Results for 'Property reduction'

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  1. Property Physicalism, Reduction, and Realization.Ansgar Beckermann - 1997 - In Martin Carrier & Peter K. Machamer (eds.), Mindscapes: Philosophy, Science, and the Mind. Pittsburgh University Press. pp. 303--321.
    Ansgar Beckermann Once, a mind-body theory based upon the idea of supervenience seemed to be a promising alternative to the various kinds of reductionistic physicalism. In recent years, however, Jaegwon Kim has subjected his own brainchild to a very thorough criticism. With most of Kim’s arguments I agree wholeheartedly - not least because they converge with my own thoughts.2 In order to explain the few points of divergence with Kim’s views, I shall have to prepare the ground a little. In (...)
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  2.  15
    Church–Rosser Property of a Simple Reduction for Full First-Order Classical Natural Deduction.Y. Andou - 2003 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 119 (1-3):225-237.
    A system of typed terms which corresponds with the classical natural deduction with one conclusion and full logical symbols is defined. Church–Rosser property of the system is proved using an extended method of parallel reduction.
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  3.  35
    Scientific Reduction and the Synonymy Principle of Property Identity.Michael Tye - 1981 - Philosophical Studies 40 (2):177 - 185.
  4. Andou, Y., Church–Rosser Property of a Simple Reduction for Full First-Order Classical Natural Deduction (1–3) 225–237 Bridges, D. And Vıˆt-a, L., Apartness Spaces as a Framework for Constructive Topology (1–3) 61–83 Di Nasso, M. And Hrbacek, K., Combinatorial Principles In. [REVIEW]Q. Feng, W. H. Woodin & M. Gitik - 2003 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 119:295.
  5.  75
    Supervenience: The Grand-Property Hypothesis.Peter Forrest - 1988 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 66 (1):1-12.
    THE ARTICLE IS AN ATTACK ON THE MYSTERY OR REDUCTION DILEMMA FOR SUPERVENIENCE. THIS IS THE DILEMMA THAT EITHER SUPERVENIENCE IS MYSTERIOUS OR THE SUPERVENIENT IS REDUCIBLE TO THE SUBVENIENT. A NONMYSTERIOUS, NONREDUCTIVE ACCOUNT OF SUPERVENIENCE IS PROPOSED, BASED ON THE METAPHYSICAL SPECULATION THAT SUPERVENIENT TERMS AND PHRASES APPLY TO OBJECTS WHOSE INTRINSIC NATURES THEMSELVES HAVE AN APPROPRIATE PROPERTY. SINCE THIS IS A PROPERTY OF A NATURE IT IS A PROPERTY OF A PROPERTY, THAT IS, (...)
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  6.  56
    Qualities, Relations, and Property Exemplification.Dale Jacquette - 2013 - Axiomathes 23 (2):381-399.
    The question whether qualities are metaphysically more fundamental than or mere limiting cases of relations can be addressed in an applied symbolic logic. There exists a logical equivalence between qualitative and relational predications, in which qualities are represented as one-argument-place property predicates, and relations as more-than-one-argument-place predicates. An interpretation is first considered, according to which the logical equivalence of qualitative and relational predications logically permits us ontically to eliminate qualities in favor of relations, or relations in favor of qualities. (...)
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  7.  57
    Property Reductive Emergent Dualism.Jeff Engelhardt - 2015 - Philosophia 43 (1):63-75.
    This paper sketches and motivates a metaphysics of mind that is both substance dualist and, to a large extent, property reductive. Call it “property reductive emergent dualism”. Section “Emergent Dualism” gives the broad outlines of the view. Sections “Problems of Mental Causation” and “Theoretical Virtues” argue that it can claim several advantages over non-reductive physicalist theories of mind. Section “Problems of Mental Causation” considers metaphysical challenges to mental causation in detail. Section “Theoretical Virtues” considers overall theoretical virtues: ontological (...)
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  8.  60
    Supervenience, Metaphysical Reduction, and Metaphysics of Properties.Giovanna Hendel - 2001 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 39 (1):99-118.
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  9. Scientific Reduction and the Mind-Body Problem.Laurence F. Mucciolo - 1974 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy (Suppl.) 185 (2):185-204.
     
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  10. Is There A Quasi-Mereological Account of Property Incompatibility?Javier Kalhat - 2011 - Acta Analytica 26 (2):115-133.
