O Concílio Vaticano II foi um dos eventos mais importantes da história da Igreja do século XX. Partindo de sua história e dos documentos aprovados pelos bispos conciliares, o pós-concílio caracteriza-se, nesses seus 40 anos, por um debate acalorado e por luta identitária sobre como ele deve ser recepcionado pela Igreja universal e pelas igrejas particulares. Dessa forma, o presente artigo tem como objetivo apresentar as principais linhas hermenêuticas do Vaticano II, apontando alguns autores e obras sobre a discussão.
Desde o século XIX o catolicismo foi assinalado por uma divisão interna advinda das demandas pastorais de como a Igreja Católica deveria se situar e responder aos novos desafios lançados pela modernidade. Uns entendiam que ela deveria dialogar com modernidade, abrindo-se àquelas perspectivas positivas do projeto moderno, outros negavam qualquer possibilidade de tal diálogo, vendo nos valores modernos apenas anticristianismo e perdição, defendendo o lançamento de anátemas aqueles que, possivelmente, se desviassem da ortodoxia. O Concílio Vaticano II (1962-1965) pode ser (...) compreendido como um campo de lutas simbólico-normativas, no qual estas duas tendências colocaram-se frente a frente nos inúmeros debates. Este artigo tem como objetivo principal apresentar brevemente a atuação de dois bispos brasileiros conservadores no concílio: D. Antônio de Castro Mayer e D. Geraldo de Proença Sigaud (1962-1965). Para tanto, apresentaremos algumas das principais intervenções dos bispos na assembleia conciliar, chamando atenção para os temas em que travaram maior combate, como liberdade religiosa, liturgia e organização hierárquica da Igreja.Since the 19th century Catholicism has been marked by internal divisions arising from the pastoral demands of how the Catholic Church should position itself and deal with the new challenges launched by modern times. Some people understood that the Catholic Church was supposed to evolve with modern times and open itself to new perspectives related to the modern project. Others denied any possibility of dialogue with the modern times and believed that modern values would encourage scepticism and anti Christianity, defending also the excommunication of those who deviate from orthodoxy. The Second Vatican Council (1962-1965) can be understood as a symbolic-normative battle field, in which two divergent positions are in continuous confrontation. This article aims to briefly present the opinions of two Brazilian conservative Bishops in the Council: D. Antônio de Castro Mayer and D. Geraldo Proença Sigaud (1962-1965). For this purpose, the main points made by the Bishops at the Conciliar Assembly, will be outlined. Therefore, the focus of the article will be on the more controversial themes discussed at that time, such as religious freedom, liturgy and hierarchical Church organization. Keywords: Brazilian bishops. Catholic conservatism. Second Vatican Council. Coetus Internationalis Patrum. (shrink)
Resumo O Concílio Vaticano II causou, com seus textos finais, grande comoção no interior da Igreja católica. Perpassado por lutas internas e conflitos doutrinais e ideológicos, os padres conciliares produziram textos calcados em certo "compromisso de pluralismo contraditório". Tal "compromisso" despertou grandes questões para o magistério e para os católicos, já que uma hermenêutica "correta" dos textos era exigida com o passar do tempo. Dessa forma, no período denominado de "pós-concílio", a luta pelos significados de seus textos continuou e ainda (...) hoje se faz sentir. Ao analisar os pontificados de João Paulo II e de Bento XVI, muitos historiadores e estudiosos tomam como marco de interpretação apenas o Vaticano II, ou seja, o que cada um deles foi e é em relação ao evento conciliar ou, muitas vezes, à imagem que fazem dele, esquecendo-se de que o próprio concílio encontra-se situado historicamente. Assim sendo, não enxergam nada mais que "reacionarismo" e "conservadorismo" de ambos os papas em relação ao concílio e seu pretenso "espírito". Interpretando-os dessa forma, assumem uma perspectiva temporal datada sobre a história da Igreja, correndo o risco de deixarem escapar a complexidade que marca o caminhar da Igreja no século XX. Palavras-chave: Igreja católica; Concílio Vaticano II; Hermenêutica.Vatican Council II has caused, with its final texts, a great commotion in the Catholic Church. With their internal fights, as well as doctrinal and ideological conflicts, the Council fathers have produced texts based on