Search results for 'Private' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  18
    Doris Fuchs, Agni Kalfagianni & Tetty Havinga (2011). Actors in Private Food Governance: The Legitimacy of Retail Standards and Multistakeholder Initiatives with Civil Society Participation. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 28 (3):353-367.
    Democratic legitimacy is rarely associated with private governance. After all, private actors are not legitimized through elections by a demos. Instead of abandoning democratic principles when entering the private sphere of governance, however, this article argues in favour of employing alternative criteria of democracy in assessments. Specifically, this article uses the criteria of participation, transparency and accountability to evaluate the democratic legitimacy of private food retail governance institutions. It pursues this evaluation of the democratic legitimacy of (...)
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  2.  47
    Antonio Argandoña (2003). Private-to-Private Corruption. Journal of Business Ethics 47 (3):253 - 267.
    The cases of corruption reported by the media tend almost always to involve a private party (a citizen or a corporation) that pays, or promises to pay, money to a public party (a politician or a public official, for example) in order to obtain an advantage or avoid a disadvantage. Because of the harm it does to economic efficiency and growth, and because of its social, political and ethical consequences, private-to-public corruption has been widely studied. Private-to-private (...)
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  3.  24
    Anne Tallontire, Maggie Opondo, Valerie Nelson & Adrienne Martin (2011). Beyond the Vertical? Using Value Chains and Governance as a Framework to Analyse Private Standards Initiatives in Agri-Food Chains. Agriculture and Human Values 28 (3):427-441.
    The significance of private standards and associated local level initiatives in agri-food value chains are increasingly recognised. However whilst issues related to compliance and impact at the smallholder or worker level have frequently been analysed, the governance implications in terms of how private standards affect national level institutions, public, private and non-governmental, have had less attention. This article applies an extended value chain framework for critical analysis of Private Standards Initiatives (PSIs) in agrifood chains, drawing on (...)
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  4.  19
    Kevin Morrell & Ian Clark (2010). Private Equity and the Public Good. Journal of Business Ethics 96 (2):249 - 263.
    The dominance of agency theory can reduce our collective scope to analyse private equity in all its diversity and depth. We contribute to theorisation of private equity by developing a contrasting perspective that draws on a rich tradition of virtue ethics. In doing so, we juxtapose 'private equity' with 'public good' to develop points of rhetorical and analytical contrast. We develop a typology differentiating various forms of private equity, and focus on the 'take private' form. (...)
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  5. Paul Richard Daniels (2015). Just War and Non-Combatants in the Private Military Industry. Journal of Military Ethics 14 (2):146-161.
    I argue that, according to Just War Theory, those who work as administrative personnel in the private military industry can be permissibly harmed while at work by enemy combatants. That is, for better or worse, a Just War theorist should consider all those who work as administrative personnel in the private military industry either: (i) individuals who may be permissibly restrained with lethal force while at work, or (ii) individuals who may be harmed by permissible attacks against their (...)
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  6.  18
    Peter Lund-Thomsen (2009). Assessing the Impact of Public—Private Partnerships in the Global South: The Case of the Kasur Tanneries Pollution Control Project. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 90 (1):57 - 78.
    This paper makes a contribution to ongoing debates about whether and how we can empirically assess the potential, limitations, and actual impacts of public-private partnerships (PPPs) in developing countries. Several United Nations and bilateral aid agencies have called for the development of impact assessment (IA) methodologies that can help clarify when, how, where, and for whom partnerships work. This paper scrutinizes some of the key assumptions underlying this debate, arguing that no objective ' truth' about the effects of PPPs (...)
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  7. Patricia Crifo & Vanina D. Forget (2013). Think Global, Invest Responsible: Why the Private Equity Industry Goes Green. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 116 (1):21-48.
    The growth of socially responsible investment (SRI) on public financial markets has drawn considerable academic attention over the last decade. Discarding from the previous literature, this article sets up to analyze the Private Equity channel, which is shown to have the potentiality to foster sustainable practices in unlisted companies. The fast integration of the environmental, social and governance issues by mainstream Private Equity investors is unveiled and appears to have benefited from the maturation of SRI on public financial (...)
