Results for 'Psychology, Military'

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  1.  3
    Situations and Dispositions: How to Rescue the Military Virtues From Social Psychology.Peter Olsthoorn - 2017 - Journal of Military Ethics 16 (1-2):78-93.
    In recent years, it has been argued more than once that situations determine our conduct to a much greater extent than our character does. This argument rests on the findings of social psychologists such as Stanley Milgram, who have popularized the idea that we can all be brought to harm innocent others. An increasing number of philosophers and ethicists make use of such findings, and some of them have argued that this so-called situationist challenge fatally undermines virtue ethics. As virtue (...)
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  2.  3
    Ethics Research: Moral Psychology and its Promise of Benefits for Moral Reasoning in the Military.Don Parker & Peter Greener - 2008 - In C. A. J. Coady & Igor Primoratz (eds.), Military Ethics. Ashgate Pub. Co.. pp. 25.
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  3. Book Review: Edgar Jones and Simon Wessely, Shell Shock to PTSD: Military Psychiatry From 1900 to the Gulf War. London: Psychology Press, 2005. [REVIEW]Hans Pols - 2008 - History of the Human Sciences 21 (2):124-128.
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  4.  43
    Military Psychology.Rudolf Allers - 1944 - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 19 (2):366-366.
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  5.  30
    Stoic Warriors and Stoic Torturers: The Moral Psychology of Military Torture.Jessica Wolfendale - 2006 - South African Journal of Philosophy 25 (1):62-76.
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  6.  2
    Military Psychology and Moral Dilemmas: The Military Response.Jeffrey L. House - 1980 - Hastings Center Report 10 (4):25-26.
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  7.  1
    Psychological Testing in Military Clinical Psychology: II. Personality Testing.W. A. Hunt & I. Stevenson - 1946 - Psychological Review 53 (2):107-115.
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  8. Psychological Testing in Military Clinical Psychology: I. Intelligence Testing.W. A. Hunt & I. Stevenson - 1946 - Psychological Review 53 (1):25-35.
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  9. Military Psychology: United States.G. P. Krueger - 2001 - In N. J. Smelser & B. Baltes (eds.), International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences. pp. 9868--9873.
     
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  10. The Moral Dilemma of Military Psychology.Perry London - 1979 - Hastings Center Report 9 (6):42-44.
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  11.  25
    Stoic Warriors: The Ancient Philosophy Behind the Military Mind.Nancy Sherman - 2005 - Oxford University Press.
    While few soldiers may have read the works of Epictetus or Marcus Aurelius, it is undoubtedly true that the ancient philosophy known as Stoicism guides the actions of many in the military. Soldiers and seamen learn early in their training "to suck it up," to endure, to put aside their feelings and to get on with the mission. Stoic Warriors is the first book to delve deeply into the ancient legacy of this relationship, exploring what the Stoic philosophy actually (...)
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  12.  35
    New Wars and New Soldiers: Military Ethics in the Contemporary World.Paolo Tripodi & Jessica Wolfendale (eds.) - 2011 - Ashgate.
  13.  8
    The Person–Situation Debate: Implications for Military Leadership and Civilian–Military Relations.George R. Mastroianni - 2011 - Journal of Military Ethics 10 (1):2-16.
    The so-called person?situation debate in psychology, which pits internal, personality-based explanations of behavior against external, environment or situation-based explanations seems headed for a resolution that will somehow include elements of both perspectives. These two alternative views of human behavior have also been applied to that subset of human behavior thought of as leadership, and in this domain a rapprochement also seems well underway. In the domain of ethical leadership, however, especially as applied to military misconduct, public discussion of such (...)
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  14. K.A. L. Zhuravlev, V. A. Kolʹt͡sova & T. I. Artemʹeva (eds.) - 2007 - Izd-Vo "Institut Psikhologii Ran".
