Results for 'Priming'

723 found
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  1. Habits, Priming, Aliefs and the Explanation of Mindless Action.Ezio Di Nucci - forthcoming - Minds and Machines:1-21.
    There is a growing body of evidence on the influences of automatic and unconscious processes on our actions. Here I introduce some representative examples of this growing body of evidence, chosen so as to form a diverse group of related mindless phenomena: habits, skills, priming and nudges (Section 1). I then argue that this evidence challenges traditional belief-desire-based approaches in the philosophy of action (Sections 2 and 3). I further discuss a recently proposed solution to this challenge, Gendler’s Alief, (...)
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  2.  43
    A Computational Cognitive Model of Syntactic Priming.David Reitter, Frank Keller & Johanna D. Moore - 2011 - Cognitive Science 35 (4):587-637.
    The psycholinguistic literature has identified two syntactic adaptation effects in language production: rapidly decaying short-term priming and long-lasting adaptation. To explain both effects, we present an ACT-R model of syntactic priming based on a wide-coverage, lexicalized syntactic theory that explains priming as facilitation of lexical access. In this model, two well-established ACT-R mechanisms, base-level learning and spreading activation, account for long-term adaptation and short-term priming, respectively. Our model simulates incremental language production and in a series of (...)
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  3. Priming Effects and Free Will.Ezio Di Nucci - 2012 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 20 (5):725-734.
    Abstract I argue that the empirical literature on priming effects does not warrant nor suggest the conclusion, drawn by prominent psychologists such as J. A. Bargh, that we have no free will or less free will than we might think. I focus on a particular experiment by Bargh ? the ?elderly? stereotype case in which subjects that have been primed with words that remind them of the stereotype of the elderly walk on average slower out of the experiment?s room (...)
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  4.  85
    Semantic Priming: Perspectives From Memory and Word Recognition.Timothy P. McNamara - 2005 - Psychology Press.
    Semantic priming has been a focus of research in the cognitive sciences for more than 30 years and is commonly used as a tool for investigating other aspects of perception and cognition, such as word recognition, language comprehension, and knowledge representations. Semantic Priming: Perspectives from Memory and Word Recognition examines empirical and theoretical advancements in the understanding of semantic priming, providing a succinct, in-depth review of this important phenomenon, framed in terms of models of memory and models (...)
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  5. Is Priming During Anesthesia Unconscious?Catherine Deeprose & Jackie Andrade - 2006 - Consciousness and Cognition 15 (1):1-23.
    General anesthesia provides an alternative to typical laboratory paradigms for investigating implicit learning. We assess the evidence that a simple type of learning—priming—can occur without consciousness. Although priming has been shown to be a small but persistent phenomenon in surgical patients there is reason to question whether it occurs implicitly due to problems in detecting awareness using typical clinical signs. This paper reviews the published studies on priming during anesthesia that have included a measure of awareness or (...)
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  6.  22
    Unconscious Priming by Color and Form: Different Processes and Levels.Bruno G. Breitmeyer, Haluk Ogmen & Jian Chen - 2004 - Consciousness and Cognition 13 (1):138-157.
    Using a metacontrast masking paradigm, prior studies have shown that a target’s color information and form information, can be processed without awareness and that unconscious color processing occurs at early, wavelength-dependent levels in the cortical information processing hierarchy. Here we used a combination of paracontrast and metacontrast masking techniques to explore unconscious color and form priming effects produced by blue, green, and neutral stimuli. We found that color priming in normal observers is significantly reduced when an additional paracontrast (...)
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  7.  7
    Integrating the Automatic and the Controlled: Strategies in Semantic Priming in an Attractor Network With Latching Dynamics.Itamar Lerner, Shlomo Bentin & Oren Shriki - 2014 - Cognitive Science 38 (8):1562-1603.
    Semantic priming has long been recognized to reflect, along with automatic semantic mechanisms, the contribution of controlled strategies. However, previous theories of controlled priming were mostly qualitative, lacking common grounds with modern mathematical models of automatic priming based on neural networks. Recently, we introduced a novel attractor network model of automatic semantic priming with latching dynamics. Here, we extend this work to show how the same model can also account for important findings regarding controlled processes. Assuming (...)