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  8.  26
    David Burch & Geoffrey Lawrence (2013). Financialization in Agri-Food Supply Chains: Private Equity and the Transformation of the Retail Sector. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 30 (2):247-258.
    The analysis of the financialization of food and farming has tended to focus on issues such as the impact on the productive and input sectors of the food chain, including the role of asset management companies, private equity consortia and other financial institutions in acquiring and managing farmland. However, processes of financialization impact along the whole agri-food supply chain, including the retail and food service sectors. This paper analyses the take-over by a private equity company of Somerfield, one (...)
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  9.  28
    Sissela Bok (1999). Lying: Moral Choice in Public and Private Life. Vintage Books.
    A thoughtful addition to the growing debate over public and private morality. Looks at lying and deception in law, family, medicine, government.
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  10.  60
    Douglas Cumming & Sofia Johan (2007). Socially Responsible Institutional Investment in Private Equity. Journal of Business Ethics 75 (4):395-416.
    This article studies institutional investor allocations to the socially responsible asset class. We propose two elements influence socially responsible institutional investment in private equity: internal organizational structure, and internationalization. We study socially responsible investments from Dutch institutional investments into private equity funds, and compare socially responsible investment across different asset classes and different types of institutional investors (banks, insurance companies, and pension funds). The data indicate socially responsible investment in private equity is 40–50% more common when the (...)
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  11.  8
    Xu Zhang, Xing Liang & Hongyan Sun (2013). Individualism–Collectivism, Private Benefits of Control, and Earnings Management: A Cross-Culture Comparison. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 114 (4):655-664.
    Using private benefits of control and earnings management data from 41 countries and regions, we provide strong evidence that cultures, together with legal rules and law enforcement, play a critical role in shaping corporate behavior. More specifically, we find that private benefits of control are larger and earnings management is more severe in collectivist as opposed to individualist cultures, consistent with the argument that agency problems between corporate insiders and outside investors are severe in collectivist culture. These results (...)
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  12.  7
    Agni Kalfagianni (2013). Addressing the Global Sustainability Challenge: The Potential and Pitfalls of Private Governance From the Perspective of Human Capabilities. Journal of Business Ethics 122 (2):1-14.
    Contemporary global politics is characterized by an increasing trend toward experimental forms of governance, with an emphasis on private governance. A plurality of private standards, codes of conduct and quality assurance schemes currently developed particularly, though not exclusively, by TNCs replace traditional intergovernmental regimes in addressing profound global environmental and socio-economic challenges ranging from forest deforestation, fisheries depletion, climate change, to labor and human rights concerns. While this trend has produced a heated debate in science and politics, surprisingly (...)
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  13.  8
    Spencer Henson (2011). Private Agrifood Governance: Conclusions, Observations and Provocations. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 28 (3):443-451.
    This paper concludes the special issue of Agriculture and Human Values devoted to private governance of global agri-food systems. Rather than aiming to summarize the findings of the various papers that make up the issue, it highlights a number of cross-cutting issues relating to the increasing role of private governance. Key issues that are discussed include the legitimacy of private governance of agri-food systems and the scope for trade-off between its various dimensions, private governance in a (...)
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  14. Annabelle Lever (2012). 'Privacy, Private Property and Collective Property'. The Good Society 21 (1):47-60.
    This article is part of a symposium on property-owning democracy. In A Theory of Justice John Rawls argued that people in a just society would have rights to some forms of personal property, whatever the best way to organise the economy. Without being explicit about it, he also seems to have believed that protection for at least some forms of privacy are included in the Basic Liberties, to which all are entitled. Thus, Rawls assumes that people are entitled to form (...)
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  15. Irwin Goldstein (1996). Ontology, Epistemology, and Private Ostensive Definition. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 56 (1):137-147.