certain "contradictory pluralism commitment". Such "commitment" has raised huge questions for the teaching profession and for the Catholics, based on the fact that a "correct" text hermeneutics was required as time went by. Therefore, in the "post-Council" period, a fight for the meaning of the texts remained and is still felt today. Analyzing John Paul II's and Benedict XVI's pontificates, many historians and scholars take as an interpretation landmark only Vatican II, in other words, what each one was (and still is) in relation to the Council event, or often to the image made of it, forgetting that the Council itself is historically situated. Thus, they do not see anything else besides both popes' "reactionary" and "conservative" outlook concerning the Council and its alleged "spirit". With that interpretation, they assume a dated temporal perspective of Church history, running the risk of missing the complexity that sets the way for the 20that interpretation, they assume a dated temporal perspective of Church history, running the risk of missing the complexity that sets the way for the 20th-century Church. Key words: Catholic Church; Vatican Council II; Hermeneutics. (shrink)
O objetivo central do artigo é apresentar alguns aspectos históricos sobre as relações entre a Igreja Católica Romana e os denominados “direitos humanos”. A Igreja, uma das instituições que mais sentiu os impactos da ascensão e consolidação do Estado liberal moderno, visto que não só sua doutrina era combatida, mas também e principalmente seu poder temporal, posicionou-se inicialmente de forma bastante crítica em relação aos “novos direitos” que surgiam, contrapostos a uma visão de mundo marcada particularmente pela noção de que (...) a ordem social deveria refletir política e juridicamente a ordem divina. Ao analisar algumas obras escritas no período imediato da Revolução Francesa e alguns documentos pontifícios do século XIX e XX, é possível observar que, desde a _Declaração dos Direitos do Homem e do Cidadão_ de 1789 até o pontificado de João XXIII, emergiram novas interpretações dos direitos humanos, um dos pontos fundamentais no qual a Igreja passa a dialogar com a modernidade política. Tendo isso em vista, o artigo, num primeiro momento, abordará, a partir de um perspectiva de longa duração, as raízes filosóficas do direito subjetivo, base fundamental do direito à liberdade de consciência e o contexto do surgimento do Estado liberal. Num segundo, as relações entre o catolicismo e os direitos humanos, os antagonismos e as aproximações, partindo de uma análise dos documentos magisteriais e também de obras de teólogos católicos que já naquele período buscavam pontes entre seus artigos e alguns pontos da doutrina cristã. (shrink)
Este artigo tem como objetivo visualizar a formação de um grupo católico brasileiro, o grupo que se forma em torno de Plínio Corrêa de Oliveira e sua suposta identidade “antimoderna”. Além de buscar rapidamente circunscrever o conceito de modernidade e historicizar sobre a gênese do grupo e de suas principais idéias, aponta algumas possibilidades teóricas para a leitura do aspecto identitário. O texto reflete pesquisa de mestrado intitulada “Entre a verdade e a sedução: um estudo sobre a inflexão católica ‘antimoderna’ (...) no Brasil”, que está sendo realizado junto ao Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciência da Religião da Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora. Palavras-chave: Modernidade; Catolicismo; Identidade. ABSTRACT This article aims at visualising the formation of a Brazilian catholic group, that around Plínio Corrêa de Oliveira and his alleged ‘anti-modern’ identity. After a brief consideration of the concept of modernity and a short background of the group formation and its main ideas, it also points out some theoretical possibilities of reading the identity feature. The text results from a Master’s Degree research work entitled ‘Between truth and seduction: a study of the “anti-modern” catholic inflection in Brazil’, developed in the Programme of Postgraduate Studies of Religion Science in the Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (Federal University of Juiz de Fora, State of Minas Gerais). Key words: Modernity; Catholicism; Identity. (shrink)