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  8.  34
    Semantic Priming: On the Role of Awareness in Visual Word Recognition in the Absence of an Expectancy.Matthew Brown & Derek Besner - 2002 - Consciousness and Cognition 11 (3):402-422.
    By hypothesis, awareness is involved in the modulation of feedback from semantics to the lexical level in the visual word recognition system. When subjects are aware of the fact that there are many related prime–target pairs in a semantic priming experiment, this knowledge is used to configure the system to feed activation back from semantics to the lexical level so as to facilitate processing. When subjects are unaware of this fact, the default set is maintained in which activation is (...)
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  9.  2
    Familiarity, Priming, and Perception in Similarity Judgments.M. Hiatt Laura & Trafton J. Gregory - 2016 - Cognitive Science 41 (3).
    We present a novel way of accounting for similarity judgments. Our approach posits that similarity stems from three main sources—familiarity, priming, and inherent perceptual likeness. Here, we explore each of these constructs and demonstrate their individual and combined effectiveness in explaining similarity judgments. Using these three measures, our account of similarity explains ratings of simple, color-based perceptual stimuli that display asymmetry effects, as well as more complicated perceptual stimuli with structural properties; more traditional approaches to similarity solve one or (...)
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  10.  23
    Priming semântico em crianças: efeitos da força de associação semântica e frequência do alvo.Holderbaum Candice Steffen & Salles Jerusa Fumagalli de - 2010 - Aletheia 33:95-108.
    O priming semântico é um tipo de memória implícita que se caracteriza pelo efeito facilitador de um estímulo precedente no processamento de um estímulo posterior, causado pela relação semântica existente entre os dois. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar relações entre os efeitos de priming semânt..
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  11.  1
    Does Talker‐Specific Information Influence Lexical Competition? Evidence From Phonological Priming.Sophie Dufour & Noël Nguyen - 2016 - Cognitive Science 41 (3).
    In this study, we examined whether the lexical competition process embraced by most models of spoken word recognition is sensitive to talker-specific information. We used a lexical decision task and a long lag priming experiment in which primes and targets sharing all phonemes except the last one were presented in two separate blocks of stimuli. In Experiment 1, the competitor prime block was presented only once to listeners, and no modulation of the competitor priming effect as a function (...)
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  12.  19
    Opening the Doors of Perception: Priming Altered States of Consciousness Outside of Conscious Awareness.Brandon Randolph-Seng & Michael Nielsen - 2009 - Archive for the Psychology of Religion 31 (2):237-260.
    Two studies are reported in which participants' reports of altered states of consciousness were manipulated using priming methods. Study 1 used both subtle and blunt supraliminal priming methods, while Study 2 used a subliminal priming method. Across the two studies, two different methods for inducing ASC were used. In both studies a direct and an indirect measure of ASC was employed in order to separate the more nonconscious and spontaneous from the more conscious and directive reports of (...)
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  13.  22
    Dynamic Simulation and Static Matching for Action Prediction: Evidence From Body Part Priming.Anne Springer, Simone Brandstädter & Wolfgang Prinz - 2013 - Cognitive Science 37 (5):936-952.
    Accurately predicting other people's actions may involve two processes: internal real-time simulation (dynamic updating) and matching recently perceived action images (static matching). Using a priming of body parts, this study aimed to differentiate the two processes. Specifically, participants played a motion-controlled video game with either their arms or legs. They then observed arm movements of a point-light actor, which were briefly occluded from view, followed by a static test pose. Participants judged whether this test pose depicted a coherent continuation (...)
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  14.  1
    Does Talker‐Specific Information Influence Lexical Competition? Evidence From Phonological Priming.Sophie Dufour & Noël Nguyen - 2016 - Cognitive Science 41 (3).
    In this study, we examined whether the lexical competition process embraced by most models of spoken word recognition is sensitive to talker-specific information. We used a lexical decision task and a long lag priming experiment in which primes and targets sharing all phonemes except the last one were presented in two separate blocks of stimuli. In Experiment 1, the competitor prime block was presented only once to listeners, and no modulation of the competitor priming effect as a function (...)
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  15.  31
    Structural Priming as Structure-Mapping: Children Use Analogies From Previous Utterances to Guide Sentence Production.Micah B. Goldwater, Marc T. Tomlinson, Catharine H. Echols & Bradley C. Love - 2011 - Cognitive Science 35 (1):156-170.
