermann - 2016 - In Thomas Höwing (ed.), The Highest Good in Kant’s Philosophy. De Gruyter. pp. 131-156.
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  6.  76
    Constructivist Practical Reasoning and Objectivity.Melissa Barry - 2013 - In David Archard, Monique Deveaux, Neil Manson & Daniel Weinstock (eds.), Reading Onora O'Neill. Routledge. pp. 17-36.
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  7.  82
    Art, Practical Knowledge and Aesthetic Objectivity.David Carr - 1999 - Ratio 12 (3):240–256.
  8.  26
    Moral Imagination, Objectivity, and Practical Wisdom.Jonathan Jacobs - 1991 - International Philosophical Quarterly 31 (1):23-37.
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  9.  7
    Practical Wisdom, Objectivity and Relativism.Jonathan Jacobs - 1989 - American Philosophical Quarterly 26 (3):199 - 209.
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  10. Kant and Sidgwick on the Objectivity and Practical Reason.Carla Bagnoli - forthcoming - In Tim Henning & Tyler Paytas (eds.), Kantian and Sidgwickian Ethics: The Cosmos of Duty Above and the Moral Law Within. London: Routledge.
  11.  15
    Reason, Reality and Objectivity – Shared Dogmas and Distortions in the Way Both 'Scientistic' and 'Postmodern' Commentators Frame the EBM Debate.Michael Loughlin - 2008 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 14 (5):665-671.
  12. Objectivity and Reflection in Heidegger’s Theory of Intentionality.Tucker Mckinney - 2016 - Journal of the American Philosophical Association 2 (1):111--130.
    Heidegger claims that Dasein’s capacity for adopting intentional stances toward the world is grounded in the reflective structure of its being, which dictates that Dasein exists for the sake of a possibility of itself. Commentators have glossed this reflective structure in terms of the idea that our subjection to the normative demands of intentionality is grounded in a basic commitment to upholding an identity-concept, such as an occupation or social role. I argue that this gloss has serious adverse implications for (...)
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  13.  17
    Scientific Objectivity and Postphenomenological Perception.Finn Olesen - 2012 - Foundations of Science 17 (4):357-362.
    Don Ihde’s paper “Stretching the in-between: Embodiment and beyond” appears to me as a stimulating, topical text with a number of important arguments about human embodiment as a dynamic and epistemically relevant dimension to scientific knowledge production. But, indirectly, the text also raises some basic questions about how to describe the (current) scope of technoscientific knowledge, and the potentials of postphenomenology to deal with this complicated, multi-stable issue.
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  14. Constructivism About Practical Knowledge.Carla Bagnoli - 2013 - In Constructivism in Ethics. Cambridge University Press. pp. 153-182.
    It is largely agreed that if constructivism contributes anything to meta-ethics it is by proposing that we understand ethical objectivity “in terms of a suitably constructed point of view that all can accept” (Rawls 1980/1999: 307). Constructivists defend this “practical” conception of objectivity in contrast to the realist or “ontological” conception of objectivity, understood as an accurate representation of an independent metaphysical order. Because of their objectivist but not realist commitments, Kantian constructivists place their theory “somewhere (...)
     
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  15.  95
    Questions of Evidence in Evidence-Based Policy.Eleonora Montuschi - 2009 - Axiomathes 19 (4):425-439.
    Evidence-based approaches to policy-making are growing in popularity. A generally embraced view is that with the appropriate evidence at hand, decision and policy making will be optimal, legitimate and publicly accountable. In practice, however, evidence-based policy making is constrained by a variety of problems of evidence. Some of these problems will be explored in this article, in the context of the debates on evidence from which they originate. It is argued that the source of much disagreement might be a failure (...)
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  16.  76
    A Theory of Moral Objectivity.Robert M. Ellis - 2011 - Lulu.com.
    An inter-disciplinary philosophical treatise (written as an accredited Ph.D. thesis) that attempts to establish a new approach to moral objectivity. Inspired by the Buddha's Middle Way, but arguing from first premises, it challenges widespread and interlinked assumptions in both analytic and continental philosophy, whilst drawing on both these traditions together with psychological, religious and historical evidence. The first section of the book provides a detailed critique of existing approaches to ethics in the Western tradition. The second half then puts (...)
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  17.  48
    Defining Objectivity in Realist Terms: Objectivity as a Second-Order ‘Bridging’ Concept Part I: Valuing Objectivity.Wendy Olsen & Jamie Morgan - 2007 - Journal of Critical Realism 6 (2):250-266.