Os debates sobre a recepção do Concílio Vaticano II se adensaram nas últimas duas décadas. No âmbito da historiografia, a reflexão sobre o lugar desse concílio na história do catolicismo contemporâneo e a discussão sobre as fontes e formas de captar a sua recepção dão seus primeiros passos. Passa-se da preocupação de se construir uma história do concílio propriamente dita, para o momento posterior, ou seja, a sua recepção. Para além de uma preocupação hermenêutica ligada às preocupações teológicas, os historiadores (...) da recepção conciliar abrem novos caminhos teóricos de análise, mas também metodológicos, buscando novas formas de abordar o fenômeno. Dessa forma, se deparam com novas fontes que podem colaborar em sua compreensão. Esse artigo tem como objetivo central discutir a possibilidade teórica que toma o concílio como um objeto de leitura por parte de certos atores, desenvolvendo assim o que chamamos de cultura conciliar: representações sobre o evento construídas por certos grupos e que trazem suas características próprias. Desenvolvemos o conceito a partir de uma aproximação com a História Cultural, particularmente aquela desenvolvida por Roger Chartier e oferecemos, no final do texto, um breve exemplo de como essa perspectiva pode ser utilizada, qual seja, no estudo das revistas teológicas. (shrink)
Book reviews ROY-LYSENCOURT, Philippe. Les membres du Coetus Internationalis Patrum au Concilie Vatican II. Inventaire des interventions et souscriptions des adhérents et sympathisants. Liste des signataires d’occasion et des théologiens. Leuven: Peeters, 2014. 484 p.
OLIVEIRA, Ibraim Vitor de. Arché e Telos. Niilismo filosófico e crise da linguagem em Fr. Nietzsche e M. Heidegger. PANASIEWICZ, Roberlei. A virada hermenêutica da teologia e o pluralismo religioso: um estudo sobre a contribuição da Teologia Hermenêutica de Claude Geffré à Teologia das Religiões. CALDEIRA, RodrigoCoppe. O influxo ultramontano no Brasil e o pensamento de Plínio Corrêa de Oliveira. SILVA, Antônio Francisco da. Álvaro Negromonte: modernidade, religião e educação. Uma tentativa de aproximação entre o público (...) e o privado, na educação brasileira. (shrink)
In recent times, a previously unchallenged and longstanding communis opinio concerning the extant manuscript tradition of Valerius Flaccus' Argonautica has been shattered by Prof. W.-W. Ehlers in his revelation that the fifteenth-century Laurentianus plut. 39.38, L, written by the Florentine scholar, Niccolò Niccoli, is independent of the much exalted oldest witness, Vaticanus Latinus 3277, V, copied in Fulda in the second quarter of the ninth century. With equally silent subservience to the hazardous and now discredited principle, vetustissimus et optimus, (...) second place in the tradition had commonly been given to a manuscript of similar age to that of V, namely S, discovered in 1416 at the monastery of St. Gall by three humanist scholars, Poggio Bracciolini, Cencio Rustici and Bartolomeo da Montepulciano, and subsequently lost, except through reconstruction from six extant fifteenth-century apographa, each instantly recognizable from the fact that they contain only 1.1–4.317. Between V and S, however, as Ehlers and others before him have argued, a common exemplar, a, must be deduced to exist. (shrink)
Neither Prof. Ellis in his Appendix Vergiliana nor Prof. Vollmer in his edition of the same, though the latter gives a long list of MSS, makes any mention of a Luxemburg MS containing the Moretum. The MS is numbered 27, is of the twelfth century, and was formerly in the library of a monastery at Orval. The Luxemburg collection is not as well known as it ought to be. A catalogue of the MSS was published in 1894 by (...) the then custodian N. van Werveke, but the small number of copies issued does not seem to have fallen into the hands of those most interested. I have to thank the present librarian, Dr. d'Huart, for his kindness to me on the occasion of my recent visit to the library. (shrink)
In the first chapter I have introduced Carnapian intensional logic again st the background of Frege s and Quine s puzzles. The main body of the d issertation consists of two parts. In the first part I discussed Carnapi an modal logic and arithmetic with descriptions. In the second chapter, I have described three Carnapian theories, CCL, CFL, and CNL. All three theories have three things in common. F irst, they are formulated in languages containing description terms. Sec ond, they (...) contain a system of modal logic. Third, they do not contain th e unrestricted classical substitution principle, but they do contain the classical substitution principle restricted to non-modal formulas and t he Carnapian substitution principle, which says that two terms can be