    What mechanisms underlie children’s language production? Structural priming—the repetition of sentence structure across utterances—is an important measure of the developing production system. We propose its mechanism in children is the same as may underlie analogical reasoning: structure-mapping. Under this view, structural priming is the result of making an analogy between utterances, such that children map semantic and syntactic structure from previous to future utterances. Because the ability to map relationally complex structures develops with age, younger children are less (...)
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  16.  12
    Do Lemmas Speak German? A Verb Position Effect in German Structural Priming.Franklin Chang, Michael Baumann, Sandra Pappert & Hartmut Fitz - 2015 - Cognitive Science 39 (5):1113-1130.
    Lexicalized theories of syntax often assume that verb-structure regularities are mediated by lemmas, which abstract over variation in verb tense and aspect. German syntax seems to challenge this assumption, because verb position depends on tense and aspect. To examine how German speakers link these elements, a structural priming study was performed which varied syntactic structure, verb position, and verb overlap.structural priming was found, both within and across verb position, but priming was larger when the verb position was (...)
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  17.  1
    A Prime Example of the Maluma/Takete Effect? Testing for Sound Symbolic Priming.David M. Sidhu & Penny M. Pexman - 2016 - Cognitive Science 41 (3).
    Certain nonwords, like maluma and takete, are associated with roundness and sharpness, respectively. However, this has typically been demonstrated using explicit tasks. We investigated whether this association would be detectable using a more implicit measure—a sequential priming task. We began with a replication of the standard Maluma/Takete effect before examining whether round and sharp nonword primes facilitated the categorization of congruent shapes. We found modest evidence of a priming effect in response accuracy. We next examined whether nonword primes (...)
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  18.  6
    The Influence of Decision Frames and Vision Priming on Decision Outcomes in Work Groups: Motivating Stakeholder Considerations.Kevin D. Clark, Narda R. Quigley & Stephen A. Stumpf - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 120 (1):1-12.
    Organizational leaders are increasingly emphasizing a stakeholder perspective in order to address concerns about business ethics. This study examined the choices of 94 groups in the context of a business decision-making simulation to determine how specific actions and communications can facilitate the consideration of different stakeholder perspectives. In particular, we examined whether generally framing the business situation as one involving diverse stakeholders versus a primarily profit-driven operation (referred to as framing), and whether specific suggestions that participants consider the concerns of (...)
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  19. Relational Priming Based on a Multiplicative Schema for Whole Numbers and Fractions.Melissa DeWolf, Ji Y. Son, Miriam Bassok & Keith J. Holyoak - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (3).
    Why might it be beneficial for adults to process fractions componentially? Recent research has shown that college-educated adults can capitalize on the bipartite structure of the fraction notation, performing more successfully with fractions than with decimals in relational tasks, notably analogical reasoning. This study examined patterns of relational priming for problems with fractions in a task that required arithmetic computations. College students were asked to judge whether or not multiplication equations involving fractions were correct. Some equations served as structurally (...)
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  20. Relational Priming Based on a Multiplicative Schema for Whole Numbers and Fractions.Melissa DeWolf, Ji Y. Son, Miriam Bassok & Keith J. Holyoak - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (3).
    Why might it be beneficial for adults to process fractions componentially? Recent research has shown that college-educated adults can capitalize on the bipartite structure of the fraction notation, performing more successfully with fractions than with decimals in relational tasks, notably analogical reasoning. This study examined patterns of relational priming for problems with fractions in a task that required arithmetic computations. College students were asked to judge whether or not multiplication equations involving fractions were correct. Some equations served as structurally (...)
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  21. Familiarity, Priming, and Perception in Similarity Judgments.M. Hiatt Laura & Trafton J. Gregory - 2016 - Cognitive Science 41 (3).
    We present a novel way of accounting for similarity judgments. Our approach posits that similarity stems from three main sources—familiarity, priming, and inherent perceptual likeness. Here, we explore each of these constructs and demonstrate their individual and combined effectiveness in explaining similarity judgments. Using these three measures, our account of similarity explains ratings of simple, color-based perceptual stimuli that display asymmetry effects, as well as more complicated perceptual stimuli with structural properties; more traditional approaches to similarity solve one or (...)