    Armstrong’s combinatorial theory of possibility faces the obvious difficulty that not all universals are compatible. In this paper I develop three objections against Armstrong’s attempt to account for property incompatibilities. First, Armstrong’s account cannot handle incompatibilities holding among properties that are either simple, or that are complex but stand to one another in the relation of overlap rather than in the part/ whole relation. Secondly, at the heart of Armstrong’s account lies a notion of structural universals which, building on (...)
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  11.  57
    Identity Statements and Microreductions.Berent Enç - 1976 - Journal of Philosophy 73 (June):285-306.
    The view that scientific reduction succeeds by establishing property identities is challenged. it is argued that, instead of identity statements making reductions successful, the fact that a reduction is successful makes the identity statements possible. the argument proceeds first by showing that an explanatory asymmetry is generated by statements expressing property identities, second by locating the source of the asymmetry in a "generative relation" that obtains between the two properties. it is then argued that reduction (...)
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  12. Making Sense of Emergence.Jaegwon Kim - 1999 - Philosophical Studies 95 (1-2):3-36.
  13. Consciousness and Reduction.Ausonio Marras - 2005 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 56 (2):335-361.
    among them Joseph Levine, David Chalmers, Frank Jackson and Jaegwon Kim?have claimed that there are conceptual grounds sufficient for ruling out the possibility of a reductive explanation of phenomenal consciousness. Their claim assumes a functional model of reduction which requires an a priori entailment from the facts in the reduction base to the phenomena to be explained. The aim of this paper is to show that this is an unreasonable requirement?a requirement that no reductive explanation in science should (...)
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  14. Complexity Biology-Based Information Structures Can Explain Subjectivity, Objective Reduction of Wave Packets, and Non-Computability.Alex Hankey - 2014 - Cosmos and History 10 (1):237-250.
    Background: how mind functions is subject to continuing scientific discussion. A simplistic approach says that, since no convincing way has been found to model subjective experience, mind cannot exist. A second holds that, since mind cannot be described by classical physics, it must be described by quantum physics. Another perspective concerns mind's hypothesized ability to interact with the world of quanta: it should be responsible for reduction of quantum wave packets; physics producing 'Objective Reduction' is postulated to form (...)
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  15. Emergence and Reduction: Reply to Kim.Ausonio Marras - 2006 - Synthese 151 (3):561-569.
    In this paper I examine Jaegwon Kim’s view that emergent properties are irreducible to the base properties on which they supervene. Kim’s view assumes a model of ‘functional reduction’ which he claims to be substantially different from the traditional Nagelian model. I dispute this claim and argue that the two models are only superficially different, and that on either model, properly understood, it is possible to draw a distinction between a property’s being reductively identifiable with its base (...) and a property’s being reductively explainable in terms of it. I propose that we should take as the distinguishing feature of emergent properties that they be truly novel properties, i.e., ontologically distinct from the ‘base’ properties which they supervene on. This only requires that emergent properties cannot be reductively identified with their base properties, not that they cannot be reductively explained in terms of them. On this conception the set of emergent properties may well include mental properties as conceived by nonreductive physicalists. (shrink)
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  16. Post-Structuralist Angst - Critical Notice: John Bickle, Psychoneural Reduction: The New Wave.Ronald P. Endicott - 2001 - Philosophy of Science 68 (3):377-393.
    I critically evaluate Bickle’s version of scientific theory reduction. I press three main points. First, a small point, Bickle modifies the new wave account of reduction developed by Paul Churchland and Clifford Hooker by treating theories as set-theoretic structures. But that structuralist gloss seems to lose what was distinctive about the Churchland-Hooker account, namely, that a corrected theory must be specified entirely by terms and concepts drawn from the basic reducing theory. Set-theoretic structures are not terms or concepts (...)
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  17. Complementarity Cannot Resolve the Emergence–Reduction Debate: Reply to Harré.Olivier Massin - 2006 - Synthese 151 (3):511-517.
    Rom Harré thinks that the Emergence–Reduction debate, conceived as a vertical problem, is partly ill posed. Even if he doesn’t wholly reject the traditional definition of an emergent property as a property of a collection but not of its components, his point is that this definition doesn’t exhaust all the dimensions of emergence. According to Harré there is another kind (or dimension) of emergence, which we may call—somewhat paradoxically—“horizontal emergence”: two properties of a substance are horizontally emergent (...)