s ubstituted salva veritate if they are necessarily coreferential. There a re two major differences between the three theories. First, CCL and CFL allow universal instantiation with description ter ms, whereas CNL does not. Moreover, the quantificational theo ry of the CCL is classical, whereas the quantificational theo ry of CFL is a free logic. Another difference is t hat CCL and CFL contain different description principles. Most import antly, the description principle of CCL ensures that even imp roper descriptions have a denotation, whereas the description principle of CFL does not guarantee this. CNL does not have a description prin ciple. In the third chapter, I have studied collapse arguments for CCL, CFL, and CNL. A collapse argument is an argum ent for the following statement: if p is true, then it is nec essarily true. A crucial role in the proofs of these collapse results wa s played by so-called self-predication principles, which say that unde r certain conditions the predicate that expresses the descriptive condition can be combined by the description term formed ou t of that predicate with the result being a true sentence. In this chapt er I have discussed a collapse argument for the extension of CCL with a self-predication principle, I have given a collapse argument for a similarly extended CFL, and most importantly, I have gi ven a collapse argument for the extension of CNL with a self- predication principle. Finally, I have argued that the relevant self-pre dication principles are unsound under a Carnapian interpretation. In the fourth chapter, I have studied the extension of Peano Arithmetic with a Carnapian modal logic C, which is a dummy l etter standing for either CCL or CFL. One can prov e that the principle of the necessity of identity is a theorem of CPA. This implies that one gets a collapse result for CPA. The standard principle of weak induction was crucial for the proof. O ne can also prove that, if one assumes a particular self-predication pri nciple, and if one assumes the principle of strong induction or, equivalently, the least-number principle, then one gets a partial collap se of de re modal truths in de dicto modal tr uths. I have argued that, if the box operator is interpreted as a metaph ysical necessity operator, then Platonists would not be inimical to the collapse result. But if CPA is extended with a physical theor y, then there is a threat that physical truths become physical necessiti es. It was shown that, under a Carnapian interpretation, the standard pr inciple of weak induction is unsound, and that it can be replaced by a C arnapian principle of weak induction that is sound. The probl em of logical and mathematical omniscience prevents ordinary Carnapian i ntensional logic from being taken seriously as a logic adequate for desc ribing the principles of demonstrability. Yet many of the proof-theoreti c results of the first part carry over to the part on Carnapian epistemi c arithmetic with descriptions, since proof-theoretic results are indepe ndent of the informal reading of the operators. In the fifth chapter, I looked at extensions of arithmetic with a modal logic in which the box operator is interpreted as a demonstrability oper ator. A first extension in that sense is Shapiro s Epistemic Arithmetic. Shapiro himself offered the problem of mathematic al omniscience as a reason why it is difficult to find a model theory fo r EA.Horsten attempted to provide a model theory via the deto ur of Modal-Epistemic Arithmetic. The attention of the reade r was drawn to an incoherence in the model theory of. Two al ternative solutions were presented and, after a short discussion of the problem of de re demonstrability one of those alternatives wa s chosen. The discussion of the problem of de re demonstrabil ity made it clear that it would be interesting to study the epistemic pr operties of notation systems. Horsten himself provided a framework for t his, viz. Carnapian Epistemic Arithmetic, and he started a systematic study of the epistemic properti es of notation systems within that framework. However, he did not provid e non-trivial but adequate models. To make a start with solving the prob lem of finding good models for CEA, I introduced Carnapian Mo dal-Epistemic Arithmetic In constructing CMEA I incorporated the lesson about the principle of weak induction learnt in the fourth chapter. In the sixth chapter, I gave a critical assessment of an argument concerning the limits of de re demonst rability about the