    People see five kinds of views in epistemology and ontology as hinging on there being words a person can learn only by private ostensive definitions, through direct acquaintance with his own sensations: skepticism about other minds, 2. skepticism about an external world, 3. foundationalism, 4. dualism, and 5. phenomenalism. People think Wittgenstein refuted these views by showing, they believe, no word is learnable only by private ostensive definition. I defend these five views from Wittgenstein’s attack.
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  16. Francois-Igor Pris (2014). Phenomenal Concepts are Consistent with Wittgenstein’s Private Language Argument. NB: Philosophical Investigations (Russian E-Journal) 7:64-98.
    In a recent paper, Papineau argued that phenomenal concepts are inconsistent with Wittgenstein’s private language argument, and that the problem is with Wittgenstein’s argument. Against Papineau, we argue that phenomenal concepts are consistent with Wittgenstein’s private language argument. Inconsistency can appear when either Wittgenstein’s argument or phenomenal concepts are incorrectly or restrictively understood.
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  17.  4
    Roberto Sá Pereira (2016). What We Can Learn About Phenomenal Concepts From Wittgenstein’s Private Language. Nordic Wittgenstein Review 5 (2).
    This paper is both systematic and historical in nature. From a historical viewpoint, I aim to show that to establish Wittgenstein’s claim that “an ‘inner process’ stands in need of outward criteria” there is an enthymeme in Wittgenstein’s private language argument overlooked in the literature, namely Wittgenstein’s suggestion that both perceptual and bodily experiences are transparent in the relevant sense that one cannot point to a mental state and wonder “what is that?” From a systematic viewpoint, I aim to (...)
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  18.  40
    C. Gopinath (2008). Recognizing and Justifying Private Corruption. Journal of Business Ethics 82 (3):747-754.
    While public (or government) corruption has attracted a lot of attention, private (or business) corruption has been relatively under-addressed. A specific form of corruption, namely, paying a bribe to a public official, is easily identifiable as unethical and possibly illegal, but this is not clear in a private business context. Yet private bribery also has serious organizational consequences. This exploratory study suggests that individuals have difficulty in recognizing the ethical connotations of potential bribery, and draws attention to (...)
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  19.  35
    Nicolas Bommarito (2016). Private Solidarity. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 19 (2):445-455.
    It’s natural to think of acts of solidarity as being public acts that aim at good outcomes, particularly at social change. I argue that not all acts of solidarity fit this mold - acts of what I call ‘private solidarity’ are not public and do not aim at producing social change. After describing paradigmatic cases of private solidarity, I defend an account of why such acts are themselves morally virtuous and what role they can have in moral development.
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  20.  22
    Michael McKenna (2016). Quality of Will, Private Blame and Conversation: Reply to Driver, Shoemaker, and Vargas. Criminal Law and Philosophy 10 (2):243-263.
    In this paper, I defend my book Conversation and Responsibility in response to three critics: Julia Driver, David Shoemaker, and Manuel Vargas. Driver raises questions about my account of private blame. Shoemaker finds problems with my account of quality of will. And Vargas questions the conversational nature of my account.
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  21.  6
    Niklas Egels-Zandén & Jeroen Merk (2013). Private Regulation and Trade Union Rights: Why Codes of Conduct Have Limited Impact on Trade Union Rights. Journal of Business Ethics 123 (3):1-13.
    Codes of conduct are the main tools to privately regulate worker rights in global value chains. Scholars have shown that while codes may improve outcome standards (such as occupational health and safety), they have had limited impact on process rights (such as freedom of association and collective bargaining). Scholars have, though, only provided vague or general explanations for this empirical finding. We address this shortcoming by providing a holistic and detailed explanation, and argue that codes, in their current form, have (...)
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  22.  28
    Jason Brennan (forthcoming). When Consequences Matter More: In Defense of Instrumentalism About Private Versus Public Prisons. Criminal Law and Philosophy:1-15.
    Alon Harel wants to show that punishment is a kind of symbolic expression that, as a matter of metaphysical necessity, can only be performed by governmental agents. Contrary to Harel, I argue private agents can in fact realize those features he argues only public agents can realize. I also argue that, even if he were right that only public guards and wardens can punish, it’s unclear why we would have an all-things-considered rather than merely a pro tanto/prima facie duty (...)