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  18.  44
    Do Insecure Property Rights Ground Rights of Jurisdiction? Miller on Territorial Justice.Kim Angell - 2013 - Res Publica 19 (2):183-192.
    A prominent approach in the debate on territorial rights claims that a group may have jurisdictional rights over a particular land if that land has become a repository of value for the group. This justification relies on a premise which has remained largely unsubstantiated, namely that having jurisdictional rights should be our preferred means for ensuring the group’s retaining of the land’s embedded value. This article discusses a recent attempt to fill this gap. David Miller acknowledges that the value could (...)
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  19. Is Functional Reduction Logical Reduction?Max Kistler - 2005 - Croatian Journal of Philosophy 5 (14):219-234.
    The functionalist conception of mental properties, together with their multiple realizability, is often taken to entail their irreducibility. It might seem that the only way to revise that judgement is to weaken the requirements traditionally imposed on reduction. However, Jaegwon Kim has recently argued that we should, on the contrary, strengthen those requirements, and construe reduction as what I propose to call “logical reduction”, a model of reduction inspired by emergentism. Moreover, Kim claims that what he (...)
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  20.  21
    Property Rights, Genes, and Common Good.Esther D. Reed - 2006 - Journal of Religious Ethics 34 (1):41-67.
    This paper applies aspects of Hugo Grotius's theologically informed theory of property to contemporary issues concerning access to the human DNA sequence and patenting practices. It argues that Christians who contribute to public debate in these areas might beneficially employ some of the concepts with which he worked--notably "common right," the "right of necessity," and "use right." In the seventeenth century, wars were fought over trading rights and access to the sea. In the twenty-first century, information and intellectual (...) are the issues of the day. Grotius's writings serve to correct the overemphasis in modern liberalism on individual rights, and have practical application to the debate concerning the reduction of the human genome to the status of private property. (shrink)
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  21.  15
    Climate Change, Intellectual Property, and Global Justice.Monica Ştefănescu & Constantin Vică - 2012 - Public Reason 4 (1-2):197-209.
    The current situation of climate change at a global level clearly requires policy changes at local levels. Global efforts to reach a consensus regarding the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions have so far been focused on developing Climate-Friendly Technologies (CFTs). The problem is that in order for these efforts to have an actual impact at a global level we need to be concerned with more than just promotion and info-dissemination on the already existing CFTs, but also with costs, implementation (...)
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  22.  2
    Real Reduction in Real Neuroscience : Metascience, Not Philosophy of Science (and Certainly Not Metaphysics!).John Bickle - 2008 - In Jakob Hohwy & Jesper Kallestrup (eds.), Being Reduced: New Essays on Reduction, Explanation, and Causation. Oxford University Press.
    This chapter argues that much discussion between philosophers and neuroscientists is infected by philosophical assumptions about the nature of reduction. Instead we should pursue an unbiased examination of the methods used throughout relevant areas of neuroscience. The chapter focuses on reductionist work in the neurobiological discipline of molecular and cellular cognition. It is argued that reduction is a matter of causal intervention into low level mechanisms, and tracking of the effects of these interventions through levels. When interventions provide (...)
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  23. Making Room for the Mental.Louise Antony - 1999 - Philosophical Studies 95 (1-2):37-44.
  24.  77
    Objectivity and Subjectivity Revisited: Colour as a Psychobiological Property.Gary Hatfield - 2003 - In Rainer Mausfeld & Dieter Heyer (eds.), Colour Perception: Mind and the Physical World. Oxford University Press. pp. 187--202.
    This chapter focuses on the notion of color as a property of the surfaces of objects. It considers three positions on what colors are: objectivist, subjectivist, and relationalist. Examination of the arguments of the objectivists will help us understand how they seek to reduce color to a physical property of object surfaces. Subjectivists, by contrast, seek to argue that no such reduction is possible, and hence that color must be wholly subjective. This chapter argues that when functional (...)
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  25. Property Rights and the Resource Curse: A Reply to Wenar.Scott Wisor - 2012 - Journal of Philosophical Research 37:185-204.
    In “Property Rights and the Resource Curse” Leif Wenar argues that the purchase and sale of resources from certain countries constitutes a violation of property rights, and the priority in reforming global trade should be on protecting these property rights. Specifically, Wenar argues that the U.S. and other western liberal democracies should not be complicit in the trade of so-called cursed resources, and the extant legal system can be used to end the trade in cursed resources by (...)