natural numbers. The conclusion of the Description Ar gument is that it is undemonstrable that there is a natural number that has a certain property but of which it is undemonstrable that it has tha t property. A crucial step in the Description Argument involved a self-p redication principle. Making good use of one of the results obtained in the third chapter, I proved a collapse result for the background theory against which the Description Argument was formulated. I concluded that either the either the Description Argument is sound but its conclusion i s trivial, o r the Description Argument is unsound, or it is a cheapshot. As an appendix I included an article co-authored by prof. dr. Leon Horst en and me. The topic of the article is indirectly related to some other topics investigated in my dissertation. Also, it backs up one of the addition al theses I might be asked to publicly defend during my doctoral exam. T he topic of the appendix is the set of the so-called paradoxes of stric t implication. Jonathan Lowe has argued that a particular variation on C.I. Lewis notion of strict implication avoids the paradoxes of strict implication. Pace Lowe, it is argued that Lowe s notion of implication d oes not achieve this aim. Moreover, a general argument is offered to the effect that no other variation on Lewis notion of constantly strict imp lication describes the logical behaviour of natural language conditional s in a satisfactory way. (shrink)
The Management Centre for Human Values along with the participants of the Post-Graduate Program for Executives and the Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited on the occasion of the Golden Jubilee of the Indian Institute of Management Calcutta arranged a seminar on Socially Conscious Leadership, or the Lattice 2010, on 19 December 2010. The seminar debate on the role of Corporate Social Responsibility in contemporary business makes for an interesting note that would befit the Journal of Human Values . This (...) is so because the invitees to the seminar, through their singular and idiosyncratic narration of experiences, have inevitably problematized the basic concepts of CSR itself. Concepts like ‘human values’, ‘ethics’, ‘social consciousness’ no longer exist as water-tight compartments of traditional or even autonomous sanctuaries of humane goodness. These concepts have been transformed from ‘value-adding’ propositions to ‘value-appropriating’ propositions, or in other words, social issues have become business issues. A wide spectrum of views coming from Gen. Bajwa, representing the army; Prof. Chaudhuri and Prof. Bhatta, representing administrative academia; Sri Salvi and Sri Tyagi, endorsing real-life CSR; Mr Ahir and Mr Rayaprolu, representing the corporate; Ms Vatsa and Ms Swami, representing NGOs; and Prof. Sarkar, Prof. Mohanty and Prof. Chatterjee, representing the academicians; along with the presence of Ms M. Bhattacharya from ONGC—all of them have aided and abetted in establishing the contemporary position of CSR as a successful and competitive business proposition. The note addresses the issues developed from their individual experiences and opinions, and attempts to establish, but on an individual level, an intellectual point of departure for an academic discussion of CSR that would initiate further potent research and theorization in this regard. (shrink)
In an article recently published in this journal Prof. David F. Hult argues that a distich absent from Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, MS fonds français 794 , is superfluous to a proper understanding of Chrétien de Troyes's Le Chevalier de la Charrette . Quite possibly, Hult argues, it represents a scribal accretion that can make no irrefutable claim to be indispensable to a modern scholarly edition of this text. The distich in question was printed by Wendelin Foerster in his edition (...) of the Charrette . Here is Foerster's text. (shrink)
Neste trabalho, pretendemos avaliar criticamente algumas das teses de John McDowellsobre a natureza da virtude, tal como expostas em seu artigo “Virtue and Reason” e, ao fazê-lo,expor algumas de suas limitações. Mais especificamente, tratarei o que vejo como problemas emsua apresentação da virtude como uma forma de conhecimento, e sua proposta – corporificada natese da unidade das virtudes – de que as virtudes comumente reconhecidas deveriam ser vistascomo manifestações parciais da virtude enquanto tal. Também enfocarei a assertiva de McDowellde que (...) o conhecimento que constitui a virtude não pode ser visto como tendo um conteúdoproposicional que se preste a uma codificação em princípios de conduta – a tese de nãocodificabilidade– e a relação da postura pessoal de McDowell com a empreitada mais ampla daética de virtudes. (shrink)