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  23.  1
    Jeanette Praestegaard, Gunvor Gard & Stinne Glasdam (2013). Practicing Physiotherapy in Danish Private Practice: An Ethical Perspective. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 16 (3):555-564.
    Despite an increasingly growth of professional guidelines, textbooks and research about ethics in health care, awareness about ethics in Danish physiotherapy private practice seen vague. This article explores how physiotherapists in Danish private practice, from an ethical perspective, perceive to practice physiotherapy. The empirical data consists of interviews with twenty-one physiotherapists. The interviews are analysed from a hermeneutic approach, inspired by Ricoeur’s textual interpretation of distanciation. The analysis follows three phases: naïve reading, structural analysis and comprehensive analysis. Four (...)
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  24.  25
    Jun Su & Jia He (2010). Does Giving Lead to Getting? Evidence From Chinese Private Enterprises. Journal of Business Ethics 93 (1):73-90.
    Enterprise philanthropy is practiced in a very unique and rudimentary form in China. Based on a unique random survey data on 3837 Chinese private enterprises conducted in 31 provinces of China in 2006, I find the significant positive relationship between enterprise philanthropy donation and enterprise profitability, and the result supports the political and institutional power view of enterprise philanthropy in the latest development of China. Simply put, Chinese private enterprises carried out philanthropy activities to better protect property rights (...)
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  25.  24
    Christopher Kaan & Andrea Liese (2011). Public Private Partnerships in Global Food Governance: Business Engagement and Legitimacy in the Global Fight Against Hunger and Malnutrition. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 28 (3):385-399.
    This article compares two transnational public–private partnerships against hunger and malnutrition, the Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition and the International Alliance Against Hunger with regard to their degree of business involvement and their input and output legimacy. We examine the participation of stakeholders, the accountability and transparency of the decision-making process, and the perceived provision of a public good. We identify a link between business involvement and output legitimacy, and we discuss the implications for public and private food (...)
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  26.  21
    Elisaveta Gjorgji Sardžoska & Thomas Li-Ping Tang (2009). Testing a Model of Behavioral Intentions in the Republic of Macedonia: Differences Between the Private and the Public Sectors. Journal of Business Ethics 87 (4):495-517.
    In this study, we developed a model of unethical behavior intentions, collected data from managers of the private (n = 208) and the public (n = 307) sectors in the Republic of Macedonia, and tested our model across these two sectors. Results suggested that for both sectors, unethical behavior intentions were not related to the love of money and corporate ethical values, whereas irritation was negatively related to life satisfaction. Moreover, corporate ethical values were related to life satisfaction for (...)
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  27.  77
    Derek A. McDougall (2013). The Role of Philosophical Investigations § 258: What is 'the Private Language Argument'? Analytic Philosophy 54 (1):44-71.
    The Private Language Sections of Ludwig Wittgenstein’s Philosophical Investigations, -/- generally agreed to run from §§ 243 - 271, but extending to § 315 with the book’s continued -/- treatment of the private object model and the inner and outer conception of the mind, have -/- proved remarkably resistant to any generally agreed interpretation. Even today, ways of -/- looking at these sections which were first in vogue half a century ago when discussions of -/- this aspect of (...)
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  28.  48
    Dennis R. Cooley (2009). Understanding Social Welfare Capitalism, Private Property, and the Government's Duty to Create a Sustainable Environment. Journal of Business Ethics 89 (3):351-369.
    No one would deny that sustainability is necessary for individual, business, and national survival. How this goal is to be accomplished is a matter of great debate. In this article I will show that the United States and other developed countries have a duty to create sustainable cities, even if that is against a notion of private property rights considered as an absolute. Through eminent domain and regulation, developed countries can fulfill their obligations to current and future generations. To (...)
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  29.  32
    Mattia Zulianello (2015). The Rise of Golden Dawn: Ideology and Organization in an Industry of Private Protection in Contemporary Greece. Governare la Paura. Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies 8 (1).