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  15. K.K. Platonov--Vydai͡ushchiĭsi͡a Otechestvennyĭ Psikholog Xx Veka: Materialy I͡ubileĭnoĭ Nauchnoĭ Konferent͡sii, Posvi͡ashchennoĭ 100-Letii͡u so Dni͡a Rozhdenii͡a K.K. Platonova (22 Ii͡uni͡a 2006 G.). [REVIEW]A. L. Zhuravlev, V. A. Kolʹt͡sova & T. I. Artemʹeva (eds.) - 2007 - Izd-Vo "Institut Psikhologii Ran".
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  16.  26
    The Rhetoric of Combat: Greek Military Theory and Roman Culture in Julius Caesar's Battle.J. E. Lendon - 1999 - Classical Antiquity 18 (2):273-329.
    Descriptions of battles in ancient authors are not mirrors of reality, however dim and badly cracked, but are a form of literary production in which the real events depicted are filtered through the literary, intellectual, and cultural assumptions of the author. By comparing the battle descriptions of Julius Caesar to those of Xenophon and Polybius this paper attempts to place those battle descriptions in their intellectual and cultural context. Here Caesar appears as a military intellectual engaged in controversies with (...)
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  17.  23
    An Ethical Decision-Making Model for Operational Psychology.James A. Stephenson & Mark A. Staal - 2007 - Ethics and Behavior 17 (1):61 – 82.
    Operational psychology is an emerging subdiscipline that has enhanced the U.S. military's combat capabilities during the Global War on Terrorism. What makes this subdiscipline unique is its use of psychological principles and skills to improve a commander's decision making as it pertains to conducting combat (or related operations). Due to psychology's expanding role in combat support, psychologists are being confronted with challenges that require the application of their professional ethics in areas in which little if any guidance has been (...)
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  18.  62
    Nancy Sherman's Stoic Warriors: The Ancient Philosophy Behind the Military Mind.L. Lengbeyer - 2006 - Journal of Military Ethics 5 (3):233.
  19.  3
    A Study in Grades and Grading Under a Military System.R. L. Bates - 1922 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 5 (5):329.
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  20. A Utilitarian Argument Against Torture Interrogation of Terrorists.Jean Maria Arrigo - 2004 - Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (3):543-572.
    Following the September 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States, much support for torture interrogation of terrorists has emerged in the public forum, largely based on the “ticking bomb” scenario. Although deontological and virtue ethics provide incisive arguments against torture, they do not speak directly to scientists and government officials responsible for national security in a utilitarian framework. Drawing from criminology, organizational theory, social psychology, the historical record, and my interviews with military professionals, I assess the potential of an (...)
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  21.  8
    Character Psychology and Character Education.Daniel K. Lapsley & F. Clark Power - 2006 - Journal of Military Ethics 5 (1):77-78.
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  22.  13
    Honor in the Modern World: Interdisciplinary Perspectives.Laurie Johnson & Dan Demetriou (eds.) - 2016 - Lexington.
    After a century-long hiatus, honor is back. Academics, pundits, and everyday citizens alike are rediscovering the importance of this ancient and powerful human motive. This volume brings together some of the foremost researchers of honor to debate honor’s meaning and its compatibility with liberalism, democracy, and modernity. Contributors—representing philosophy, sociology, political science, history, psychology, leadership studies, and military science—examine honor past to present, from masculine and feminine perspectives, and in North American, European, and African contexts. Topics include the role (...)
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  23. Readings in Philosophy of Psychology.Ned Block (ed.) - 1980 - Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
    ... PHILOSOPHY OF PSYCHOLOGY is the study of conceptual issues in psychology. For the most part, these issues fall equally well in psychology as in..
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  24.  63
    Brainstorms: Philosophical Essays on Mind and Psychology.Daniel C. Dennett (ed.) - 1978 - Bradford Books.
  25. The Principles of Psychology.William James - 1890 - Dover Publications.
  26. From Folk Psychology to Cognitive Science: The Case Against Belief.Stephen P. Stich - 1983 - MIT Press.
  27. Recreative Minds: Imagination in Philosophy and Psychology.Gregory Currie & Ian Ravenscroft - 2002 - Oxford University Press.