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  26.  12
    Property Rights and the Resource Curse: A Reply to Wenar.Scott Wisor - 2012 - Journal of Philosophical Research 37:185-204.
    In “Property Rights and the Resource Curse” Leif Wenar argues that the purchase and sale of resources from certain countries constitutes a violation of property rights, and the priority in reforming global trade should be on protecting these property rights. Specifically, Wenar argues that the U.S. and other western liberal democracies should not be complicit in the trade of so-called cursed resources, and the extant legal system can be used to end the trade in cursed resources by (...)
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  27.  30
    Reduction of Biological Properties by Means of Functional Sub-Types.Christian Sachse - 2005 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 27 (3/4):435 - 449.
    The general aim of this paper is to propose a reductionist strategy to higher-level property types. Starting from a common ground in the philosophy of science, I shall elaborate on possible realizer differences of higher-level property types. Because of the realizer types' causal heterogeneity, an introduction of functional sub-types of higher-level properties will be suggested. Each higher-level functional sub-type corresponds to one realizer type. This means that there is the theoretical possibility to reach some kind of type-identity and (...)
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  28.  4
    Call-by-Name Reduction and Cut-Elimination in Classical Logic.Kentaro Kikuchi - 2008 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 153 (1-3):38-65.
    We present a version of Herbelin’s image-calculus in the call-by-name setting to study the precise correspondence between normalization and cut-elimination in classical logic. Our translation of λμ-terms into a set of terms in the calculus does not involve any administrative redexes, in particular η-expansion on μ-abstraction. The isomorphism preserves β,μ-reduction, which is simulated by a local-step cut-elimination procedure in the typed case, where the reduction system strictly follows the “ cut=redex” paradigm. We show that the underlying untyped calculus (...)
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  29.  15
    Climate Change, Intellectual Property Rights and Global Justice.Cristian Timmermann & Henk van den Belt - 2012 - In Thomas Potthast & Simon Meisch (eds.), Climate Change and Sustainable Development: Ethical Perspectives on Land Use and Food Production. Wageningen Academic Publishers. pp. 75-79.
    International negotiations on anthropogenic climate change are far from running smoothly. Opinions are deeply divided on what are the respective responsibilities of developed and developing countries with regard to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and the alleviation of the negative effects of global warming. A major bone of contention concerns the role of intellectual property rights (especially patents) in the development and diffusion of climate-friendly technologies. While developing countries consider IPRs as a formidable barrier to the rapid (...)
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  30.  15
    The Modifier Effect and Property Mutability.James A. Hampton, Alessia Passanisi & Martin Jönsson - unknown
    The modifier effect is the reduction in perceived likelihood of a generic property sentence, when the head noun is modified. We investigated the prediction that the modifier effect would be stronger for mutable than for central properties, without finding evidence for this predicted interaction over the course of five experiments. However Experiment 6, which provided a brief context for the modified concepts to lend them greater credibility, did reveal the predicted interaction. It is argued that the modifier effect (...)
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  31.  86
    Multiple Realization, Reduction and Mental Properties.Max Kistler - 1999 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 13 (2):135 – 149.
    This paper tries to remove some obstacles standing in the way of considering mental properties as both genuine natural kinds and causally efficacious rather than epiphenomena. As the case of temperature shows, it is not justified to conclude from a property being multiply realizable to it being irreducible. Yet Kim's argument to the effect that if a property is multiply realizable with a heterogeneous reduction base then it cannot be a natural kind and possesses only derivative “epiphenomenal” (...)
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  32.  14
    Réduction fonctionnelle et réduction logique.Max Kistler - 2000 - Philosophiques 27 (1):27-38.
    Kim attribue aux émergentistes un modèle de « réduction logique » dans lequel la prédiction ou l’explication d’une occurrence de la propriété réduite ne requiert, outre des informations sur le niveau réducteur, que des principes logiques et mathématiques. Sur la base de cette interprétation, je conteste deux thèses de Kim. La première concerne la légitimité du modèle émergentiste de réduction. J’essaie de montrer, à l’aide de l’exemple de l’addition des masses, que l’adoption de la réduction logique rendrait irréductibles certaines propriétés (...)
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  33.  40
    La Reducción de Lo Posible. René Thom Y El Determinismo Causal (the Reduction of the Possible. Rene Thom and Causal Determinism).Miguel Espinoza - 2007 - Theoria 22 (2):233-251.