    In this paper I analyze a case of extreme response to need of security in the landscape of advanced democracies: the role of Golden Dawn in the management and reproduction of the profound socio-economic crisis in Greece. I argue that the keys behind the success of such a party are to be found in two distinct but self-reinforcing elements: its organizational strength and its anti-system ideology. The most significant organizational structures and activities which transformed Golden Dawn into a quasi-mafia style (...)
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  30. David Bain (2004). Private Languages and Private Theorists. Philosophical Quarterly 54 (216):427 - 434.
    Simon Blackburn objects that Wittgenstein's private language argument overlooks the possibility that a private linguist can equip himself with a criterion of correctness by confirming generalizations about the patterns in which his private sensations occur. Crispin Wright responds that appropriate generalizations would be too few to be interesting. But I show that Wright's calculations are upset by his failure to appreciate both the richness of the data and the range of theories that would be available to the (...)
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  31.  15
    Zhilong Tian, Haitao Gao & Malcolm Cone (2008). A Study of the Ethical Issues of Private Entrepreneurs Participating in Politics in China. Journal of Business Ethics 80 (3):627-642.
    Since the 16th National Congress of Communist Party of China (16th NCCPC) in 2002, more and more private entrepreneurs have appeared on the political arena in China. The article first describes the state of the phenomenon, and analyzes the reasons and the related ethical issues of private entrepreneurs participating in politics. For this purpose, the article begins by suggesting a framework of analyzing the ethical analysis of corporate political actions, then applies it to a case study of the (...)
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  32.  71
    John A. Humphrey (1996). Kripke's Wittgenstein and the Impossibility of Private Language: The Same Old Story? Journal of Philosophical Research 21 (January):197-207.
    A common complaint against Kripke’s Wittgenstein on Rules and Private Language is that whereas the aim of “the real” Wittgenstein’s private language argument is to establish the impossibility of a necessarily private language, the communitarian account of meaning proposed by Kripke’s Wittgenstein (KW), if successful, would establish the impossibility of a contingently private language. I show that this common complaint is based on a failure of Kripke’s critics (a failure that is justified, in part, by Kripke’s (...)
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  33.  28
    Ullin T. Place (1993). A Radical Behaviorist Methodology for the Empirical Investigation of Private Events. Behavior and Philosophy 20 (21):25-35.
    Skinner has repeatedly asserted that he does not deny either the existence of private events or the possibility of studying them scientifically. But he has never explained how his position in this respect differs from that of the mentalist or provided a practical methodology for the investigation of private events within a radical behaviorist perspective. With respect to the first of these deficiencies, I argue that observation statements describing a public state of affairs in the common public environment (...)
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  34.  95
    Erin Eaker (2009). Public and Private Meaning in Hume: Comments on Ted Morris' “Meaningfulness Without Metaphysics: Another Look at Hume's Meaning-Empiricism”. Philosophia 37 (3):455-457.
    This paper raises questions concerning Ted Morris’ interpretation of Hume’s notion of meaning and investigates the private and public aspects of Hume’s notion of meaning.
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  35.  2
    Joseph Micahel Newhard, On the Conspicuous Absence of Private Defense.
    This essay offers a standard by which to assess the feasibility of market anarchism. In anarchist thought, the concept of feasibility concerns both the ability and the willingness of private defense agencies to liberate their clients from state oppression. I argue that the emergence of a single stateless pocket of effective, privately-provided defense for a “reasonable” length of time is sufficient to affirm feasibility. I then consider the failure of private defense agencies to achieve even this standard. Furthermore, (...)
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  36.  3
    Lynette Reid (forthcoming). Concierge, Wellness, and Block Fee Models of Primary Care: Ethical and Regulatory Concerns at the Public–Private Boundary. Health Care Analysis:1-17.
    In bioethics and health policy, we often discuss the appropriate boundaries of public funding; how the interface of public and private purchasers and providers should be organized and regulated receives less attention. In this paper, I discuss ethical and regulatory issues raised at this interface by three medical practice models in which physicians provide insured services while requiring or requesting that patients pay for services or for the non-insured services of the physicians themselves or their associates. This choice for (...)
