Results for 'Prototype theory'

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  1.  49
    Prototype Theory and Compositionality.H. Kamp - 1995 - Cognition 57 (2):129-191.
  2. On the Adequacy of Prototype Theory as a Theory of Concepts.Daniel N. Osherson & Edward E. Smith - 1981 - Cognition 9 (1):35-58.
  3.  43
    Generalizing Prototype Theory: A Formal Quantum Framework.Diederik Aerts, Jan Broekaert, Liane Gabora & Sandro Sozzo - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
  4. On the Prototype Theory of Concepts and the Definition of Art.Thomas Adajian - 2005 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 63 (3):231–236.
    It has been claimed that the prototype theory of concepts supports two controversial claims in the philosophy of art: that art cannot be defined, and that the possession of a certain sort of historical narrative is a sufficient but not necessary means of determining the art status of contested works. It is argued here that two sorts of considerations undermine the thesis that prototype theory offers significant support to anti-definitionism and historical narrativism. First, there is reason (...)
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  5.  59
    A Reassessment of the Shift From the Classical Theory of Concepts to Prototype Theory.Eric Margolis - 1994 - Cognition 51 (1):73-89.
    A standard view within psychology is that there have been two important shifts in the study of concepts and that each has led to some improvements. The first shift was from the classical theory of concepts to probabilistic theories, including the prototype theory. The second shift was from probabilistic theories to theory-based theories. In this article, I critically evaluate the view that the first shift was a major advance and argue that the prototype theory (...)
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  6.  12
    Deconstruction, Prototype Theory and Semiotics.Irmengard Rauch - 1992 - American Journal of Semiotics 9 (4):131-140.
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  7.  3
    A Prototype Theory of Rhyme: Evidence From Hebrew.Dorit Ravid & David Hanauer - 1998 - Cognitive Linguistics 9 (1):79-106.
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  8.  42
    Lexical Misunderstandings and Prototype Theory.Rebecca Clift - 1998 - AI and Society 12 (3):109-133.
    This paper uses examples of conversational understandings, misunderstandings and non-understandings to explore the role of prototypes and schemata in conversational understanding. An investigation of the procedures by which we make sense of lexical items in utterances by fitting prototypes into schemata is followed by an examination of how schemata are instantiated across conversational sequences by means of topics. In interaction, conflicts over meaning illuminate the decisive role of social and cultural factors in understanding. Overall, understanding is seen to be critically (...)
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  9.  14
    On the Adequacy of Prototype Theory as a Theory of Concepts Daniel N. Osherson and Edward E. Smith.Daniel N. Osherson - 1999 - In Eric Margolis & Stephen Laurence (eds.), Concepts: Core Readings. MIT Press. pp. 261.
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  10.  46
    Empiricist Versus Prototype Theories of Language Acquisition.Nathan Stemmer - 1989 - Mind and Language 4 (3):201-221.
  11.  12
    Rethinking Hart: From Open Texture to Prototype Theory—Analytic Philosophy Meets Cognitive Linguistics.Mateusz Zeifert - 2022 - International Journal for the Semiotics of Law - Revue Internationale de Sémiotique Juridique 35 (2):409-430.
    The article is based on an observation that there are significant and non-arbitrary similarities between two, seemingly quite distant, theories that address the problem of linguistic categorization. One is the theory of open texture put forward by a prominent legal philosopher, Herbert L.A Hart. The other is the theory of prototypes, originated from psychological research by Eleanor Rosch and developed by cognitively-oriented linguists, most notably Charles Fillmore, George Lakoff, and Ronald Langacker. Firstly, the origins of the open texture (...)
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  12.  67
    Note on the Integration of Prototype Theory and Fuzzy-Set Theory.Gy Fuhrmann - 1991 - Synthese 86 (1):1 - 27.
    Many criticisms of prototype theory and/or fuzzy-set theory are based on the assumption that category representativeness (or typicality) is identical with fuzzy membership. These criticisms also assume that conceptual combination and logical rules (all in the Aristotelian sense) are the appropriate criteria for the adequacy of the above “fuzzy typicality”. The present paper discusses these assumptions following the line of their most explicit and most influential expression by Osheron and Smith (1981). Several arguments are made against the (...)
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  13.  57
    Quantum and Concept Combination, Entangled Measurements, and Prototype Theory.Diederik Aerts - 2014 - Topics in Cognitive Science 6 (1):129-137.
    We analyze the meaning of the violation of the marginal probability law for situations of correlation measurements where entanglement is identified. We show that for quantum theory applied to the cognitive realm such a violation does not lead to the type of problems commonly believed to occur in situations of quantum theory applied to the physical realm. We briefly situate our quantum approach for modeling concepts and their combinations with respect to the notions of “extension” and “intension” in (...)
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  14.  24
    Stacks Not Fuzzy Sets: An Ordinal Basis for Prototype Theory of Concepts.Gregory V. Jones - 1982 - Cognition 12 (3):281-290.
  15.  9
    Articulating Context-Dependence: Ad Hoc Cognition in the Prototype Theory of Concepts.José V. Hernández-Conde - 2021 - In Tadeusz Ciecierski & Paweł Grabarczyk (eds.), Context Dependence in Language, Action, and Cognition. De Gruyter. pp. 119-130.
    Recently, Casasanto and Lupyan (2015) have proposed an appealing and daring thesis: there are no context-independent concepts—that is, all concepts are ad hoc concepts. They argue that the seeming stability of concepts is merely due to commonalities across their different instantiations but that, in fact, there is nothing invariant in them. In their view, concepts only exist when they are instantiated for categorizing, communicating, drawing inferences, etc., and those instantiations are produced on the fly from a set of contextual cues. (...)
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  16. Uncertainty Modelling for Vague Concepts: A Prototype Theory Approach.Jonathan Lawry & Yongchuan Tang - 2009 - Artificial Intelligence 173 (18):1539-1558.
  17.  38
    Chapter 1. Prospects and Problems of Prototype Theory.Dirk Geeraerts - 2006 - In Words and Other Wonders: Papers on Lexical and Semantic Topics. Mouton de Gruyter.
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  18.  17
    Prototypes, Poles, and Tessellations: Towards a Topological Theory of Conceptual Spaces.Thomas Mormann - 2021 - Synthese 199 (1-2):3675-3710.
    The aim of this paper is to present a topological method for constructing discretizations of topological conceptual spaces. The method works for a class of topological spaces that the Russian mathematician Pavel Alexandroff defined more than 80 years ago. The aim of this paper is to show that Alexandroff spaces, as they are called today, have many interesting properties that can be used to explicate and clarify a variety of problems in philosophy, cognitive science, and related disciplines. For instance, recently, (...)
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  19.  51
    The Prototype Resemblance Theory of Disease.K. Sadegh-Zadeh - 2008 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 33 (2):106-139.
    In a previous paper the concept of disease was fuzzy-logically analyzed and a sketch was given of a prototype resemblance theory of disease (Sadegh-Zadeh (2000). J. Med. Philos., 25:605–38). This theory is outlined in the present paper. It demonstrates what it means to say that the concept of disease is a nonclassical one and, therefore, not amenable to traditional methods of inquiry. The theory undertakes a reconstruction of disease as a category that in contradistinction to traditional (...)
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  20. Heterogeneous Proxytypes Extended: Integrating Theory-Like Representations and Mechanisms with Prototypes and Exemplars.Antonio Lieto - 2018 - In Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing: Proceedings of BICA. Springer.
    The paper introduces an extension of the proposal according to which conceptual representations in cognitive agents should be intended as heterogeneous proxytypes. The main contribution of this paper is in that it details how to reconcile, under a heterogeneous representational perspective, different theories of typicality about conceptual representation and reasoning. In particular, it provides a novel theoretical hypothesis - as well as a novel categorization algorithm called DELTA - showing how to integrate the representational and reasoning assumptions of the (...)-theory of concepts with the those ascribed to the prototype and exemplars-based theories. (shrink)
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  21.  9
    Prototypes, Location, and Associative Networks (PLAN): Towards a Unified Theory of Cognitive Mapping.Eric Chown, Stephen Kaplan & David Kortenkamp - 1995 - Cognitive Science 19 (1):1-51.
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  22.  10
    Beyond Prototypes and Classical Definitions: Evidence for a Theory-Based Representation of Emotion Concepts.Matthias Siemer - 2008 - Cognition and Emotion 22 (4):620-632.
  23.  3
    The Prototype of Social Quality Theory and its Applicability to Asian Societies.Ka Lin - 2011 - International Journal of Social Quality 1 (1):57-69.
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  24. Linguistic Categorization: Prototypes In Linguistic Theory.John R. TAYLOR - 1989
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  25.  29
    Prototype Proofs in Type Theory.Giuseppe Longo - 2000 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 46 (2):257-266.
    The proofs of universally quantified statements, in mathematics, are given as “schemata” or as “prototypes” which may be applied to each specific instance of the quantified variable. Type Theory allows to turn into a rigorous notion this informal intuition described by many, including Herbrand. In this constructive approach where propositions are types, proofs are viewed as terms of λ-calculus and act as “proof-schemata”, as for universally quantified types. We examine here the critical case of Impredicative Type Theory, i. (...)
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  26.  79
    Diachronic Prototype Semantics: A Contribution to Historical Lexicology.Dirk Geeraerts - 1997 - Oxford University Press.
    Prototype theory makes a crucial distinction between central and peripheral sense of words. Geeraerts explores the implications of this model for a theory of semantic change, in the first full-scale treatment of the impact of the most recent developments in lexicological theory on the study of meaning change. He identifies structural features of the development of word meanings which follow from a prototype-theoretical model of semantic structure, and incorporates these diachronic prototypicality effects into a (...) of meaning change. (shrink)
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  27. Prototypes, Poles, and Topological Tessellations of Conceptual Spaces.Thomas Mormann - 2021 - Synthese 199:3675 - 3710.
    Abstract. The aim of this paper is to present a topological method for constructing discretizations (tessellations) of conceptual spaces. The method works for a class of topological spaces that the Russian mathematician Pavel Alexandroff defined more than 80 years ago. Alexandroff spaces, as they are called today, have many interesting properties that distinguish them from other topological spaces. In particular, they exhibit a 1-1 correspondence between their specialization orders and their topological structures. Recently, a special type of Alexandroff spaces was (...)
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  28.  17
    Linguistic Categorization: Prototypes In Linguistic Theory.Kim Sterelny - 1992 - Review of Metaphysics 45 (4):884-885.
    This book aims to explain and defend a prototype theory of human judgment and discrimination. Taylor hopes to illuminate the psychological processes underlying both thought and language, when, for example, a fluttering object is recognized as a bird, or when the term "bird" is applied to it. More radically, he argues that the linguistic kinds themselves have a prototypical, or at least "nonclassical," structure. Whatever maybe true of birds or odd numbers, there is no essence of the past (...)
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  29. Prototypes, Exemplars, and Theoretical & Applied Ethics.John Jung Park - 2013 - Neuroethics 6 (2):237-247.
    Concepts are mental representations that are the constituents of thought. EdouardMachery claims that psychologists generally understand concepts to be bodies of knowledge or information carrying mental states stored in long term memory that are used in the higher cognitive competences such as in categorization judgments, induction, planning, and analogical reasoning. While most research in the concepts field generally have been on concrete concepts such as LION, APPLE, and CHAIR, this paper will examine abstract moral concepts and whether such concepts may (...)
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  30.  4
    Are Conceptions of Motion Based on a Naive Theory or on Prototypes?Jack Yates, Margaret Bessman, Martin Dunne, Deeann Jertson, Kaye Sly & Bradley Wendelboe - 1988 - Cognition 29 (3):251-275.
  31. Prototypical Reasoning About Species and the Species Problem.Yuichi Amitani - 2015 - Biological Theory 10 (4):289-300.
    The species problem is often described as the abundance of conflicting definitions of _species_, such as the biological species concept and phylogenetic species concepts. But biologists understand the notion of species in a non-definitional as well as a definitional way. In this article I argue that when they understand _species_ without a definition in their mind, their understanding is often mediated by the notion of _good species_, or prototypical species, as the idea of ``prototype'' is explicated in cognitive psychology. (...)
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  32.  22
    Aristotle’s Prototype Rule-Based Underlying Logic.John Corcoran - 2018 - Logica Universalis 12 (1-2):9-35.
    This expository paper on Aristotle’s prototype underlying logic is intended for a broad audience that includes non-specialists. It requires as background a discussion of Aristotle’s demonstrative logic. Demonstrative logic or apodictics is the study of demonstration as opposed to persuasion. It is the subject of Aristotle’s two-volume Analytics, as its first sentence says. Many of Aristotle’s examples are geometrical. A typical geometrical demonstration requires a theorem that is to be demonstrated, known premises from which the theorem is to be (...)
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  33.  14
    The Synergistic Effect of Prototypicality and Authenticity in the Relation Between Leaders’ Biological Gender and Their Organizational Identification.Lucas Monzani, Alina S. Hernandez Bark, Rolf van Dick & José María Peiró - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 132 (4):737-752.
    Role congruity theory affirms that female managers face more difficulties at work because of the incongruity between female gender and leadership role expectations. Furthermore, due to this incongruity, it is harder for female managers to perceive themselves as authentic leaders. However, followers’ attributions of prototypicality could attenuate this role incongruity and have implications on a managers’ organizational identification. Hence, we expect male managers to be more authentic and to identify more with their organizations, when compared to female managers who (...)
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  34. The Red Herring and the Pet Fish: Why Concepts Still Can't Be Prototypes.Jerry A. Fodor & Ernest Lepore - 1996 - Cognition 58 (2):253-70.
    1 There is a Standard Objection to the idea that concepts might be prototypes (or exemplars, or stereotypes): Because they are productive, concepts must be compositional. Prototypes aren't compositional, so concepts can't be prototypes (see, e.g., Margolis, 1994).2 However, two recent papers (Osherson and Smith, 1988; Kamp and Partee, 1995) reconsider this consensus. They suggest that, although the Standard Objection is probably right in the long run, the cases where prototypes fail to exhibit compositionality are relatively exotic and involve phenomena (...)
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  35. Prototypes for Definable Subsets of Algebraically Closed Valued Fields.Jan E. Holly - 1997 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 62 (4):1093-1141.
    Elimination of imaginaries for 1-variable definable equivalence relations is proved for a theory of algebraically closed valued fields with new sorts for the disc spaces. The proof is constructive, and is based upon a new framework for proving elimination of imaginaries, in terms of prototypes which form a canonical family of formulas for defining each set that is definable with parameters. The proof also depends upon the formal development of the tree-like structure of valued fields, in terms of valued (...)
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  36.  23
    Educational Models of Knowledge Prototypes Development: Connecting Text Comprehension to Spatial Recognition in Primary School.Flavia Santoianni - 2011 - Mind and Society 10 (2):103-129.
    May implicit and explicit collaboration influence text comprehension and spatial recognition interaction? Visuospatial representation implies implicit, visual and spatial processing of actions and concepts at different levels of awareness. Implicit learning is linked to unaware, nonverbal and prototypical processing, especially in the early stages of development when it is prevailing. Spatial processing is studied as knowledge prototypes , conceptual and mind maps . According to the hypothesis that text comprehension and spatial recognition connecting processes may also be implicit, this paper (...)
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  37. Regaining Composure: A Defense of Prototype Compositionality.Jesse Prinz - manuscript
    Beginning in the late 1960s, psychologists began to challenge the view the definitional theory of concepts. According to that theory a concept is a mental representation comprising representations of properties (or “features”) that are individually necessary and jointly sufficient for membership in a category. In place of the definitional view, psychologists initially put forward the prototype theory of concept, according to which concepts comprise representations of features that are typical, salient, and diagnostic for category membership, but (...)
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  38.  50
    The Fine Line Between Compounds and Portmanteau Words in English: A Prototypical Analysis.Hicham Lahlou & Imran Ho Abdullah - 2021 - Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies 17 (4):1684-1694.
    The current paper investigates two productive morphological processes, namely compounds and portmanteau words (or blends). While compounds, a productive, regular and predicable morphological process, have received much attention in the literature, little attention was paid to portmanteau words, a creative, irregular and unpredictable word formation process. The present paper aims to find the commonalities and differences between these morphological devices, using Rosch et al.’s (1975; 1976) theory of prototypes and basic-level categories to achieve this goal. This theory will (...)
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  39.  77
    Rapid Prototyping of Social Group Dynamics in Multiagent Systems.Matthias Rehm & Birgit Endrass - 2009 - AI and Society 24 (1):13-23.
    In this article we present an engineering approach for the integration of social group dynamics in the behavior modeling of multiagent systems. To this end, a toolbox was created that brings together several theories from the social sciences, each focusing on different aspects of group dynamics. Due to its modular approach, the toolbox can either be used as a central control component of an application or it can be employed temporarily to rapidly test the feasibility of the incorporated theories for (...)
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  40. DELTA: A Unifying Categorization Algorithm Integrating Prototypes, Exemplars and Theory-Theory Representations and Mechanisms.Antonio Lieto - 2018 - In Proceedings of AISC 2018, Extended Abstracts. 27100 Pavia, Province of Pavia, Italy: pp. 5-7.
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  41.  50
    Hybrid Extensional Prototype Compositionality.Jussi Jylkkä - 2011 - Minds and Machines 21 (1):41-56.
    It has been argued that prototypes cannot compose, and that for this reason concepts cannot be prototypes (Osherson and Smith in Cognition 9:35–58, 1981; Fodor and Lepore in Cognition 58:253–270, 1996; Connolly et al. in Cognition 103:1–22, 2007). In this paper I examine the intensional and extensional approaches to prototype compositionality, arguing that neither succeeds in their present formulations. I then propose a hybrid extensional theory of prototype compositionality, according to which the extension of a complex concept (...)
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  42.  4
    De L’Hypothese de Sapir-Whorf au Prototype : Sources Et Genese de la Theorie D’Eleanor Rosch.Jean-Michel Fortis - 2010 - Corela. Cognition, Représentation, Langage 8.
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  43. Understanding Scientific Types: Holotypes, Stratotypes, and Measurement Prototypes.Alisa Bokulich - 2020 - Biology and Philosophy 35 (5):1-28.
    At the intersection of taxonomy and nomenclature lies the scientific practice of typification. This practice occurs in biology with the use of holotypes (type specimens), in geology with the use of stratotypes, and in metrology with the use of measurement prototypes. In this paper I develop the first general definition of a scientific type and outline a new philosophical theory of types inspired by Pierre Duhem. I use this general framework to resolve the necessity-contingency debate about type specimens in (...)
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  44. Godel Meets Carnap: A Prototypical Discourse on Science and Religion.Alfred Gierer - 1997 - Zygon 32 (2):207-217.
    Modern science, based on the laws of physics, claims validity for all events in space and time. However, it also reveals its own limitations, such as the indeterminacy of quantum physics, the limits of decidability, and, presumably, limits of decodability of the mind-brain relationship. At the philosophical level, these intrinsic limitations allow for different interpretations of the relation between human cognition and the natural order. In particular, modern science may be logically consistent with religious as well as agnostic views of (...)
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  45.  19
    Argumentation Theory: A Pragma-Dialectical Perspective.Frans H. Van Eemeren - 2018 - Springer Verlag.
    The book offers a compact but comprehensive introductory overview of the crucial components of argumentation theory. In presenting this overview, argumentation is consistently approached from a pragma-dialectical perspective by viewing it pragmatically as a goal-directed communicative activity and dialectically as part of a regulated critical exchange aimed at resolving a difference of opinion. As a result, the book also systematically explains how the constitutive parts of the pragma-dialectical theory of argumentation, which are discussed in a number of separate (...)
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  46.  31
    Chromium Photophysics – a Prototypical Case History.Leslie S. Forster - 2006 - Foundations of Chemistry 8 (3):243-254.
    Science, in general, and chemistry in particular advances by methods that are difficult to codify. The availability of theories (models) and instrumentation play an important role but indefinable motivations to study individual phenomena are also involved. The area of chromium photophysics has a rich history that spans 150 years. A case history of the progression from the natural history stage to its present state reveals the way in which several factors that are common to much physical science research interact.
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  47. A Theory of Biological Pattern Formation.Alfred Gierer & Hans Meinhardt - 1972 - Kybernetik, Continued as Biological Cybernetics 12 (1):30 - 39.
    The paper addresses the formation of striking patterns within originally near-homogenous tissue, the process prototypical for embryology, and represented in particularly purist form by cut sections of hydra regenerating, by internal reorganisation of the pre-existing tissue, a complete animal with head and foot. The essential requirements are autocatalytic, self-enhancing activation, combined with inhibitory or depletion effects of wider range – “lateral inhibition”. Not only de-novo-pattern formation, but also well known, striking features of developmental regulation such as induction, inhibition, and proportion (...)
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  48.  1
    Conative Calls to Animals: From Arusa Maasai to a Cross-Linguistic Prototype.Michael Karani & Alexander Andrason - 2021 - Lodz Papers in Pragmatics 17 (1-2):3-41.
    Abstracct The present article expands our empirical and theoretical knowledge of conative animal calls in the languages of the world. By drawing on canonical typology and prototype theory – and by contrasting the original evidence related to the category of CACs in Arusa Maasai with the evidence concerning CACs in other languages that is currently available in scholarship – the authors design a cross-linguistic prototype of a CAC and enumerate its 18 prototypical non-formal and formal features.
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  49.  6
    A Qualitative Approach to Conceptual Spaces: Prototypes as Qualitative Atoms.Javier Belastegui - forthcoming - Erkenntnis:1-36.
    The aim of this paper is to propose a qualitative approach to the theory of conceptual spaces, in contrast to the usual metric framework. This requires qualitative notions of similarity, simple concepts, prototypes and conceptual categorisation. For this purpose, I will introduce three mathematical models for conceptual spaces. The first one is topological and has been proposed by Mormann. The other two are new and are based on atomistic orders and similarity relations. I will discuss how each of them (...)
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  50.  97
    Implicit Theories of Intellectual Virtues and Vices: A Focus on Intellectual Humility.Peter L. Samuelson, Matthew J. Jarvinen, Thomas B. Paulus, Ian M. Church, Sam A. Hardy & Justin L. Barrett - 2014 - Journal of Positive Psychology 5 (10):389-406.
    The study of intellectual humility is still in its early stages and issues of definition and measurement are only now being explored. To inform and guide the process of defining and measuring this important intellectual virtue, we conducted a series of studies into the implicit theory – or ‘folk’ understanding – of an intellectually humble person, a wise person, and an intellectually arrogant person. In Study 1, 350 adults used a free-listing procedure to generate a list of descriptors, one (...)
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