    Our aim is to explore and develop notions of objectivity that are useful and appropriate for critical realist empirical research. Part I explores the values associated with objectivity, Part II the linkages between objectivity and situated action. The introductory section of Part I explains why it is worthwhile in realist terms to develop the notion of objectivity; that is, develop it as opposed to remaining content with murky hidden notions or connotations that the term ‘objectivity (...)
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  18.  66
    Practical Reasoning: Where the Action Is.Patricio A. Fernandez - 2016 - Ethics 126 (4):869 - 900.
    Widespread conceptions of practical reasoning confront us with a choice between its practicality and its objectivity: between its efficacious, world-changing character and its accountability to objective rational standards. This choice becomes unnecessary, I argue, on an alternative view embodied by the thesis that the conclusion of practical reasoning is an action. I lay bare and challenge the assumptions underlying the rejection of that thesis and outline a defense of its picture of practical reasoning against common objections. (...)
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  19.  33
    Defining Objectivity in Realist Terms: Objectivity as a Second-Order ‘Bridging’ Concept Part II: Bridging to Praxis.Wendy Olsen & Jamie Morgan - 2008 - Journal of Critical Realism 7 (1):107-132.
    Our aim is to explore and develop notions of objectivity that are useful and appropriate for critical realist empirical research. In Part I, we provided an initial definition that introduced the idea that objectivity is a value that must be chosen but that its significance is rooted in a series of other epistemological and ontological matters. We also addressed why it is worthwhile in realist terms to develop the notion of objectivity, and began to develop a revision (...)
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  20.  98
    Pragmatic Naturalism and Moral Objectivity.Richmond Campbell & Victor Kumar - 2013 - Analysis 73 (3):446-455.
    In Kitcher’s ‘pragmatic naturalism’ moral evolution consists in pragmatically motivated moral changes in response to practical difficulties in social life. No moral truths or facts exist that could serve as an ‘external’ measure for moral progress. We propose a psychologically realistic conception of moral objectivity consistent with this pragmatic naturalism yet alive to the familiar sense that moral progress has an objective basis that transcends convention and consensus in moral opinion, even when these are products of serious, extended (...)
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  21. Coherentism and the Epistemic Justification of Moral Beliefs: A Case Study in How to Do Practical Ethics Without Appeal to a Moral Theory.Mylan Engel Jr - 2012 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 50 (1):50-74.
    This paper defends a coherentist approach to moral epistemology. In “The Immorality of Eating Meat”, I offer a coherentist consistency argument to show that our own beliefs rationally commit us to the immorality of eating meat. Elsewhere, I use our own beliefs as premises to argue that we have positive duties to assist the poor and to argue that biomedical animal experimentation is wrong. The present paper explores whether this consistency-based coherentist approach of grounding particular moral judgments on beliefs we (...)
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  22.  12
    The Ideal of the Highest Good and the Objectivity of Moral Judgment.Nataliya Palatnik - 2018 - Kant Yearbook 10 (1):125-148.
    Many Kantians dismiss Kant’s claim that we have a duty to promote the highest good – an ideal world that combines complete virtue with complete happiness – as incompatible with the core of his moral philosophy. This dismissal, I argue, raises doubts about Kant’s ability to justify the moral law, yet it is a mistake. A duty to promote the highest good plays an important role in the justificatory strategy of the Critique of Practical Reason. Moreover, its analysis leads (...)
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  23.  17
    Brandom's Solution to the Objectivity Problem.Peter Grönert - 2005 - Pragmatics and Cognition 13 (1):161-176.
    The central challenge to Brandom¿s theory of propositional content, as he himself acknowledges, is to meet the following two apparently conflicting conditions of adequacy he lays down for such a theory: It must do justice to the objectivity of conceptual norms and it should embody a phenomenalist approach to normativity, according to which normative statuses must be understood as being instituted by practical normative attitudes. The strategy Brandom employs for reconciling these requirements is intricate and somewhat elusive. This (...)
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  24.  5
    Brandom's Solution to the Objectivity Problem.Peter Grönert - 2005 - Pragmatics and Cognition 13 (1):161-175.
    The central challenge to Brandom's theory of propositional content, as he himself acknowledges, is to meet the following two apparently conflicting conditions of adequacy he lays down for such a theory: It must do justice to the objectivity of conceptual norms and it should embody a phenomenalist approach to normativity, according to which normative statuses must be understood as being instituted by practical normative attitudes. The strategy Brandom employs for reconciling these requirements is intricate and somewhat elusive. This (...)
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  25.  83
    Contractualism, Moral Motivation, and Practical Reason.Samuel Freeman - 1991 - Journal of Philosophy 88 (6):281-303.