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  37.  23
    Douglas N. Walton & K. T. Strongman (1998). Neonate Crusoes, the Private Language Argument and Psychology. Philosophical Psychology 11 (4):443-65.
    This article questions social constructionists' claims to introduce Wittgenstein's philosophy to psychology. The philosophical fiction of a neonate Crusoe is introduced to cast doubt on the interpretations and use of the private language argument to support a new psychology developed by the constructionists. It is argued that a neonate Crusoe's viability in philosophy and apparent absence in psychology offends against the integrity of the philosophical contribution Wittgenstein might make to psychology. The consequences of accepting Crusoe's viability are explored as (...)
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  38.  20
    Alison Brysk (2011). Sex as Slavery? Understanding Private Wrongs. Human Rights Review 12 (3):259-270.
    The era of globalization has been accompanied by an increased awareness of private wrongs as well as acceleration of many forms of cross-border labor exploitation. The essay explores how refined distinctions between forced and free sex work could improve anti-trafficking policies. It addresses the understudied linkages between other forms of migration and sexual exploitation and suggests a triage approach to all forms of labor exploitation—based on harms rather than type of labor or victim. A better understanding of freedom, sex, (...)
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  39.  32
    Michael Hymers (1997). Kant's Private-Clock Argument. Kant-Studien 88 (4):442-461.
    Examining the effectiveness of the Kant’s Refutation of Idealism as a critique of a Cartesian account of consciousness, I argue that Kant's reasoning turns on the insight that self-knowledge presupposes independent temporal determination of the self. This insight bears an intriguing resemblance to claims about meaning and justification that appear in Wittgenstein's later work. Much as Wittgenstein rules out the possibility of a private language, whose meanings derive from acts of inner ostensive definition, on the ground that language requires (...)
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  40.  22
    Phan Minh Dung & Giovanni Sartor (2011). The Modular Logic of Private International Law. Artificial Intelligence and Law 19 (2-3):233-261.
    We provide a logical analysis of private international law, a rather esoteric, but increasingly important, domain of the law. Private international law addresses overlaps and conflicts between legal systems by distributing cases between the authorities of such systems (jurisdiction) and establishing what rules these authorities have to apply to each case (choice of law). A formal model of the resulting interactions between legal systems is proposed based on modular argumentation. It is argued that this model may also be (...)
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  41.  41
    Igor Abramov (2009). Building Peace in Fragile States — Building Trust is Essential for Effective Public-Private Partnerships. Journal of Business Ethics 89 (4):481 - 494.
    Increasingly, the private sector is playing a greater role in supporting peace building efforts in conflict and post-conflict areas by providing critical expertise, know-how, and capital. However, reports of the corrupt practices of both governments and businesses have plagued international peace building efforts, deepening the distrust of stricken communities. Businesses are perceived as being selfish and indifferent to the impact their operations may have on the social and political development of local communities. Additionally, the corruption of local governments has (...)
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  42.  13
    M. C. Fombad (2013). Accountability Challenges in Public-Private Partnerships From a South African Perspective. African Journal of Business Ethics 7 (1):11.
    One of the potential benefits of public-private partnerships (PPPs) is its capacity to enhance accountability. Although the South African government has made several efforts to address the need for fairness in service delivery and improve accountability in procurement, accountability remains a challenge in PPPs in South Africa and most other countries. If PPPs are to play their role in infrastructure development and service delivery, and thus serve public interests, the problem of accountability must be addressed. This paper attempts to (...)
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  43.  6
    Bruce Baugh (2015). Private Thinkers, Untimely Thoughts: Deleuze, Shestov and Fondane. Continental Philosophy Review 48 (3):313-339.
    It has gone largely unnoticed that when Deleuze opposes the “private thinker” to the “public professor,” he is invoking the existential thought of Lev Shestov. The public professor defends established values and preaches submission to the demands of reason and the State; the private thinker opposes thought to reason, “idiocy” to common sense, a people to come to what exists. Private thinkers are solitary, singular and untimely, forced to think against consensus and “the crowd.” Deleuze takes from (...)