    Recreative Minds develops a philosophical theory of imagination that draws upon the latest work in psychology. This theory illuminates the use of imagination in coming to terms with art, its role in enabling us to live as social beings, and the psychological consequences of disordered imagination. The authors offer a lucid exploration of a fascinating subject.
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  28. The Concept of Intentional Action: A Case Study in the Uses of Folk Psychology.Joshua Knobe - 2006 - Philosophical Studies 130 (2):203-231.
    It is widely believed that the primary function of folk psychology lies in the prediction, explanation and control of behavior. A question arises, however, as to whether folk psychology has also been shaped in fundamental ways by the various other roles it plays in people’s lives. Here I approach that question by considering one particular aspect of folk psychology – the distinction between intentional and unintentional behaviors. The aim is to determine whether this distinction is best understood as a tool (...)
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  29. Adapting Minds: Evolutionary Psychology and the Persistent Quest for Human Nature.David J. Buller - 2005 - MIT Press.
    In the carefully argued central chapters of Adapting Minds, Buller scrutinizes several of evolutionary psychology's most highly publicized "...
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  30. Lessons and New Directions for Extended Cognition From Social and Personality Psychology.Joshua August Skorburg - 2017 - Philosophical Psychology 30 (4):1-23.
    This paper aims to expand the range of empirical work relevant to the extended cognition debates. First, I trace the historical development of the person-situation debate in social and personality psychology and the extended cognition debate in the philosophy of mind. Next, I highlight some instructive similarities between the two and consider possible objections to my comparison. I then argue that the resolution of the person-situation debate in terms of interactionism lends support for an analogously interactionist conception of extended cognition. (...)
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  31. The Morality of Military Ethics Education.Roger Wertheimer - 2010 - In Empowering Our Military Conscience.
    Professional Military Ethics Education (PMEE) must transmit and promote military professionalism, so it must continuously.
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  32. The Human Animal: Personal Identity Without Psychology.Eric T. Olson - 1997 - Oxford University Press.
    Most philosophers writing about personal identity in recent years claim that what it takes for us to persist through time is a matter of psychology. In this groundbreaking new book, Eric Olson argues that such approaches face daunting problems, and he defends in their place a radically non-psychological account of personal identity. He defines human beings as biological organisms, and claims that no psychological relation is either sufficient or necessary for an organism to persist. Olson rejects several famous thought-experiments dealing (...)
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  33.  79
    Remarks on the Philosophy of Psychology.Ludwig Wittgenstein - 1980 - Blackwell.
    Wittgenstein finished part 1 of the Philosophical Investigations in the spring of 1945. From 1946 to 1949 he worked on the philosophy of psychology almost without interruption. The present two-volume work comprises many of his writings over this period. Some of the remarks contained here were culled for part 2 of the Investigations ; others were set aside and appear in the collection known as Zettel . The great majority, however, although of excellent quality, have hitherto remained unpublished. This bilingual (...)
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  34. What Can Recent Replication Failures Tell Us About the Theoretical Commitments of Psychology?Stan Klein - 2014 - Theory and Psychology 24:326-338.
    I suggest that the recent, highly visible, and often heated debate over failures to replicate the results in the social sciences reveals more than the need for greater attention to the pragmatics and value of empirical falsification. It also is a symptom of a serious issue -- the underdeveloped state of theory in many areas of psychology. While I focus on the phenomenon of “social priming” -- since it figures centrally in current debate -- it is not the only area (...)
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  35. Folk Psychology, Consciousness, and Context Effects.Adam Arico - 2010 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 1 (3):371-393.
    Traditionally, the philosophical study of Folk Psychology has focused on how ordinary people (i.e., those without formal training in academic fields like Psychology, Cognitive Science, Philosophy of Mind, etc.) go about attributing mental states. Those working in this tradition have tended to focus primarily on intentional states, like beliefs and desires . Recently, though a body of work has emerged in the growing field of Experimental Philosophy that focuses on folk attributions of mental states that are not paradigmatically considered intentional. (...)
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  36. Folk Psychology.Stephen P. Stich & Shaun Nichols - 2002 - In Stephen P. Stich & Ted A. Warfield (eds.), Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science. Blackwell. pp. 35-71.