    La tesis principal de este ensayo estipula que el determinismo causal es una propiedad de la naturaleza y el primer principio de la inteligibilidad natural. Se expresa, por ejemplo, en la frase de Lucrecio: “Nada surge de la nada ni va hacia la nada”. Todo lo que existe es efecto de una red de causas y es a su vez causa de otras cosas. Se sigue que la teoría científica orientada hacia la inteligibilidad —diferente de la ciencia positi-vista y pragmática— (...)
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  34.  18
    Examination of Existing Arguments on Business Oriented Towards Poverty Reduction with the Case of People with Disabilities in Vietnam.Nghia Chi Nguyen - 2013 - Asian Journal of Business Ethics 2 (2):147-161.
    With an eye ultimately to answering the question of how business can alleviate poverty completely, the paper examines existing arguments about the approach of business to poverty reduction with the case of people with disabilities living in poverty in Vietnam. The paper suggests that business should take the knowledge and potential of poor people into consideration in its interfaces with different types of poor people: consumers, workers, property owners, etc. Furthermore, investigating how business can help reduce poverty while (...)
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  35.  19
    Remarks on the Church-Rosser Property.E. G. K. López-Escobar - 1990 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 55 (1):106-112.
    A reduction algebra is defined as a set with a collection of partial unary functions (called reduction operators). Motivated by the lambda calculus, the Church-Rosser property is defined for a reduction algebra and a characterization is given for those reduction algebras satisfying CRP and having a measure respecting the reductions. The characterization is used to give (with 20/20 hindsight) a more direct proof of the strong normalization theorem for the impredicative second order intuitionistic propositional calculus.
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  36.  13
    Generalized Reduction Theorems for Model-Theoretic Analogs of the Class of Coanalytic Sets.Shaughan Lavine - 1993 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 58 (1):81-98.
    Let A be an admissible set. A sentence of the form ∀R̄φ is a ∀1(A) (∀s 1(A),∀1(Lω1ω)) sentence if φ ∈ A (φ is $\bigvee\Phi$ , where Φ is an A-r.e. set of sentences from A; φ ∈ Lω1ω). A sentence of the form ∃R̄φ is an ∃2(A) (∃s 2(A),∃2(Lω1ω)) sentence if φ is a ∀1(A) (∀s 1(A),∀1(Lω1ω)) sentence. A class of structures is, for example, a ∀1(A) class if it is the class of models of a ∀1(A) sentence. Thus (...)
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  37.  73
    The Logical Structure of Kinds.Eric Funkhouser - 2014 - Oxford University Press.
    Only by classifying things into kinds can we gain knowledge beyond memory and perception. Eric Funkhouser uncovers a logical structure that is common to many, if not all, classificatory systems, given by the determination dimensions of kinds. His account of multiple realizability provides standards for establishing the autonomy of the sciences.
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  38. Second-Order Properties and Three Varieties of Functionalism.Eric Hiddleston - 2011 - Philosophical Studies 153 (3):397 - 415.
    This paper investigates whether there is an acceptable version of Functionalism that avoids commitment to second-order properties. I argue that the answer is "no". I consider two reductionist versions of Functionalism, and argue that both are compatible with multiple realization as such. There is a more specific type of multiple realization that poses difficulties for these views, however. The only apparent Functionalist solution is to accept second-order properties.
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  39.  31
    Right-Making, Reference, and Reduction.Michael Byron - 2014 - Disputatio 6 (38):139-145.
    The causal theory of reference (CTR) provides a well-articulated and widely-accepted account of the reference relation. On CTR the reference of a term is fixed by whatever property causally regulates the competent use of that term. CTR poses a metaethical challenge to realists by demanding an account of the properties that regulate the competent use of normative predicates. CTR might pose a challenge to ethical theorists as well. Long argues that CTR entails the falsity of any normative ethical theory. (...)
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  40.  20
    Necessarily Coextensive Predicates and Reduction.Philip Stratton-Lake - 2018 - Brill.
    _ Source: _Page Count 18 Bart Streumer argues that all normative properties are descriptive properties. His first argument is based on the principle that necessarily coextensive predicates ascribe the same property, and the claim that there is a descriptive predicate that is necessarily coextensive with normative predicates. From this Streumer concludes that normative properties are identical with descriptive properties. I argue that, even if we accept, this conclusion does not follow. Normative properties could only be descriptive properties if there (...)