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  44.  22
    Duncan Richter (2010). Ethics and Private Language. Philosophical Topics 38 (1):181-203.
    There are intriguing hints in the works of Stanley Cavell and Stephen Mulhall of a possible connection between ethics and Wittgenstein’s remarks on private language, which are concerned with expressions of Empfindungen: feelings or sensations. The point of this paper is to make the case explicitly for seeing such a connection. What the point of that is I will address at the end of the paper. If Mulhall and Cavell both know their Wittgenstein and choose their words carefully, which (...)
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  45.  9
    Lyndal-Joy Thompson & Stewart Lockie (2013). Private Standards, Grower Networks, and Power in a Food Supply System. Agriculture and Human Values 30 (3):379-388.
    The role of private food standards in agriculture is increasingly raising questions of legitimacy, particularly in light of the impacts such standards may have on food producers. While much work has been carried out at a macro policy level for developing countries, there have been relatively few empirical case studies that focus on particular food supply chains, and even fewer studies still of the impact of private standards on developed countries such as Australia. This study seeks to address (...)
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  46.  34
    Don Mayer (2009). Peaceful Warriors: Private Military Security Companies and the Quest for Stable Societies. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 89 (4):387 - 401.
    Peace is more likely where there is trade and commerce between nation-states. However, many nations are "failed states" or "failing states," in large part because of civil wars. Yet, "business" may have a role to play here, too; as private military security companies (PMSCs) proliferate, governments and international organizations seem increasingly disposed to contract for their services, in some cases for combat roles as well as non-combat support roles in various conflict zones. This has raised questions about the ethics (...)
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  47.  11
    Stephen S. Davey & Carol Richards (2013). Supermarkets and Private Standards: Unintended Consequences of the Audit Ritual. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 30 (2):271-281.
    Recent scholarship has considered the implications of the rise of voluntary private standards in food and the role of private actors in a rapidly evolving, de-facto ‘mandatory’ sphere of governance. Standards are an important element of this globalising private sphere, but are an element that has been relatively peripheral in analyses of power in agri-food systems. Sociological thought has countered orthodox views of standards as simple tools of measurement, instead understanding their function as a governance mechanism that (...)
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  48.  16
    Roger Harris (2007). The Private Language Argument Isn't as Difficult, Nor as Dubious as Some Make Out. Sorites 18:98-108.
    The sections of Wittgenstein's Philosophical Investigations which contain the Private Language (PL) Argument are dense, cryptic and wide ranging. I argue that a specific argument against a private language can be distilled from the text that is less involved and obscure than is often supposed in the immense secondary literature. It is also far less self-contained and isolated from the mainstream of philosophy than many make out, including Brian Garrettand Michael Ming Yang in recent papers in this journal. (...)
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  49.  10
    Justinas Žilinskas (2009). Private Military and Security Companies and the Problems of their Regulation under International Humanitarian Law. Jurisprudence 117 (3):163-177.
    The use of private military force by states has been a long-standing phenomena in the history of warfare. Armies of mercenaries, privateering and recruitment of foreign nationals into armed forces have been common during the Middle Ages and later on. However, with the invention of effective firearms and artillery, standing regular armies, conscription and other developments that resulted in the essential rise of costs of war, the role of private military entrepreneurs diminished. By the end of XIXth century (...)
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  50.  8
    Vivian Weil (2013). Responsible Management in Private Sector Nano Enterprises: Conversations with Lead Technologists and Managers. [REVIEW] NanoEthics 7 (3):217-229.
    The aim was to learn about responsible management in private sector nano enterprises by telephone conversations with lead technologists and managers in companies in the US Midwest. The conversations took place between January and March of 2011. The marked increase starting in 2008 of prescriptive documents such as guidelines, codes of responsibility, and best practices in NanoEthicsBank offered an entry point for initiating the conversations. Had respondents noticed these documents and did they find them useful? Follow-up questions asked about (...)
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