Ethics training—an important means to foster ethical decision-making in organisations—is carried out formally as well as informally. There are mixed findings as regards the effectiveness of formal versus informal ethics training. This study is one of its first kinds in which we have investigated the effectiveness of ethics training as it is carried out in the Indian IT sector. We have collected the views of Indian IT industry professionals concerning ethics training, and employed positivist and interpretive research. We first have (...) argued that the importance of the perception towards ethics has bearings not only on the individual ideologies but also on the organisational ethical values. In doing so, first we have conceptualised a theoretical framework: Perception of Ethics Training in Employees and Organisations. Second, we have studied the correlations between various components of this model. Third, we, under the rubric of PETINEO, examined the effectiveness of ethics training programmes for the Indian IT companies. Fourth, we have elaborated upon the results of our study. Our results suggest that the combination of both formal and informal means to undertake ethics training has superior impact on ethical decision-making in the Indian IT industry as compared to the use of any one of them in isolation. (shrink)
The year 2018 is the 150 anniversary of the Tata group. This article is an attempt to examine the role of spiritual family values in shaping Tata as a sustainable business. Jamsetji Nusserwanji Tata, the founder of Tata, was a trained Parsi priest, who was greatly influenced by Humata or good thoughts, Hukhta or good words, and Hvarshta or good deeds toward others. Since its founding in 1868, the Tata leadership legacy has persistently followed those watchwords of the Zoroastrian faith. (...) The extant workplace spirituality literature posits that the role of spiritual and religious values is vital for organizations and individuals to prosper. Employing historical data and biographical method, we trace the history of Tata to examine the causal mechanism between spirituality and sustainable business, under the influence of stakeholder concept, sustainability and family values-based leadership. Implications for research and practice are discussed. (shrink)
A careful and wide-ranging assessment of the notion of justice in the Marxist tradition is provided by this book. Vidhu Verma demonstrates that Marx's analysis of exploitation provides a fruitful starting point to analyze current social conflicts. She examines three main themes: what she calls Marx's "critical non-juridical" concept of justice; different theories about what justice is in the context of social change; and the relevance of Marx's theory in the contemporary world in which new social movements - such (...) as the green and women's movements - have looked to forge new conceptions of justice. (shrink)
While recent studies have increasingly suggested leadership as a major precursor to corporate social responsibility, empirical studies that examine the impact of various leader aspects such as style and ethics on CSR and unravel the mechanism through which leadership exerts its influence on CSR are scant. Ironically, paucity of research on this theme is more prevalent in the sphere of social enterprises where it is of utmost importance. With the aim of addressing these gaps, this research empirically examines the interaction (...) between ethical leadership and CSR and, in addition, investigates organic organizational cultures as mediators in the above interaction. To this end, a model was developed and tested on the sample of 350 middle- and top-level managers associated with 28 Indian healthcare social enterprises, using Structural Equation Modeling Analysis, Bootstrapping and PROCESS. Results reveal that ethical leadership both directly and indirectly influences CSR practices. The indirect influence of ethical leadership involves nurturing clan and adhocracy cultures, which in turn influence CSR. These findings are significant for social enterprise leaders seeking to encourage their organizations’ socially responsible behavior. (shrink)
An embedded ideology of the religious-secular binary in its various forms has assumed currency in recent continental and Anglo-American political thought. This ideology highlights the difference between religion under modernization, broadly defined by the secularization thesis, and that of religious revival in a period characterized by postsecularism. It reflects the rise of new epistemologies and the dissolution of the antinomies between faith and reason characteristic of a postsecular culture. A common argument found in these writings is that enlightenment secularization, which (...) relegates the sacred to a private sphere, seems to have discovered its own parochialism as religion continues to provide…. (shrink)