This paper examines employees’ reactions to Corporate Social Responsibility programs at the attitudinal level. The results presented are drawn from an in-depth study of two Chilean construction firms that have well-established CSR programs. Grounded theory was applied to the data prior to the construction of the conceptual framework. The analysis shows that the implementation of CSR programs generates two types of attitudes in employees: attitudes toward the organization and attitudes toward society. These two broad types of attitudes can then be (...) broken down into four different categories : acceptance of the new role of the organization, identification with the organization, importance attached to the work performed and a sense of social justice. In turn, each of these categories is a grouping of many different concepts, some of which have at first sight little to do with CSR. Finally, the analysis reveals an attitudinal employee typology: the committed worker, the indifferent worker, and the dissident worker. (shrink)
Most research studying the corporate social performance –corporate financial performance link has utilized developed country samples. Also, this literature has generally focused on a wide variety of industries, ignoring the fact that certain sectors – such as controversial industries – have graver social and environmental issues. Hence, a gap exists in this tradition when it comes to emerging markets and controversial industries. This paper attempts to fill this void by providing preliminary evidence and insight on the matter. Based on an (...) exploration in six Latin American countries and five controversial industries, we find a negative bidirectional association between CSP and CFP. These results tend to contradict the mainstream conclusion of a positive bidirectional link, suggesting that institutional and market-level forces play a major role in shaping this relationship. (shrink)
It is generally assumed that emotion concepts are purely descriptive. However, recent investigations suggest that the concept of happiness includes information about the morality of the agent's life. In this study, we argue that normative influences on emotion concepts are not restricted to happiness and are not about moral norms. In a series of studies, we show that emotion attribution is influenced by whether the agent's psychological and bodily states fit the situation in which they are experienced. People consider that (...) emotions are not just about feeling in certain ways, but also about feeling the right way. (shrink)
In a seminal work, Tversky and Kahneman showed that in some contexts people tend to believe that a conjunction of events (e.g., Linda is a bank teller and is active in the feminist movement) is more likely to occur than one of the conjuncts (e.g., Linda is a bank teller). This belief violates the conjunction rule in probability theory. Tversky and Kahneman called this phenomenon the “conjunction fallacy”. Since the discovery of the phenomenon in 1983, researchers in psychology and philosophy (...) have engaged in important controversies around the conjunction fallacy. The goal of this paper is to explore the most important of these controversies, namely, the controversy about the nature of the conjunction fallacy. Is the conjunction fallacy mainly due to a misunderstanding of the problem by participants (misunderstanding hypothesis) or is it mainly due to a genuine reasoning bias (reasoning bias hypothesis)? A substantial portion of research on the topic has been directed to test the misunderstanding hypothesis. I review this literature and argue that a stronger case can be made against the misunderstanding hypothesis. Thus, I indirectly provide support for the reasoning bias hypothesis. (shrink)
Saul Kripke argued that the requirement that knowledge eliminate all possibilities of error leads to dogmatism . According to this view, the dogmatism puzzle arises because of a requirement on knowledge that is too strong. The paper argues that dogmatism can be avoided even if we hold on to the strong requirement on knowledge. I show how the argument for dogmatism can be blocked and I argue that the only other approach to the puzzle in the literature is mistaken.