    A discussion of T M Scanlon's contractualism as a foundational account of the nature of morality. The article discusses how contractualism provides an account of moral truth and objectivity that is based in an idealization of moral reasoning. It then develops contractualism's account of moral motivation to show how it provides a way to understand obscure but central aspects of Kantian views: the claims that moral reasons are of a special kind, and that moral motives have a basis in (...)
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  26.  40
    Can a Discursive Pragmatism Guarantee Objectivity?: Habermas and Brandom on the Correctness of Norms.James Swindal - 2007 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 33 (1):113-126.
    rgen Habermas both agree that all theoretical and practical determinations are normative affairs. But what grants this normative order the power to be objective ? While Brandom assumes that ever new appeals to reliable perceptual judgments and inferentialist determinations eventuate objectivity, Habermas thinks that such an objectivistic presumption fails to sustain a thoroughgoing critique of norms. He insists that Brandom’s model of the determination of norms cannot transcend the limits of the given social community the actors share. Habermas (...)
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  27.  49
    Evaluative Concepts and Objective Values: Rand on Moral Objectivity.Darryl F. Wright - 2008 - Social Philosophy and Policy 25 (1):149-181.
    Those familiar with Ayn Rand's ethical writings may know that she discusses issues in metaethics, and that she defended the objectivity of morality during the heyday of early non-cognitivism. But neither her metaethics, in general, nor her views on moral objectivity, in particular, have received wide study. This article elucidates some aspects of her thought in these areas, focusing on Rand's conception of the way in which moral values serve a biologically based human need, and on her account (...)
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  28.  29
    Intractable Conflicts and Moral Objectivity: A Dialogical, Problem-Based Approach.William Rehg - 1999 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 42 (2):229 – 257.
    According to the standard version of discourse ethics (e.g. as formulated by Apel, Habermas, and others), the objectivity of moral norms resides in their intersubjective acceptability under idealized conditions of discourse. These accounts have been criticized for not taking sufficient account of contextual particularities and the realities of actual discourse. This essay addresses such objections by proposing a more realistic, contextualist 'principle of real moral discourse' (RMD). RMD is derived from a more comprehensive concept of objectivity that links (...)
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  29. Answerable to the World: Experience and Practical Intentionality in Brandom's and McDowell's "Intramural" Debate.Steven Hendley - 2010 - Theoria 76 (2):129-151.
    Robert Brandom and John McDowell pursue similar, yet strikingly different approaches to a shared problem: that of how we can be answerable to the world in our beliefs about it in the wake of Sellars' critique of the myth of the given. While McDowell attempts to rehabilitate the idea that experience is capable of providing justifications for our beliefs, Brandom constructs a sophisticated social-pragmatist account of the objectivity of our conceptual commitments in which experience is, as he says, not (...)
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  30.  23
    Going Nowhere: Nagel on Normative Objectivity: Discussion.Marilyn Friedman - 1990 - Philosophy 65 (254):501-509.
    In The View from Nowhere , Thomas Nagel develops a theory of practical reasoning which attempts to give the personal, or subjective, point of view its due2 while still insisting on the objectivity of ethics. On the objective side, Nagel affirms that there are truths about values and reasons for action which are independent of the ways in which reasons and values appear to us, independent of our own particular beliefs and inclinations . The objective foundation for these (...)
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  31.  43
    Incomplete Routes to Moral Objectivity: Four Variants of Naturalism.David Sidorsky - 2001 - Social Philosophy and Policy 18 (2):177.
    The search for moral objectivity has been constant throughout the history of philosophy, although interpretations of the nature and scope of objectivity have varied. One aim of the pursuit of moral objectivity has been the demonstration of what may be termed its epistemological thesis, that is, the claim that the truth of assertions of the goodness or rightness of moral acts is as legitimate, reliable, or valid as the truth of assertions involving other forms of human knowledge, (...)
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  32.  44
    Objectivity and of Justice: A Critique of Emmanuel Levinas' Explanations. [REVIEW]Alphonso Lingis - 1999 - Continental Philosophy Review 32 (4):395-407.
    For Emmanuel Levinas objectivity is intersubjectively constituted. But this intersubjectivity is not, as in Merleau-Ponty, the intercorporeality of perceivers nor, as in Heidegger, the active correlation of practical agents. It has an ethical structure; it is the presence, to each cognitive subject, of others who contest and judge him. But does not the exposure of each cognitive subject to the wants and needs of others result in the constitution of a common practical field, which is not yet (...)
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  33.  8
    Evaluative Concepts and Objective Values: Rand on Moral Objectivity: Darryl F. Wright.Darryl F. Wright - 2008 - Social Philosophy and Policy 25 (1):149-181.
    Those familiar with Ayn Rand's ethical writings may know that she discusses issues in metaethics, and that she defended the objectivity of morality during the heyday of early non-cognitivism. But neither her metaethics, in general, nor her views on moral objectivity, in particular, have received wide study. This article elucidates some aspects of her thought in these areas, focusing on Rand's conception of the way in which moral values serve a biologically based human need, and on her account (...)
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  34.  3
    Incomplete Routes to Moral Objectivity: Four Variants of Naturalism*: David Sidorsky.David Sidorsky - 2001 - Social Philosophy and Policy 18 (2):177-217.
    The search for moral objectivity has been constant throughout the history of philosophy, although interpretations of the nature and scope of objectivity have varied. One aim of the pursuit of moral objectivity has been the demonstration of what may be termed its epistemological thesis, that is, the claim that the truth of assertions of the goodness or rightness of moral acts is as legitimate, reliable, or valid as the truth of assertions involving other forms of human knowledge, (...)
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  35.  5
    Objectivity in Conduct.Eric Gilman - 1954 - Philosophy 29 (111):308 - 320.
    There has of late been a revival of interest in the problem of practical reason. One of the causes of this revival has been, I think, a reaction against the radical subjectivism to which the emotive theory seemed to lead. Philosophers have wished to show that the method of linguistic analysis can account for that kind of objectivity, whatever kind that might be, which is possessed by our moral opinions, criticisms, etc. The question in what this objectivity (...)
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  36.  90
    Problems of Rationality.Donald Davidson - 2004 - Oxford University Press.
    Problems of Rationality is the eagerly awaited fourth volume of Donald Davidson 's philosophical writings. From the 1960s until his death in August 2003 Davidson was perhaps the most influential figure in English-language philosophy, and his work has had a profound effect upon the discipline. His unified theory of the interpretation of thought, meaning, and action holds that rationality is a necessary condition for both mind and interpretation. Davidson here develops this theory to illuminate value judgements and how we understand (...)
  37.  37
    Philosophy After Objectivity: Making Sense in Perspective.Paul K. Moser - 1993 - Oxford University Press.
    Since the beginning of philosophy, philosophers have sought objective knowledge: knowledge of things whose existence does not depend on one's conceiving of them. This book uses lessons from debates over objective knowledge to characterize the kinds of reasons pertinent to philosophical and other theoretical views. It argues that we cannot meet skeptics' typical demands for nonquestion-begging support for claims to objective truth, and that therefore we should not regard our supporting reasons as resistant to skeptical challenges. One key lesson is (...)
  38. Mackie's Motivational Argument.Philip Clark - unknown
    Mackie doubted anything objective could have the motivational properties of a value. In thinking we are morally required to act in a certain way, he said, we attribute objective value to the action. Since nothing has objective value, these moral judgments are all false. As to whether Mackie proved his error theory, opinions vary. But there is broad agreement on one issue. A litany of examples, ranging from amoralism to depression to downright evil, has everyone convinced that Mackie vastly overstated (...)
     
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  39.  96
    Constructing Protagorean Objectivity.Errnanno Bencivenga, Nadeem Hussein, Christine Korsgaard, James Lenman, Peter de Mameffe, James Nickel, David Plunkett, James Pryor, Andrews Reath & Michael Ridge - 2012 - In Jimmy Lenman & Yonatan Shemmer (eds.), Constructivism in Practical Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
    At least since the late Early Modern period, the Holy Grail of ethics, for many philosophers, has been to say how ethical values could have a kind of protagorean objectivity: values are to be both fully objective as values and yet depend on us by their very nature. More than any other contemporary foundational approach it is “constructivist” theories, such as those due to Rawls, Scanlon, and Korsgaard, which have consciously sought to explain how protagorean objectivity is a (...)
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  40.  35
    Using Science, Making Policy: What Should We Worry About?Eleonora Montuschi - 2017 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 7 (1):57-78.
    How does science enter policy making, and for what purpose? Surely consulting scientific facts in making policy is done with a view to making policy decisions more reliable, and ultimately more objective. In this paper I address the way/s by which science contributes to achieving objectivity in policy making and social debate, and argue that objectivity is not exhausted by what scientific evidence contributes to either. In policy making and social debates, scientific evidence is taken into account alongside (...)
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  41. Being True to the World Moral Realism and Practical Wisdom.Jonathan A. Jacobs - 1990
     
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  42.  62
    The Ethics-Mathematics Analogy.Justin Clarke-Doane - forthcoming - Philosophy Compass.
    There is an influential tradition of comparing ethics to mathematics. Plato closely associated ethical and mathematical knowledge (Burnyeat [2000]), and later rationalists stressed an analogy between simple arithmetic propositions and simple ethical ones (Clarke [2010/1705, 12], Peacocke [2004, 201]). According to this analogy, both ethical and mathematical propositions may be known a priori -- i.e., independent of any particular sensory experience. Consequently, realism about ethics -- the view that there are independent ethical facts, out there to be discovered -- is (...)
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  43.  86
    The Authority of Reason.Jean E. Hampton - 2009 - Cambridge University Press.
    This challenging and provocative book argues against much contemporary orthodoxy in philosophy and the social sciences by showing why objectivity in the domain of ethics is really no different from the objectivity of scientific knowledge. Many philosophers and social scientists have challenged the idea that we act for objectively authoritative reasons. Jean Hampton takes up the challenge by undermining two central assumptions of this contemporary orthodoxy: that one can understand instrumental reasons without appeal to objective authority, and that (...)
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  44.  49
    Constructivism in Practical Philosophy.James Lenman & Yonatan Shemmer (eds.) - 2012 - Oxford University Press.
    This volume presents twelve original papers on the idea that moral objectivity is to be understood in terms of a suitably constructed social point of view that all can accept.
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  45.  36
    Learning About Wisdom From Lehrer.Nenad Miščević - 2012 - Philosophical Studies 161 (1):59-68.
    The paper discusses Lehrer's pioneering approach to the topic of wisdom. His pithy proposal, that wisdom is preference of merit justified by an evaluation system and undefeated by error, fits well within the grand philosophical tradition of thinking about wisdom, offering a very clear and original formulation of its target. The first part of the paper puts it on a map of philosophical options concerning wisdom (anthropo-, theo- and cosmo-centric ones) and then raises questions about it: does preference have to (...)
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  46. Moral Objectivity: Husserl's Sentiments of the Understanding.John J. Drummond - 1995 - Husserl Studies 12 (2):165-183.
    This paper explores two perspectives in Husserl's recently published writings on ethics and axiology in order to sketch anew a phenomenological account of practical reason. The paper aims a) to show that a phenomenological account of moral intentionality i) transcends the disputes between intellectualist-emotivist and intellectualist-voluntarist disputes and ii) points toward a position in which practical reason has an emotive content or, conversely, the emotions have a cognitive content, and the paper aims b) to show that a phenomenological (...)
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  47.  33
    14. Analytische Philosophie: Die Andere Seite der Rhetorik.Jörg Volbers - 2017 - In Gerald Posselt & Andreas Hetzel (eds.), Handbuch "Rhetorik und Philosophie". De Gruyter. pp. 333-352.
    Throughout its history, analytic philosophy has established a decidedly anti-rhetoric self-understanding. Yet the historical development of analytic philosophy, leading from Russell to Quine and Davidson, successively puts this anti-rhetorical ideals in question. Even though the rhetorics of clarity and objectivity remain, the discussions of post-analytic philosophy focus more and more an an understanding of language which is forced to acknowledge its irreducible practical and situational aspects. Analytical philosophy, then, should be seen as a decidedly anti-rhetoric tradition which tries (...)
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  48.  18
    The Objectivity of Faith.Eleanor Helms - 2013 - Res Philosophica 90 (4):439-460.
    Perhaps Kierkegaard’s most notorious—though pseudonymous—claim is that truth is subjectivity. This claim is commonly elaborated to mean that faith is a “how” and not a “what” . I show through a discussion of examples taken from throughout Kierkegaard’s writings that Kierkegaard accepts a basic insight of Kant’s philosophy: each experience implicitly includes an underlying unity—the object—that does not itself appear. Both Kant and Kierkegaard emphasize the importance of a “continuity of impressions,” which gives experience its unified structure beyond changing superficial (...)
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  49. Moral Luck in Medical Ethics and Practical Politics.Donna Dickenson - 1989 - Dissertation, Open University (United Kingdom)
    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. ;Typically we maintain two incompatible standards towards right action and good character, and the tension between these polarities creates the paradox of moral luck. In practice we regard actions as right or wrong, and character as good or bad, partly according to what happens as a result of the agent's decision. Yet we also think that people should not be held responsible for matters beyond their control. ;This split underpins Kant's assertion (...)
     
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  50. Objectivity, Agency and Self-Knowledge.Bill Brewer - 1989 - Dissertation, University of Oxford (United Kingdom)
    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. ;There is a traditional conception of perception as the passive reception of information about the external world. This thesis pursues one line of development of an alternative view. The suggestion will be that fleeting subjective perceptual experience attains its status as genuinely representational of how things independently are in an objective world partly in virtue of its role as input into a system of practical thought and intentional (...)
     
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