Results for 'Psychopathy'

330 found
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  1.  80
    Is Psychopathy a Harmful Dysfunction?Marko Jurjako - 2019 - Biology and Philosophy 34 (5):1-23.
    In their paper “Is psychopathy a mental disease?”, Thomas Nadelhoffer and Walter Sinnott-Armstrong argue that according to any plausible account of mental disorder, neural and psychological abnormalities correlated with psychopathy should be regarded as signs of a mental disorder. I oppose this conclusion by arguing that at least on a naturalistically grounded account, such as Wakefield’s ‘Harmful Dysfunction’ view, currently available empirical data and evolutionary considerations indicate that psychopathy is not a mental disorder.
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  2. Psychopathy, Adaptation, and Disorder.Daniel Brian Krupp, Lindsay A. Sewall, Martin L. Lalumière, Craig Sheriff & Grant T. Harris - 2013 - Frontiers in Psychology 4:1-5.
    In a recent study, we found a negative association between psychopathy and violence against genetic relatives. We interpreted this result as a form of nepotism and argued that it failed to support the hypothesis that psychopathy is a mental disorder, suggesting instead that it supports the hypothesis that psychopathy is an evolved life history strategy. This interpretation and subsequent arguments have been challenged in a number of ways. Here, we identify several misunderstandings regarding the harmful dysfunction definition (...)
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  3.  56
    Psychopathy, Executive Functions, and Neuropsychological Data: A Response to Sifferd and Hirstein.Marko Jurjako & Luca Malatesti - 2018 - Neuroethics 11 (1):55-65.
    Psychopathy, executive functions, and neuropsychological data: a response to Sifferd and Hirstein.
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  4. Psychopathy and Criminal Responsibility.Stephen J. Morse - 2008 - Neuroethics 1 (3):205-212.
    This article considers whether psychopaths should be held criminally responsible. After describing the positive law of criminal responsibility in general and as it applies to psychopaths, it suggests that psychopaths lack moral rationality and that severe psychopaths should be excused from crimes that violate the moral rights of others. Alternative forms of social control for dangerous psychopaths, such as involuntary civil commitment, are considered, and the potential legal implications of future scientific understanding of psychopathy are addressed.
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  5. Psychopathy Without (the Language of) Disorder.Marga Reimer - 2008 - Neuroethics 1 (3):185-198.
    Psychopathy is often characterized in terms of what I call “the language of disorder.” I question whether such language is necessary for an accurate and precise characterization of psychopathy, and I consider the practical implications of how we characterize psychopathy—whether as a biological, or merely normative, disorder.
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  6. Psychopathy, Moral Reasons, and Responsibility”.Erick Ramirez - 2013 - In Alexandra Perry C. D. Herrera (ed.), Ethics and Neurodiversity.
    In popular culture psychopaths are inaccurately portrayed as serial killers or homicidal maniacs. Most real-world psychopaths are neither killers nor maniacs. Psychologists currently understand psychopathy as an affective disorder that leads to repeated criminal and antisocial behavior. Counter to this prevailing view, I claim that psychopathy is not necessarily linked with criminal behavior. Successful psychopaths, an intriguing new category of psychopathic agent, support this conception of psychopathy. I then consider reactive attitude theories of moral responsibility. Within this (...)
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  7. Is Psychopathy a Mental Disease?Thomas Nadelhoffer & Walter Sinnott-Armstrong - 2013 - In Nicole Vincent (ed.), Neuroscience and legal responsibility. Oxford University Press. pp. 229–255.
    Whether psychopathy is a mental disease or illness can affect whether psychiatrists should treat it and whether it could serve as the basis for an insanity defense in criminal trials. Our understanding of psychopathy has been greatly improved in recent years by new research in psychology and neuroscience. This illuminating research enables us to argue that psychopathy counts as a mental disease on any plausible account of mental disease. In particular, Szasz's and Pickard's eliminativist views and Sedgwick's (...)
     
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  8. Psychopathy, Autism, and Basic Moral Emotions: Evidence for Sentimentalist Constructivism.Erick Ramirez - 2019 - In Serife Tekin & Robyn Bluhm (eds.), The Bloomsbury Companion to Philosophy of Psychiatry. Bloomsbury.
    Philosophers and psychologists often claim that moral agency is connected with the ability to feel, understand, and deploy moral emotions. In this chapter, I investigate the nature of these emotions and their connection with moral agency. First, I examine the degree to which these emotional capacities are innate and/or ‘basic’ in a philosophically important sense. I examine three senses in which an emotion might be basic: developmental, compositional, and phylogenetic. After considering the evidence for basic emotion, I conclude that emotions (...)
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  9.  91
    Psychopathy, Mental Time Travel, and Legal Responsibility.Andrew Vierra - 2016 - Neuroethics 9 (2):129-136.