    For the last 25 years discussions and debates about commonsense psychology (or “folk psychology,” as it is often called) have been center stage in the philosophy of mind. There have been heated disagreements both about what folk psychology is and about how it is related to the scientific understanding of the mind/brain that is emerging in psychology and the neurosciences. In this chapter we will begin by explaining why folk psychology plays such an important role in the philosophy of mind. (...)
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  37. Dual Loyalties in Military Medical Care – Between Ethics and Effectiveness.Peter Olsthoorn, Myriame Bollen & Robert Beeres - 2013 - In Herman Amersfoort, Rene Moelker, Joseph Soeters & Desiree Verweij (eds.), Moral Responsibility & Military Effectiveness. Asser.
    Military doctors and nurses, working neither as pure soldiers nor as merely doctors or nurses, may face a ‘role conflict between the clinical professional duties to a patient and obligations, express or implied, real or perceived, to the interests of a third party such as an employer, an insurer, the state, or in this context, military command’. This conflict is commonly called dual loyalty. This chapter gives an overview of the military and the medical ethic and of (...)
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  38.  99
    Formal Epistemology and the New Paradigm Psychology of Reasoning.Niki Pfeifer & Igor Douven - 2013 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology (2):1-23.
    This position paper advocates combining formal epistemology and the new paradigm psychology of reasoning in the studies of conditionals and reasoning with uncertainty. The new paradigm psychology of reasoning is characterized by the use of probability theory as a rationality framework instead of classical logic, used by more traditional approaches to the psychology of reasoning. This paper presents a new interdisciplinary research program which involves both formal and experimental work. To illustrate the program, the paper discusses recent work on the (...)
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  39. The Constitution of Agency: Essays on Practical Reason and Moral Psychology.Christine M. Korsgaard - 2008 - Oxford University Press.
    Christine M. Korsgaard is one of today's leading moral philosophers: this volume collects ten influential papers by her on practical reason and moral psychology ...
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  40. Moral Psychology as Accountability.Brendan Dill & Stephen Darwall - 2014 - In Justin D'Arms Daniel Jacobson (ed.), Moral Psychology and Human Agency: Philosophical Essays on the Science of Ethics. Oxford University Press. pp. 40-83.
    Recent work in moral philosophy has emphasized the foundational role played by interpersonal accountability in the analysis of moral concepts such as moral right and wrong, moral obligation and duty, blameworthiness, and moral responsibility (Darwall 2006; 2013a; 2013b). Extending this framework to the field of moral psychology, we hypothesize that our moral attitudes, emotions, and motives are also best understood as based in accountability. Drawing on a large body of empirical evidence, we argue that the implicit aim of the central (...)
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  41. The Moral Singularity of Military Professionalism.Roger Wertheimer - 2010 - In Empowering Our Military Conscience.
    Neither M. Walzer's collectivist conception of the "moral equality" of combatants, nor its antithetical individualist conceptions of responsibility are compatible with the ethos of military professionalism and its conception(s) of the responsibility of military professionals for service in an unjust war.
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  42. Chains of Inferences and the New Paradigm in the Psychology of Reasoning.Ulf Hlobil - 2016 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 7 (1):1-16.
    The new paradigm in the psychology of reasoning draws on Bayesian formal frameworks, and some advocates of the new paradigm think of these formal frameworks as providing a computational-level theory of rational human inference. I argue that Bayesian theories should not be seen as providing a computational-level theory of rational human inference, where by “Bayesian theories” I mean theories that claim that all rational credal states are probabilistically coherent and that rational adjustments of degrees of belief in the light of (...)
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  43.  39
    Positive Psychology on Character Strengths and Virtues. A Disquieting Suggestion.Konrad Banicki - 2014 - New Ideas in Psychology 33:21-34.
    The Values in Action (VIA) classification of character strengths and virtues has been recently proposed by two leading positive psychologists, Christopher Peterson and Martin Seligman as “the social science equivalent of virtue ethics.” The very possibility of developing this kind of an “equivalent,” however, is very doubtful in the light of the cogent criticism that has been leveled at modern moral theory by Alasdair MacIntyre as well as the well argued accusations that positive psychology, despite its official normative neutrality, is (...)