This is a collection of new essays written in honor of the work of Peter D. Klein, who has had and continues to have a tremendous influence in the development of epistemology. The essays reflect the breadth and depth of Klein’s work by engaging directly with his views and with the views of his interlocutors.
This paper elaborates on the link between different types and degrees of experience that can be gone through within a form of life or collectivity—the so-called levels of immersion—and the development of distinct types of tacit knowledge and expertise. The framework is then probed empirically and theoretically. In the first case, its ‘predictions’ are compared with the accounts of novices who have gone through different ‘learning opportunities’ during a pre-operational training programme for running a huge nickel industrial plant in Brazil. (...) These are also analysed vis-à-vis the experience of an expert who has designed and experienced the outcomes of two pre-operational training sessions in the nickel industry before developing and managing the one discussed here. Theoretically, the framework is used to pinpoint exactly what interactional experts who have developed their expertise through linguistic socialisation alone are able to do as well as to analyse the case of technical connoisseurs. The results indicate that the proposed framework is useful. It supports the design and improvement of training programmes for the development of tacit knowledge while at the same time bringing about a refined analysis of claims concerning the abilities of types of experts and expertise. (shrink)
How can we identify and estimate workers’ tacit knowledge? How can we design a personnel mix aimed at improving and speeding up its transfer and development? How is it possible to implement tacit knowledge sustainable projects in remote areas? In order to answer these questions, it is necessary to distinguish between types of tacit knowledge, to establish what they allow for and to consider their sources. It is also essential to find a way of managing the tacit knowledge ‘stock’ and (...) distribution within the workforce. In short, a conceptual framework is needed to manage tacit knowledge. Based on previous works and 2 years of action research, this paper introduces such a framework and describes its partial application to support the pre-operational training and hiring in a large industrial plant in Brazil. Two contributions emerge from the research. First, the concept of ‘levels of similarity’ is introduced as a means to qualify the experience of workers and estimate the associated tacit knowledge. Second, the capability of carrying out three types of judgement properly and speedily is put forward as being a core ability of those who possess what has been called ‘collective tacit knowledge’ (Collins in Organ Stud 28(2):257–262, 2007). In practical terms, the results indicate the opportunity for companies to capitalize on the experience and tacit knowledge of their workers in a systematic way and with due recognition. Ultimately, positive impacts are expected in their absorptive capacity as well as in their management and human resources systems, accident prevention, productivity and the development of sustainable projects in remote areas. (shrink)
John N. Williams argued that Peter Klein's defeasibility theory of knowledge excludes the possibility of one knowing that one has a posteriori knowledge. He does that by way of adding a new twist to an objection Klein himself answered more than forty years ago. In this paper I argue that Williams' objection misses its target because of this new twist.
Research has consistently shown that people consider harmful side effects of an action more intentional than helpful side effects. This phenomenon is known as the side- effect effect (SEE), which refers to the influence of moral considerations in judgments of intentionality and other non-moral concepts. There is an ongoing debate about how to explain this asymmetric pattern of judgment and the psychological factors involved in it. It has been posited that affective reactions to agents that bring about harmful side- effects (...) could bias intentionality attributions in these cases, explaining the asymmetric pattern of intentionality judgments that we observe in the SEE. We call this the affective bias hypothesis (ABH). Evidence for the ABH is mixed, with some findings suggesting a role for affective processes, while others suggesting that affective processes play no role in the SEE. A possible explanation for these apparently contradictory results points to affective processes involved in the SEE being confined to anger. In a series of empirical studies, we systematically measured and manipulated participants’ anger in order to test this possibility. Our findings suggest that anger play no role in intentionality judgments in SEE cases, while providing support for a non-emotional motivation to blame as a factor underlying the SEE. (shrink)