    Neil Levy argues that the degree to which psychopaths ought to be held blameworthy for their actions depends on the extent to which they are capable of mental time travel—episodic memory and episodic foresight. Levy claims that deficits in mental time travel prevent psychopaths from fully appreciating what it is to be a person, and, without this understanding, we can at best hold psychopaths blameworthy for harming non-persons. In this paper, I build upon and clarify various aspects of Levy’s view. (...)
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  10. Psychopathy, Responsibility, and the Moral/Conventional Distinction.David W. Shoemaker - 2011 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 49 (s1):99-124.
    In this paper, I attempt to show that the moral/conventional distinction simply cannot bear the sort of weight many theorists have placed on it for determining the moral and criminal responsibility of psychopaths. After revealing the fractured nature of the distinction, I go on to suggest how one aspect of it may remain relevant—in a way that has previously been unappreciated—to discussions of the responsibility of psychopaths. In particular, after offering an alternative explanation of the available data on psychopaths and (...)
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  11. Defending Psychopathy: An Argument From Values and Moral Responsibility.Luca Malatesti & John McMillan - 2014 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 35 (1):7-16.
    How psychopaths and their capacity for moral action are viewed is not only philosophically interesting but is also important and relevant for policy. The philosophical discussion of psychopathy has focussed upon the psychological faculties that are prerequisites for moral responsibility and empirical findings regarding psychopathy that are relevant to philosophical accounts of moral understanding and motivation. However, there are legitimate worries about whether psychopathy is a robust scientific construct, and there are risks attached to reifying psychopathy (...)
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  12.  77
    Being Amoral: Psychopathy and Moral Incapacity.Thomas Schramme (ed.) - 2014 - MIT Press.
    Psychopathy has been the subject of investigations in both philosophy and psychiatry and yet the conceptual issues remain largely unresolved. This volume approaches psychopathy by considering the question of what psychopaths lack. The contributors investigate specific moral dysfunctions or deficits, shedding light on the capacities people need to be moral by examining cases of real people who seem to lack those capacities. -/- The volume proceeds from the basic assumption that psychopathy is not characterized by a single (...)
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  13. Psychopathy and Failures of Ordinary Doing.Luca Malatesti - 2014 - Etica & Politica / Ethics & Politics (2):1138-1152.
    One of the philosophical discussions stimulated by the recent scientific study of psychopathy concerns the mental illness status of this construct. This paper contributes to this debate by recommending a way of approaching the problem at issue. By relying on and integrating the seminal work of the philosopher of psychiatry Bill Fulford, I argue that a mental illness is a harmful unified construct that involves failures of ordinary doing. Central to the present proposal is the idea that the notion (...)
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  14. Psychopathy: What Apology Making Tells Us About Moral Agency.Gloria Ayob & Tim Thornton - 2014 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 35 (1):17-29.
    Psychopathy is often used to settle disputes about the nature of moral judgment. The “trolley problem” is a familiar scenario in which psychopathy is used as a test case. Where a convergence in response to the trolley problem is registered between psychopathic subjects and non-psychopathic subjects, it is assumed that this convergence indicates that the capacity for making moral judgments is unimpaired in psychopathy. This, in turn, is taken to have implications for the dispute between motivation internalists (...)
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  15. Psychopathy and Internalism.Victor Kumar - 2016 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 46 (3):318-345.
    Do psychopaths make moral judgments but lack motivation? Or are psychopaths’ judgments are not genuinely moral? Both sides of this debate seem to assume either externalist or internalist criteria for the presence of moral judgment. However, if moral judgment is a natural kind, we can arrive at a theory-neutral criterion for moral judgment. A leading naturalistic criterion suggests that psychopaths have an impaired capacity for moral judgment; the capacity is neither fully present nor fully absent. Psychopaths are therefore not counterexamples (...)
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  16.  40
    Psychopathy and Moral Rationality.Eric Matthews - 2014 - In Thomas Schramme (ed.), Being Amoral. MIT Press. pp. 71-89.
    The chapter offers a philosophical account of the capacity to recognise moral considerations to be used in investigating whether psychopaths are amoral, as opposed to immoral. The author criticizes Simon Baron-Cohen and James Blair et al., who maintain that psychopaths are amoral insofar they lack empathy, for endorsing a sentimentalist account of moral understanding. Moreover, the author criticizes Kant's version of rationalism for assuming an impersonal notion of moral rationality that is unconstrained by specific human features. He offers, instead, an (...)
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  17. Psychopathy, Autism and Questions of Moral Agency.Mara Bollard - 2013 - In Alexandra Perry & C. D. Herrera (eds.), Ethics and Neurodiversity. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: pp. 238-259.
  18.  17
    Psychopathy to Altruism: Neurobiology of the Selfish–Selfless Spectrum.James W. H. Sonne & Don M. Gash - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  19.  14
    Psychopathy as a Taxon: Evidence That Psychopaths Are a Discrete Class.G. T. Harris, M. E. Rice & V. L. Quinsey - 1994 - Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 62 (2):387-397.