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  22. “Pushing the Button While Pushing the Argument”: Motor Priming of Abstract Action Language.Franziska Schaller, Sabine Weiss & Horst M. Müller - 2016 - Cognitive Science 41 (3).
    In a behavioral study we analyzed the influence of visual action primes on abstract action sentence processing. We thereby aimed at investigating mental motor involvement during processes of meaning constitution of action verbs in abstract contexts. In the first experiment, participants executed either congruous or incongruous movements parallel to a video prime. In the second experiment, we added a no-movement condition. After the execution of the movement, participants rendered a sensibility judgment on action sentence targets. It was expected that congruous (...)
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  23. “Pushing the Button While Pushing the Argument”: Motor Priming of Abstract Action Language.Franziska Schaller, Sabine Weiss & Horst M. Müller - 2016 - Cognitive Science 41 (3).
    In a behavioral study we analyzed the influence of visual action primes on abstract action sentence processing. We thereby aimed at investigating mental motor involvement during processes of meaning constitution of action verbs in abstract contexts. In the first experiment, participants executed either congruous or incongruous movements parallel to a video prime. In the second experiment, we added a no-movement condition. After the execution of the movement, participants rendered a sensibility judgment on action sentence targets. It was expected that congruous (...)
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  24. A Prime Example of the Maluma/Takete Effect? Testing for Sound Symbolic Priming.David M. Sidhu & Penny M. Pexman - 2016 - Cognitive Science 41 (3).
    Certain nonwords, like maluma and takete, are associated with roundness and sharpness, respectively. However, this has typically been demonstrated using explicit tasks. We investigated whether this association would be detectable using a more implicit measure—a sequential priming task. We began with a replication of the standard Maluma/Takete effect before examining whether round and sharp nonword primes facilitated the categorization of congruent shapes. We found modest evidence of a priming effect in response accuracy. We next examined whether nonword primes (...)
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  25.  93
    Cerebral Mechanisms of Word Masking and Unconscious Repetition Priming.Stanislas Dehaene, Lionel Naccache, L. Jonathan Cohen, Denis Le Bihan, Jean-Francois Mangin, Jean-Baptiste Poline & Denis Rivière - 2001 - Nature Neuroscience 4 (7):752-758.
  26.  49
    Unconscious Semantic Priming Extends to Novel Unseen Stimuli.Lionel Naccache & Stanislas Dehaene - 2001 - Cognition 80 (3):215-229.
  27.  29
    Partial Awareness Creates the "Illusion" of Subliminal Semantic Priming.Sid Kouider & Emmanuel Dupoux - 2004 - Psychological Science 15 (2):75-81.
  28. Unconscious Priming Eliminates Automatic Binding of Colour and Alphanumeric Form in Synaesthesia.Jason B. Mattingley, Anina N. Rich, Greg Yelland & John L. Bradshaw - 2001 - Nature 410 (6828):580-582.
  29.  50
    Links Between Conscious Awareness and Response Inhibition: Evidence From Masked Priming.Martin Eimer & Friederike Schlaghecken - 2002 - Psychonomic Bulletin and Review 9 (3):514-520.
  30. Attentional Modulation of Unconscious "Automatic" Processes: Evidence From Event-Related Potentials in a Masked Priming Paradigm.Markus Kiefer & Doreen Brendel - 2006 - Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 18 (2):184-198.
  31.  12
    The Priming Method: Imaging Unconscious Repetition Priming Reveals an Abstract Representation of Number in the Parietal Lobes.Lionel Naccache & Stanislas Dehaene - 2001 - Cerebral Cortex 11 (10):966-974.
  32.  15
    Unconscious Priming According to Multiple s-R Rules.Andrea Kiesel, Wilfried Kunde & Joachim Hoffmann - 2007 - Cognition 104 (1):89-105.
  33.  24
    Change Blindness and Priming: When It Does and Does Not Occur.Michael E. Silverman & Arien Mack - 2006 - Consciousness and Cognition 15 (2):409-422.
    In a series of three experiments, we explored the nature of implicit representations in change blindness . Using 3 × 3 letter arrays, we asked subjects to locate changes in paired arrays separated by 80 ms ISIs, in which one, two or three letters of a row in the second array changed. In one testing version, a tone followed the second array, signaling a row for partial report . In the other version, no PR was required. After Ss reported whether (...)