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  44. Just War and Non-Combatants in the Private Military Industry.Paul Richard Daniels - 2015 - Journal of Military Ethics 14 (2):146-161.
    I argue that, according to Just War Theory, those who work as administrative personnel in the private military industry can be permissibly harmed while at work by enemy combatants. That is, for better or worse, a Just War theorist should consider all those who work as administrative personnel in the private military industry either: (i) individuals who may be permissibly restrained with lethal force while at work, or (ii) individuals who may be harmed by permissible attacks against their (...)
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  45. Folk Psychology Does Not Exist.Adam Morton - 2007 - In Daniel D. Hutto & Matthew Ratcliffe (eds.), Folk Psychology Re-Assessed. Kluwer/Springer Press. pp. 211--221.
    I discuss the possibility that there is no intrinsic unity to the capacities which are bundled under the label "folk psychology". Cooperative skills, attributional skills, and predictive skills may be scattered as parts of other non--psychological capacities. I discuss how some forms of social life bring these different skills together. I end with some remarks on how abilities that are not unified in their essential mechanisms may still form a rough practical unity. (Remark: the paper is conjectural. It describes a (...)
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  46. Two Factor Theories, Meaning Wholism and Intentionalistic Psychology: A Reply to Fodor.Thomas D. Senor - 1992 - Philosophical Psychology 5 (2):133-151.
    In the third chapter of his book Psychosemantics , Jerry A. Fodor argues that the truth of meaning holism (the thesis that the content of a psychological state is determined by the totality of that state's epistemic liaisons) would be fatal for intentionalistic psychology. This is because holism suggests that no two people are ever in the same intentional state, and so a psychological theory that generalizes over such states will be composed of generalizations which fail to generalize. Fodor then (...)
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  47. Intentional Action in Folk Psychology: An Experimental Investigation.Joshua Knobe - 2003 - Philosophical Psychology 16 (2):309-325.
    Four experiments examined people’s folk-psychological concept of intentional action. The chief question was whether or not _evaluative _considerations — considerations of good and bad, right and wrong, praise and blame — played any role in that concept. The results indicated that the moral qualities of a behavior strongly influence people’s judgements as to whether or not that behavior should be considered ‘intentional.’ After eliminating a number of alternative explanations, the author concludes that this effect is best explained by the hypothesis (...)
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  48.  29
    On Psychology and Virtue Ethics.Frank C. Richardson - 2012 - Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 32 (1):24-34.
    Virtue and Psychology: Pursuing Excellence in Ordinary Practices by Fowers represents the most extensive effort to date to mine the resources of virtue ethics for theory and practice in psychology. Building on this work, I explore some of the implications of the virtue ethics perspective for the fields of psychology and psychotherapy, including helping to overcome individualism and instrumentalism, elaborating a conception of “internal” as opposed to merely “external” goods, clarifying the nature of “character strengths,” developing further the idea of (...)
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  49. Rethinking Culture and Identity in Psychology: Towards a Transnational Cultural Psychology.Sunil Bhatia - 2007 - Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 27 (2-1):301-321.
    This article shows how the construction of transnational migrant communities across international borders poses a challenge to the assumed "natural" isomorphism of space, nations, and cultures that typically exists in theories of cultural and cross-cultural psychology. One of the principal aims of this article is to add to the critical impulse that initially defined the vision of cultural psychology by analyzing how transnational diaspora communities have become new sites for the rethinking of core concepts such as culture, self, nation and (...)
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  50. Editorial: Psychology and Experimental Philosophy.Joshua Knobe, Tania Lombrozo & Edouard Machery - 2010 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 1 (2):157-160.
    Recent years have seen an explosion of new work at the intersection of philosophy and experimental psychology. This work takes the concerns with moral and conceptual issues that have so long been associated with philosophy and connects them with the use of systematic and well-controlled empirical investigations that one more typically finds in psychology. Work in this new field often goes under the name "experimental philosophy".
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