    Taxometric analyses were applied to the construct of psychopathy (as measured by the Psychopathy Checklist) and to several variables reflecting antisocial childhood, adult criminality, and criminal recidivism. Subjects were 653 serious offenders assessed or treated in a maximum-security institution. Results supported the existence of a taxon underlying psychopathy. Childhood problem behaviors provided convergent evidence for the existence of the taxon. Adult criminal history variables were continuously distributed and were insufficient in themselves to detect the taxon.
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  20.  22
    Secondary Psychopathy, but Not Primary Psychopathy, is Associated with Risky Decision-Making in Noninstitutionalized Young Adults.Andy C. Dean, Lily L. Altstein, Mitchell E. Berman, Joseph I. Constans, Catherine A. Sugar & Michael S. McCloskey - 2013 - Personality and Individual Differences 54:272–277.
    Although risky decision-making has been posited to contribute to the maladaptive behavior of individuals with psychopathic tendencies, the performance of psychopathic groups on a common task of risky decision-making, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT; Bechara, Damasio, Damasio, & Anderson, 1994), has been equivocal. Different aspects of psychopathy (personality traits, antisocial deviance) and/or moderating variables may help to explain these inconsistent findings. In a sample of college students (N = 129, age 18–27), we examined the relationship between primary and secondary (...)
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  21.  86
    Psychopathy and Moral Understanding.Antony Duff - 1977 - American Philosophical Quarterly 14 (3):189 - 200.
  22.  26
    Corporate Psychopathy: Can ‘Search and Destroy’ and ‘Hearts and Minds’ Military Metaphors Inspire HRM Solutions?Alasdair J. Marshall, Melanie J. Ashleigh, Denise Baden, Udechukwu Ojiako & Marco G. D. Guidi - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 128 (3):495-504.
    Corporate psychopathy thrives perhaps as the most significant threat to ethical corporate behaviour around the world. We argue that Human Resources Management professionals should formulate strategic solutions metaphorically by balancing what strategic military planners famously call ‘Search and Destroy’ and ‘Hearts and Minds’ counter-terrorist strategy. We argue that these military metaphors offer creative inspiration to help academics and practitioners theorise CP in richer, more reflective and more balanced and complementary ways. An appreciation of both metaphors is likely to favour (...)
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  23. Emotion Regulation in Psychopathy.Helen Casey, Robert D. Rogers, Tom Burns & Jenny Yiend - 2013 - Biological Psychology 92:541–548.
    Emotion processing is known to be impaired in psychopathy, but less is known about the cognitive mechanisms that drive this. Our study examined experiencing and suppression of emotion processing in psychopathy. Participants, violent offenders with varying levels of psychopathy, viewed positive and negative images under conditions of passive viewing, experiencing and suppressing. Higher scoring psychopathics were more cardiovascularly responsive when processing negative information than positive, possibly reflecting an anomalously rewarding aspect of processing normally unpleasant material. When required (...)
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  24. Psychopathy, Ethical Perception, and Moral Culpability.Ishtiyaque Haji - 2010 - Neuroethics 3 (2):135-150.
    I argue that emotional sensitivity (or insensitivity) has a marked negative influence on ethical perception. Diminished capacities of ethical perception, in turn, mitigate what we are morally responsible for while lack of such capacities may altogether eradicate responsibility. Impairment in ethical perception affects responsibility by affecting either recognition of or reactivity to moral reasons. It follows that emotional insensitivity (together with its attendant impairment in ethical perception) bears saliently on moral responsibility. Since one distinguishing mark of the psychopath is emotional (...)
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  25.  58
    Psychopathy: Morally Incapacitated Persons.Heidi Maibom - 2017 - In Thomas Schramme & Steven Edwards (eds.), Handbook of the Philosophy of Medicine. Dordrecht: Springer. pp. 1109-1129.
    After describing the disorder of psychopathy, I examine the theories and the evidence concerning the psychopaths’ deficient moral capacities. I first examine whether or not psychopaths can pass tests of moral knowledge. Most of the evidence suggests that they can. If there is a lack of moral understanding, then it has to be due to an incapacity that affects not their declarative knowledge of moral norms, but their deeper understanding of them. I then examine two suggestions: it is their (...)
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  26.  22
    Moral Identity in Psychopathy.Andrea L. Glenn, Spassena Koleva, Ravi Iyer, Jesse Graham & Peter H. Ditto - 2010 - Judgment and Decision Making 5 (7):497–505.
    Several scholars have recognized the limitations of theories of moral reasoning in explaining moral behavior. They have argued that moral behavior may also be influenced by moral identity, or how central morality is to one’s sense of self. This idea has been supported by findings that people who exemplify moral behavior tend to place more importance on moral traits when defining their self-concepts (Colby & Damon, 1995). This paper takes the next step of examining individual variation in a construct highly (...)
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  27.  13
    Psychopathy and Pride: Testing Lykken’s Hypothesis Regarding the Implications of Fearlessness for Prosocial and Antisocial Behavior.Thomas H. Costello, Ansley Unterberger, Ashley L. Watts & