The Yogic literatures are replete with examples of several unique mystical experiences in deeper states of meditation. These experiences have nevertheless remained largely untouched by the scientific community, possibly because of the extreme inexplicability of such states and the lack of sophistication in evaluating them. More amenable to scientific research, however, would seem to be the simpler states of awareness in meditation such as that of inner light perception. While a few studies have attempted to explore this state by objective (...) means, the subjective experience of this state remains largely unexplored. The present study originates from an interesting sub-theme identified in an earlier study focused on interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) of the experience of inner light perception among Vihangam Yogis. The original study found that the Yogis were very confident in differentiating their experience of inner light perception from other similar experiences. It was thus decided to use IPA to explore the clarity of the differences perceived by the Vihangam Yogis between these experiences. The present study reveals that the meditators could clearly differentiate the state colloquially termed "inner light perception" from (a) external light perception, (b) imagination and (c) dreams. The meditators gave detailed descriptions of their perception of the differences between these experiences, which suggests that the subjective state of inner light perception could be quite different from that of those experiences which the authors have termed differentials of inner light perception. The conclusion reached is that, in addition to further empirical study by means of the traditional modalities and measures, vigorous qualitative study of the subjective dimensions of the state of inner light perception is warranted, with this study indicating that IPA is especially effective in the latter regard. (shrink)
Abstract David Orr's postmodern philosophical investigations begin with the recognition that our modern culture is not ecologically sustainable; and therefore threatens all life on earth in the long term, even as it continues to destroy sustainable cultures in the short term. Hopeful of redirecting our civic culture or morality, as well as our technologies towards postmodern sustainability, Orr proposes an education for ecological literacy. This paper examines Orr's account of ecological literacy. Following his attempts to take us beyond modern literacy, (...) it analyses Orr's conception of moral virtue. It concludes with some reflections on Orr's deconstruction of professional academic boundaries, including those that continue to separate ecological literacy from moral education. (shrink)
Abstract Values clarification (VC) continues to be criticized for its conception of the ends as well as the means of moral education. Responding to Dwight Boyd and Deanne Bogdan's recent critique of values clarification, this paper suggests a new perspective from which to reassess this approach to moral education. In doing so, it locates Values Clarification within a long and rich tradition of ethical and educational theory. Its critics, including Boyd and Bogdan, reflect viewpoints belonging to a competing tradition. The (...) key unresolved differences between these two competing traditions are highlighted with a view to showing that, contrary to the allegations of its critics, VC does not hold arbitrary or mistaken conceptions of ?morality? and ?education?, but merely conceptions which are currently not as popular. While providing new grounds for the assessment of VC, this paper also attempts to expand the scope of the dialogue on moral education by drawing attention to a compelling, yet insufficiently studied tradition in ethics and education. (shrink)
Meditation hasrecently emerged as a topic of interest for the medicinal scientists as well as for the neuropsychological scientists for different reasons. The methods used by both of these approaches have been mostly objective. This quest of objectification has led to vigorous use of tools like EEG and ERP, which has definitely led to revealing of marvellous aspects of meditation. However, the subjective states of meditation have been much less explored, especially when seen in contrast to the objective states. The (...) need of the hour is to use the qualitative methods for exploration of these states because these methods better depict the unique experiences of meditation. In this context, we conducted a qualitative study in the form of Interpretative phenomenological analysis to explore the subjective experiences associated with the inner-light perception of a group of meditators practising the meditation technique of Vihangam Yoga. It is an ancient meditation technique of India, initiated by HH Sadguru Sadafal Deoji Maharaj in the year 1924 and now being propogated by HH Sadguru Swatantra Deoji Maharaj. When asked in detail, the practitioners often report of many mystique experiences. This particular Yoga group was chosen because in a survey of among four groups, the maximum number of confident mediators reporting of perceiving some sort of luminance during meditation was found in this group. For this study, the inner-light perception experience of this meditation was chosen because of the divine value attached to this experience across all the cultures and religions. This experience was also chosen because of the great impact on their lives that Vihangam Yogis attributed to this experience. As the results of the study, four major themes were obtained which were: Uniqueness of the nature of light Experiences during light perception Explanations of the source of light Change in outlook towards world and associated changes in thinking. (shrink)
George A. Olah, Alain Goeppert and G. K. Surya Prakash (eds): Beyond oil and gas: the methanol economy, 2nd updated and enlarged edition Content Type Journal Article Category Book Review Pages 1-2 DOI 10.1007/s10698-011-9141-x Authors George B. Kauffman, Department of Chemistry, California State University, Fresno, Fresno, CA 93740-8034, USA Journal Foundations of Chemistry Online ISSN 1572-8463 Print ISSN 1386-4238.