Results for 'Psychology of Reasoning'

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  1. Formal Epistemology and the New Paradigm Psychology of Reasoning.Niki Pfeifer & Igor Douven - 2014 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 5 (2):199-221.
    This position paper advocates combining formal epistemology and the new paradigm psychology of reasoning in the studies of conditionals and reasoning with uncertainty. The new paradigm psychology of reasoning is characterized by the use of probability theory as a rationality framework instead of classical logic, used by more traditional approaches to the psychology of reasoning. This paper presents a new interdisciplinary research program which involves both formal and experimental work. To illustrate the program, (...)
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  2. Chains of Inferences and the New Paradigm in the Psychology of Reasoning.Ulf Hlobil - 2016 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 7 (1):1-16.
    The new paradigm in the psychology of reasoning draws on Bayesian formal frameworks, and some advocates of the new paradigm think of these formal frameworks as providing a computational-level theory of rational human inference. I argue that Bayesian theories should not be seen as providing a computational-level theory of rational human inference, where by “Bayesian theories” I mean theories that claim that all rational credal states are probabilistically coherent and that rational adjustments of degrees of belief in the (...)
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  3. Making Ranking Theory Useful for Psychology of Reasoning.Niels Skovgaard Olsen - 2014 - Dissertation, University of Konstanz
    An organizing theme of the dissertation is the issue of how to make philosophical theories useful for scientific purposes. An argument for the contention is presented that it doesn’t suffice merely to theoretically motivate one’s theories, and make them compatible with existing data, but that philosophers having this aim should ideally contribute to identifying unique and hard to vary predictions of their theories. This methodological recommendation is applied to the ranking-theoretic approach to conditionals, which emphasizes the epistemic relevance and the (...)
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  4.  45
    Argumentation, Rationality, and Psychology of Reasoning.David Godden - 2015 - Informal Logic 35 (2):135-166.
    This paper explicates an account of argumentative rationality by articulating the common, basic idea of its nature, and then identifying a collection of assumptions inherent in it. Argumentative rationality is then contrasted with dual-process theories of reasoning and rationality prevalent in the psychology of reasoning. It is argued that argumentative rationality properly corresponds only with system-2 reasoning in dual-process theories. This result challenges the prescriptive force of argumentative norms derives if they derive at all from their (...)
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  5.  21
    Mercier and Sperber's Argumentative Theory of Reasoning: From Psychology of Reasoning to Argumentation Studies.Cristián Santibáñez Yáñez - 2012 - Informal Logic 32 (1):132-159.
    Mercier and Sperber (2011a, 2011b; Mercier, 2011a, 2011b, 2011c, and 2011d) have presented a stimulating and provocative new theory of reasoning: the argumentative theory of reasoning. They maintain that argumentation is a meta-representational module. In their evolutionary view of argumentation, the function of this module would be to regulate the flow of information between interlocutors through persuasiveness on the side of the communicator and epistemic vigilance on the side of the audience. The aim of this paper is to (...)
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  6.  4
    The Mechanics and Psychology of Practical Reasoning.Alex King - 2018 - Rivista Internazionale di Filosofia e Psicologia 9 (1):81-88.
    : In this commentary on Sinhababu’s Humean Nature I will explore three lines of inquiry. The first asks about the explanatory power of the Desire-Belief Theory of Reasoning, by way of wondering about how desires and beliefs combine with one another. The second question continues along these lines, asking about the further conditions Sinhababu places on reasoning and whether a theory of reasoning can be normatively neutral. The third points out the need for more clarity in his (...)
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  7.  83
    Questions and Challenges for the New Psychology of Reasoning.Jonathan St B. T. Evans - 2012 - Thinking and Reasoning 18 (1):5 - 31.
    In common with a number of other authors I believe that there has been a paradigm shift in the psychology of reasoning, specifically the area traditionally labelled as the study of deduction. The deduction paradigm was founded in a philosophical tradition that assumed logicality as the basis for rational thought, and provided binary propositional logic as the agreed normative framework. By contrast, many contemporary authors assume that people have degrees of uncertainty in both premises and conclusions, and reject (...)
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  8.  18
    Writing Cases and Casuistic Reasoning in Karl Philipp Moritz' Journal of Empirical Psychology.Yvonne Wübben - 2013 - Early Science and Medicine 18 (4-5):471-486.
  9.  43
    The Psychology of Reasoning About Preferences and Unconsequential Decisions.Jean-François Bonnefon, Vittorio Girotto & Paolo Legrenzi - 2012 - Synthese 185 (S1):27-41.
    People can reason about the preferences of other agents, and predict their behavior based on these preferences. Surprisingly, the psychology of reasoning has long neglected this fact, and focused instead on disinterested inferences, of which preferences are neither an input nor an output. This exclusive focus is untenable, though, as there is mounting evidence that reasoners take into account the preferences of others, at the expense of logic when logic and preferences point to different conclusions. This article summarizes (...)
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  10.  20
    Towards a Descriptivist Psychology of Reasoning and Decision Making.Jonathan St Bt Evans & Shira Elqayam - 2011 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (5):275-290.
    Our target article identified normativism as the view that rationality should be evaluated against unconditional normative standards. We believe this to be entrenched in the psychological study of reasoning and decision making and argued that it is damaging to this empirical area of study, calling instead for a descriptivist psychology of reasoning and decision making. The views of 29 commentators (from philosophy and cognitive science as well as psychology) were mixed, including some staunch defences of normativism, (...)
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  11.  13
    Models of Rationality and the Psychology of Reasoning: From is to Ought, and Back.Crupi Vincenzo & Vittorio Girotto - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
    Diagnoses of rationality often arise from the experimental investigation of human reasoning. We suggest that such diagnoses can be disputed on various grounds and provide a classification. We then argue that much fruitful research done with classical experimental paradigms was triggered by normative concerns and yet fostered insight in properly psychological terms. Our examples include the selection task, the conjunction fallacy, and so-called pseudodiagnosticity. We conclude that normative considerations retain a constructive role in the psychology of reasoning, (...)
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  12.  33
    Probabilities, Beliefs, and Dual Processing: The Paradigm Shift in the Psychology of Reasoning.Shira Elqayam & David Over - 2012 - Mind and Society 11 (1):27-40.
    In recent years, the psychology of reasoning has been undergoing a paradigm shift, with general Bayesian, probabilistic approaches replacing the older, much more restricted binary logic paradigm. At the same time, dual processing theories have been gaining influence. We argue that these developments should be integrated and moreover that such integration is already underway. The new reasoning paradigm should be grounded in dual processing for its algorithmic level of analysis just as it uses Bayesian theory for its (...)
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  13.  36
    Reasoning and Argumentation: Towards an Integrated Psychology of Argumentation.Jos Hornikx & Ulrike Hahn - 2012 - Thinking and Reasoning 18 (3):225 - 243.
    Although argumentation plays an essential role in our lives, there is no integrated area of research on the psychology of argumentation. Instead research on argumentation is conducted in a number of separate research communities that are spread across disciplines and have only limited interaction. With a view to bridging these different strands, we first distinguish between three meanings of the word ?argument?: argument as a reason, argument as a structured sequence of reasons and claims, and argument as a social (...)
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  14. Social Intuitionism and the Psychology of Moral Reasoning.Hanno Sauer - 2011 - Philosophy Compass 6 (10):708-721.
    Rationalism about the psychology of moral judgment holds, among other things, that the justifying moral reasons we have for our judgments are also the causally effective reasons for why we make those judgments. This can be called the ‘effectiveness’-thesis regarding moral reasoning. The theory that best exemplifies the thesis is the traditional conscious reasoning-paradigm. Current empirical moral psychology, however, poses a serious challenge to this thesis: it argues that in fact, emotional reactions are necessary and sufficient (...)
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  15.  7
    Knowing Thyself: The Evolutionary Psychology of Moral Reasoning and Moral Sentiments.Leda Cosmides - 2004 - The Ruffin Series of the Society for Business Ethics 4:93-128.
    “Ought” cannot be derived from “is,” so why should facts about human nature be of interest to business ethicists? In this article, we discuss why the nature of human nature is relevant to anyone wishing to create a more just and humane workplace and society. We begin by presenting evolutionary psychology as a research framework, and then present three examples of research that illuminate various evolved cognitive programs. The first involves the cognitive foundations of trade, including a neurocognitive mechanism (...)
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  16.  4
    Human Rationality and the Psychology of Reasoning: Where Do We Go From Here?Nick Chater & Mike Oaksford - 2001 - British Journal of Psychology 92 (1):193-216.
    British psychologists have been at the forefront of research into human reasoning for 40 years. This article describes some past research milestones within this tradition before outlining the major theoretical positions developed in the UK. Most British reasoning researchers have contributed to one or more of these positions. We identify a common theme that is emerging in all these approaches, that is, the problem of explaining how prior general knowledge affects reasoning. In our concluding comments we outline (...)
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  17.  14
    Formal Models of Reasoning in Cognitive Psychology.Jean-François Bonnefon - 2013 - Argument and Computation 4 (1):1 - 3.
    (2013). Formal Models of Reasoning in Cognitive Psychology. Argument & Computation: Vol. 4, Formal Models of Reasoning in Cognitive Psychology, pp. 1-3. doi: 10.1080/19462166.2013.767559.
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  18. The Good, the Bad and the Blameworthy: Understanding the Role of Evaluative Reasoning in Folk Psychology.Joshua Knobe & Gabriel S. Mendlow - 2004 - Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 24 (2):252-258.
    People ordinarily make sense of their own behavior and that of others by invoking concepts like belief, desire, and intention. Philosophers refer to this network of concepts and related principles as 'folk psychology.' The prevailing view of folk psychology among philosophers of mind and psychologists is that it is a proto-scientific theory whose function is to explain and predict behavior.
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  19.  71
    The New Psychology of Reasoning: A Mental Probability Logical Perspective.Niki Pfeifer - 2013 - Thinking and Reasoning 19 (3-4):329-345.
  20.  64
    Justification and the Psychology of Human Reasoning.Stephen P. Stich & Richard E. Nisbett - 1980 - Philosophy of Science 47 (2):188-202.
    This essay grows out of the conviction that recent work by psychologists studying human reasoning has important implications for a broad range of philosophical issues. To illustrate our thesis we focus on Nelson Goodman's elegant and influential attempt to "dissolve" the problem of induction. In the first section of the paper we sketch Goodman's account of what it is for a rule of inference to be justified. We then marshal empirical evidence indicating that, on Goodman's account of justification, patently (...)
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  21.  47
    New Paradigm Psychology of Reasoning.David E. Over - 2009 - Thinking and Reasoning 15 (4):431-438.
  22. The Psychology of Deductive Reasoning.Jonathan St B. T. Evans - 1982
     
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  23. The Psychology of Proof Deductive Reasoning in Human Thinking.Lance J. Rips - 1994
     
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  24. Evolutionary Psychology's Grain Problem and the Cognitive Neuroscience of Reasoning.Anthony P. Atkinson & M. Wheeler - 2003 - In David E. Over (ed.), Evolution and the Psychology of Thinking: The Debate. Psychology Press. pp. 61--99.
  25. Psychology of Reasoning: Structure and Content.P. C. Wason & P. N. Johnson - 1974 - Philosophy and Rhetoric 7 (3):193-197.
     
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  26.  19
    Normative Theory and Descriptive Psychology in Understanding Causal Reasoning: The Role of Interventions and Invariance.James Woodward - unknown
    This paper, like its companion explores some ways in which, on the one hand, normative theorizing about causation and causal reasoning and, on the other, empirical psychological investigations into causal cognition can be mutually illuminating. The topics considered include the connection between causal claims and claims about the outcomes of interventions and the various ways that invariance claims figure in causal judgment.
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  27.  29
    New Paradigm Psychology of Reasoning: An Introduction to the Special Issue Edited by Elqayam, Bonnefon, and Over.Shira Elqayam & David E. Over - 2013 - Thinking and Reasoning 19 (3-4):249-265.
  28.  17
    New Ambitions for a New Paradigm: Putting the Psychology of Reasoning at the Service of Humanity.Jean-François Bonnefon - 2013 - Thinking and Reasoning 19 (3-4):381-398.
  29.  4
    The Psychology of Reasoning[REVIEW] Carson Jr - 1924 - Journal of Philosophy 21 (25):690-695.
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  30.  19
    The Psychology of Reasoning[REVIEW]Eugenio Rignano - 1924 - Journal of Philosophy 21 (25):690-695.
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  31.  6
    The Psychology of Reasoning.Eugenio Rignano & Winifred A. Holl - 1924 - Philosophical Review 33 (4):412-414.
    First Published in 1999. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
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  32.  40
    Does Everyone Love Everyone? The Psychology of Iterative Reasoning.Paolo Cherubini & P. N. Johnson-Laird - 2004 - Thinking and Reasoning 10 (1):31 – 53.
    When a quantified premise such as: Everyone loves anyone who loves someone, occurs with a premise such as: Anne loves Beth, it follows immediately that everyone loves Anne. It also follows that Carol loves Diane, where these two individuals are in the domain of discourse. According to the theory of mental models, this inference requires the quantified premise to be used again to update a model of specific individuals. The paper reports four experiments examining such iterative inferences. Experiment 1 confirmed (...)
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  33.  18
    Computational and Biological Constraints in the Psychology of Reasoning.Mike Oaksford & Mike Malloch - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (3):468-469.
  34.  10
    Behavior Genetic Frameworks of Causal Reasoning for Personality Psychology.Daniel Briley, Jonathan Livengood & Jaime Derringer - 2018 - European Journal of Personality 32 (3).
    Identifying causal relations from correlational data is a fundamental challenge in personality psychology. In most cases, random assignment is not feasible, leaving observational studies as the primary methodological tool. Here, we document several techniques from behavior genetics that attempt to demonstrate causality. Although no one method is conclusive at ruling out all possible confounds, combining techniques can triangulate on causal relations. Behavior genetic tools leverage information gained by sampling pairs of individuals with assumed genetic and environmental relatedness or by (...)
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  35.  29
    The Psychology of Reasoning, Based on Experimental Researches in Hypnotism. Edited by A.G. White.A. Binet - 1900 - Philosophical Review 9:111.
  36.  5
    The Psychology of Reasoning.W. B. Pillsbury - 1911 - Philosophical Review 20 (1):67-72.
  37. The Psychology of Reasoning[REVIEW]Alfred Binet - 1900 - Ancient Philosophy 10:149.
     
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  38. The Psychology of Reasoning, Tr. By A.G. Whyte.Alfred Binet & Adam Gowans Whyte - 1899
     
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  39.  18
    The Psychology of Causal Perception and Reasoning.David Danks - 2009 - In Helen Beebee, Christopher Hitchcock & Peter Menzies (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Causation. Oxford University Press.
  40. Philosophy and the Psychology of Conditional Reasoning.David Over & Nicole Cruz - 2019 - In Andrew Aberdein & Matthew Inglis (eds.), Advances in Experimental Philosophy of Logic and Mathematics. Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 225-249.
     
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  41.  43
    The Erotetic Theory of Reasoning: Bridges Between Formal Semantics and the Psychology of Deductive Inference.Philipp Koralus & Salvador Mascarenhas - 2013 - Philosophical Perspectives 27 (1):312-365.
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  42.  64
    The Dual-Process Turn: How Recent Defenses of Dual-Process Theories of Reasoning Fail.Joshua Mugg - 2016 - Philosophical Psychology 29 (2):300-309.
    In response to the claim that the properties typically used to distinguish System 1 from System 2 crosscut one another, Carruthers, Evans, and Stanovich have abandoned the System 1/System 2 distinction. Evans and Stanovich both opt for a dual-process theory, according to which Type-1 processes are autonomous and Type-2 processes use working memory and involve cognitive decoupling. Carruthers maintains a two-system account, according to which there is an intuitive system and a reflective system. I argue that these defenses of dual-process (...)
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  43.  7
    The Rational Expression of the Soul in the Aristotelian Psychology: Deliberating Reasoning and Action.Katherine Esponda Contreras - 2018 - Eidos: Revista de Filosofía de la Universidad Del Norte 29:339-365.
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  44.  6
    Reasoning, Abstraction, and the Prejudices of ZOth-Century Psychology.R. E. Nisbett - 1993 - In Richard E. Nisbett (ed.), Rules for Reasoning. L. Erlbaum Associates.
  45.  20
    Folk Psychology and the Psychological Background of Scientific Reasoning.Harald Walach - 2007 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 14 (3):pp. 209-212.
  46. Logic and/in Psychology: The Paradoxes of Material Implication and Psychologism in the Cognitive Science of Human Reasoning.Walter Schroyens - 2010 - In Mike Oaksford & Nick Chater (eds.), Cognition and Conditionals: Probability and Logic in Human Thinking. Oxford University Press.
     
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  47.  5
    Ethics Research: Moral Psychology and its Promise of Benefits for Moral Reasoning in the Military.Don Parker & Peter Greener - 2008 - In C. A. J. Coady & Igor Primoratz (eds.), Military Ethics. Ashgate Pub. Co.. pp. 25.
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  48.  12
    Replication and Pedagogy in the History of Psychology VI: Egon Brunswik on Perception and Explicit Reasoning.Jeremy Athy, Jeff Friedrich & Eileen Delany - 2008 - Science & Education 17 (5):537-546.
  49. The Psychology and Epistemology of Hume's Account of Probable Reasoning.Lorne Falkenstein - 2012 - In Alan Bailey & Dan O'Brien (eds.), The Continuum Companion to Hume. Continuum. pp. 104.
     
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  50.  15
    Some Clarifications About the Argumentative Theory of Reasoning. A Reply to Santibáñez Yañez (2012).Hugo Mercier - 2012 - Informal Logic 32 (2):259-268.
    In “Mercier and Sperber’s Argumentative Theory of Reasoning: From Psychology of Reasoning to Argumentation Studies” (2012) Santibáñez Yañez offers constructive comments and criticisms of the argumentative theory of reasoning. The purpose of this reply is twofold. First, it seeks to clarify two points broached by Yanez: (1) the relation between reasoning (in this specific theory) and dual process accounts in general and (2) the benefits that can be derived from reasoning and argumentation (again, in (...)
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