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  34.  18
    Mechanisms of Unconscious Priming: Response Competition, Not Spreading Activation.M. R. Klinger, P. Burton & G. Pitts - 2000 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 26 (2):441-455.
  35. Qualitative Differences Between Conscious and Nonconscious Processing? On Inverse Priming Induced by Masked Arrows.Rolf Verleger, Piotr Jaskowski, Aytaç Aydemir, Rob H. J. van der Lubbe & Margriet Groen - 2004 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 133 (4):494-515.
  36.  6
    Spreading Activation in an Attractor Network With Latching Dynamics: Automatic Semantic Priming Revisited.Itamar Lerner, Shlomo Bentin & Oren Shriki - 2012 - Cognitive Science 36 (8):1339-1382.
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  37.  21
    Unconscious Color Priming Occurs at Stimulus- Not Percept-Dependent Levels of Processing.Bruno G. Breitmeyer, Tony Ro & Neel S. Singhal - 2004 - Psychological Science 15 (3):198-202.
  38. Comment On: Unconscious Affective Processing and Empathy: An Investigation of Subliminal Priming on the Detection of Painful Facial Expressions [Pain 2009; 1–2: 71–75].Simon van Rysewyk - 2009 - PAIN 145:364-366.
  39.  1
    Reduction of Visual Masking by a Priming Flash.Bertram Scharf & Kenneth Fuld - 1972 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 94 (1):116.
  40.  30
    Unconscious and Conscious Priming by Forms and Their Parts.Bruno G. Breitmeyer, Haluk Ogmen, Jose Ramon & Jian Chen - 2005 - Visual Cognition 12 (5):720-736.
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  41. Persistence and Accommodation in Short‐Term Priming and Other Perceptual Paradigms: Temporal Segregation Through Synaptic Depression.David E. Huber & Randall C. O'Reilly - 2003 - Cognitive Science 27 (3):403-430.
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  42.  35
    A Functional Disconnection Between Spoken and Visual Word Recognition: Evidence From Unconscious Priming.Sid Kouider & Emmanuel Dupoux - 2001 - Cognition 82 (1):35- 49.
  43. Unconscious, Stimulus-Dependent Priming and Conscious, Percept-Dependent Priming with Chromatic Stimuli.Bruno G. Breitmeyer, Tony Ro, Haluk Ögmen & Steven Todd - 2007 - Perception and Psychophysics 69 (4):550-557.
     
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  44.  9
    Dissociation of Conscious and Unconscious Repetition Priming Effect on Event-Related Potentials.Atsushi Matsumoto, Tetsuya Iidaka, Michio Nomura & Hideki Ohira - 2005 - Neuropsychologia 43 (8):1168-1176.
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  45.  25
    Involuntary Aware Memory Enhances Priming on a Conceptual Implicit Memory Task.John H. Mace - 2003 - American Journal of Psychology 116 (2):281-290.
  46.  5
    High Density ERP Indices of Conscious and Unconscious Semantic Priming.María Ruz, Eduardo Madrid, Juan Lupiáñez & Pío Tudela - 2003 - Cognitive Brain Research 17 (3):719-731.
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  47.  13
    Experimentally Manipulating the Effects of Involuntary Conscious Memory on a Priming Task.John H. Mace - 2005 - American Journal of Psychology 118 (2):159-182.
  48.  20
    No Negative Semantic Priming From Unconscious Flanker Words in Sight.Katia Duscherer & Daniel Holender - 2002 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 28 (4):839-853.
  49. Grasping the Past and Present: When Does Visuomotor Priming Occur?Melvyn A. Goodale, Jonathan S. Cant & Grzegorz Króliczak - 2006 - In Ögmen, Haluk; Breitmeyer, Bruno G. (2006). The First Half Second: The Microgenesis and Temporal Dynamics of Unconscious and Conscious Visual Processes. (Pp. 51-71). Cambridge, Ma, Us: Mit Press. Xi, 410 Pp.
  50.  9
    The Distinctiveness Effect in the Absence of Conscious Recollection: Evidence From Conceptual Priming.Lisa Geraci & Suparna Rajaram - 2004 - Journal of Memory and Language 51 (2):217-230.
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