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  41.  17
    Necessarily Coextensive Predicates and Reduction.Philip Stratton-Lake - 2018 - International Journal for the Study of Skepticism 8 (4):282-299.
    _ Source: _Page Count 18 Bart Streumer argues that all normative properties are descriptive properties. His first argument is based on the principle that necessarily coextensive predicates ascribe the same property, and the claim that there is a descriptive predicate that is necessarily coextensive with normative predicates. From this Streumer concludes that normative properties are identical with descriptive properties. I argue that, even if we accept, this conclusion does not follow. Normative properties could only be descriptive properties if there (...)
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  42.  35
    Reductionism and the Micro–Macro Mirroring Thesis.Eric Hiddleston - 2011 - Synthese 181 (2):209 - 226.
    This paper concerns reductionist views about psychology and the special sciences more generally. I identify a metaphysical assumption in reductionist views which I dub the 'Micro-Macro Mirroring Thesis'. The Mirroring Thesis says that the relation between the entities of any legitimate higher-level science and their lowerlevel realizers is similar to that between the entities of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. I argue that reductionism implies the Thesis, and that the Thesis is not a priori. It is more difficult to tell whether (...)
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  43. Multiple Reference, Multiple Realization, and the Reduction of Mind.Terence E. Horgan - 2001 - In Reality and Humean Supervenience: Essays on the Philosophy of David Lewis. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.
  44.  36
    Psychological Type-Type Reduction Via Disjunction.Cynthia Macdonald - 1992 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 30 (1):65-69.
  45.  31
    MacDonald on Type Reduction Via Disjunction.Ronald P. Endicott - 1991 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 29 (2):209-14.
  46. Aggregativity: Reductive Heuristics for Finding Emergence.William C. Wimsatt - 1997 - Philosophy of Science 64 (4):372-84.
    Most philosophical accounts of emergence are incompatible with reduction. Most scientists regard a system property as emergent relative to properties of the system's parts if it depends upon their mode of organization--a view consistent with reduction. Emergence can be analyzed as a failure of aggregativity--a state in which "the whole is nothing more than the sum of its parts." Aggregativity requires four conditions, giving tools for analyzing modes of organization. Differently met for different decompositions of the system, (...)
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  47.  99
    Beyond Reduction: Philosophy of Mind and Post-Reductionist Philosophy of Science.Steven Horst - 2007 - Oxford University Press.
    Contemporary philosophers of mind tend to assume that the world of nature can be reduced to basic physics. Yet there are features of the mind consciousness, intentionality, normativity that do not seem to be reducible to physics or neuroscience. This explanatory gap between mind and brain has thus been a major cause of concern in recent philosophy of mind. Reductionists hold that, despite all appearances, the mind can be reduced to the brain. Eliminativists hold that it cannot, and that this (...)
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  48. Emergence as Non-Aggregativity and the Biases of Reductionisms.William C. Wimsatt - 2000 - Foundations of Science 5 (3):269-297.
    Most philosophical accounts of emergence are incompatible with reduction. Most scientists regard a system property as emergent relative to properties of its parts if it depends upon their mode of organization-a view consistent with reduction. Emergence is a failure of aggregativity, in which ``the whole is nothing more than the sum of its parts''. Aggregativity requires four conditions, giving powerful tools for analyzing modes of organization. Differently met for different decompositions of the system, and in different degrees, (...)
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  49. Setting the Facts Straight.Mark Jago - 2011 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 40 (1):33-54.
    Substantial facts are not well-understood entities. Many philosophers object to their existence on this basis. Yet facts, if they can be understood, promise to do a lot of philosophical work: they can be used to construct theories of property possession and truthmaking, for example. Here, I give a formal theory of facts, including negative and logically complex facts. I provide a theory of reduction similar to that of the typed λ -calculus and use it to provide identity conditions (...)
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  50. Speaks's Reduction of Propositions to Properties: A Benacerraf Problem.T. Scott Dixon & Cody Gilmore - 2016 - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 5 (3):275-284.
    Speaks defends the view that propositions are properties: for example, the proposition that grass is green is the property being such that grass is green. We argue that there is no reason to prefer Speaks's theory to analogous but competing theories that identify propositions with, say, 2-adic relations. This style of argument has recently been deployed by many, including Moore and King, against the view that propositions are n-tuples, and by Caplan and Tillman against King's view that propositions are (...)
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