Background Tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Recent scholarly attention to public health ethics provides an opportunity to analyze several ethical issues raised by the global tuberculosis pandemic. Discussion Recently articulated frameworks for public health ethics emphasize the importance of effectiveness in the justification of public health action. This paper critically reviews the relationship between these frameworks and the published evidence of effectiveness of tuberculosis interventions, with a specific focus on the controversies engendered by the endorsement (...) of programs of service delivery that emphasize direct observation of therapy. The role of global economic inequities in perpetuating the tuberculosis pandemic is also discussed. Summary Tuberculosis is a complex but well understood disease that raises important ethical challenges for emerging frameworks in public health ethics. The exact role of effectiveness as a criterion for judging the ethics of interventions needs greater discussion and analysis. Emerging frameworks are silent about the economic conditions contributing to the global burden of illness associated with tuberculosis and this requires remediation. (shrink)
Seismic coherence is commonly used to delineate structural and stratigraphic discontinuities. We generally use full-bandwidth seismic data to calculate coherence. However, some seismic stratigraphic features may be buried in this full-bandwidth data, but can be highlighted by certain spectral components. Due to thin-bed tuning phenomena, discontinuities in a thicker stratigraphic feature may be tuned and thus better delineated at a lower-frequency, while discontinuities in the thinner units may be tuned and thus better delineated at a higher-frequency. Additionally, whether due to (...) the seismic data quality or underlying geology, certain spectral components exhibit higher quality over other components, resulting in correspondingly higher quality coherence images. Multispectral coherence provides an effective tool to exploit these observations. We evaluate the performance of multispectral coherence using different spectral decomposition methods: continuous wavelet transform, maximum entropy, amplitude volume technique, and spectral probe. Applications to a 3D seismic data volume show that multispectral coherence images are superior to full-bandwidth coherence, providing better delineation of incised channels with less noise. From the CWT experiments, we find that providing exponentially-spaced CWT components provides better coherence images than equally-spaced components for the same computation cost. The multispectral coherence image computed using maximum entropy spectral voices further improves the resolution of the thinner channels and small-scale features. The coherence from AVT dataset provides continuous images of thicker channel boundaries, but poor images of the small-scale features inside the thicker channels. Additionally, multispectral coherence computed using the nonlinear spectral probes exhibits more balanced and reveals clear small-scale geologic features inside the thicker channel. However, because amplitudes are not preserved in the nonlinear spectral probe decomposition, noise in the noisier shorter-period components have an equal weight when building the covariance matrix, resulting in increased noise in the generated multispectral coherence images. (shrink)
The article explores some of the theoretical and political issues which underpin the current conflict over the accountability of the global economic order. The article develops in five parts, starting with an initial section on the changing nature and form of globalization and ending with an account of how markets and business activities can be reframed. The focus is on the emergence of a number of cosmopolitan social standards which are embedded in human rights regimes and other international legal instruments. (...) These standards are explicated, elaborated and defended. The article argues that these standards need to be clarified further and developed in order to create the basis for global economic accountability and social justice. (shrink)
We present a characterization of confluence for term rewriting systems, which is then refined for special classes of rewriting systems. The refined characterization is used to obtain a polynomial time algorithm for deciding the confluence of ground term rewrite systems. The same approach also shows the decidability of confluence for shallow and linear term rewriting systems. The decision procedure has a polynomial time complexity under the assumption that the maximum arity of a function symbol in the signature is a constant.
“The women here in Los Terreros are worried,” Don Alonzo says. “Last year, one of them died from invasive cervical cancer. Thirty-eight years old. Never had a pap in her life.” He leans back in his chair and sighs. “Her husband wouldn’t let her, said he didn’t see the point.” A tabby cat rubs against his legs. “So now the women, they keep worrying. They’ve had the day your group is coming memorized for weeks, maybe months.”Don Alonzo is the local (...) health officer, a thin man in his late sixties, never without his cowboy hat and tattered backpack. We sit in front of his house atop a steep hill in Los Terreros, a small Honduran community about a hundred miles northeast of the country’s capital. Around us, dense green... (shrink)
The study explored the role of moral identity in the civic engagement of youth through ethical ideology. A total of 217 individuals comprising of 104 girls and 113 boys completed three scales, namely, moral identity scale, ethics position questionnaire and civic engagement scale.The results showed that moral identity internalization significantly predicted civic engagement attitude and moral identity symbolization significantly predicted civic engagement behaviour. Furthermore, idealism partially mediated the relationship between moral identity and civic engagement.
The Permian Basin is a structurally complex sedimentary basin with an extensive history of tectonic deformation. As the basin evolved through time, sediments dispersed into the basin floor from surrounding carbonate platforms leading to various mass movements. One such mass movement is observed on a 3D seismic survey in the Upper Leonard interval of the Midland Basin that is characteristic of a mass transport deposit. The 350 ft thick MTD mapped in the study area is 5 mi wide, extends up (...) to 14 mi basinward, and covers only the translational and compressional regime of the mass movement. A unique sedimentary feature, unlike those observed previously, is mapped and interpreted as gravity spreading. MTDs have been extensively studied in the Delaware Basin of Permian-aged strata; however, only a few works have been published on the geomorphological expression of MTDs using seismic and seismic attributes to delineate the shape, size, and anatomy of this subsurface feature. The MTD in the study area exhibits an array of features including slide, slump, basal shear surface, and MTD grooves. In cross section, the MTD is characterized as chaotic with semitransparent reflectors terminating laterally against a coherent package of seismic facies, or the lateral wall. Sobel filter-based coherence, structural curvature, dip magnitude, and dip azimuth attributes are used to map thrust faults within the discontinuous MTD. Kinematic evidence provided by the Upper Spraberry isopach suggests that this MTD was sourced north of the Midland Basin and deposited on the basin floor fairway. Slope strata are interpreted from well-log analysis showing MTD as a mixture of carbonates and siliciclastics with a moderate to high resistivity response. (shrink)
As the annual air passenger traffic in India is increasing steeply, an environmental impact assessment on important cities connected by air is becoming increasingly indispensable. This study proposes an innovative screening method that uses a modified Environmental Vulnerability Index. This modified EVI calculator includes aviation-related parameters and can be used to assess the environmental vulnerabilities of political states and cities, in addition to countries as is being already done. This study also suggests the need to include aspects of human comfort (...) in the screening process through the use of state-of-the-art computational fluid dynamical software and large eddy simulations which can be used to estimate forces experienced by aircraft of different sizes during in-flight turbulence for various weather conditions. A comparative analysis is presented on how changing the size of the aircraft operating in a particular route between the cities of Chennai and Bengaluru has better implications on both passenger comfort and the environment. It is observed that if commercial airlines incorporated fewer medium-sized aircraft, there would be a significant reduction in the environmental vulnerability of the two connected cities. (shrink)
It is intriguing to think about the range of kind of things one could say with the help of words, but out of these myriad tasks philosophically the most fascinating one is to convince the other about the inefficacy of the words or language in certain domains of experiences in our lives. It is fascinating and intriguing for onesimple reason namely that in such cases language is put to a task of undoing itself and more importantly by itself with the (...) help of nothing apart from itself. (shrink)
The Yogic literatures are replete with examples of several unique mystical experiences in deeper states of meditation. These experiences have nevertheless remained largely untouched by the scientific community, possibly because of the extreme inexplicability of such states and the lack of sophistication in evaluating them. More amenable to scientific research, however, would seem to be the simpler states of awareness in meditation such as that of inner light perception. While a few studies have attempted to explore this state by objective (...) means, the subjective experience of this state remains largely unexplored. The present study originates from an interesting sub-theme identified in an earlier study focused on interpretative phenomenological analysis of the experience of inner light perception among Vihangam Yogis. The original study found that the Yogis were very confident in differentiating their experience of inner light perception from other similar experiences. It was thus decided to use IPA to explore the clarity of the differences perceived by the Vihangam Yogis between these experiences. The present study reveals that the meditators could clearly differentiate the state colloquially termed “inner light perception” from external light perception, imagination and dreams. The meditators gave detailed descriptions of their perception of the differences between these experiences, which suggests that the subjective state of inner light perception could be quite different from that of those experiences which the authors have termed differentials of inner light perception. The conclusion reached is that, in addition to further empirical study by means of the traditional modalities and measures, vigorous qualitative study of the subjective dimensions of the state of inner light perception is warranted, with this study indicating that IPA is especially effective in the latter regard. (shrink)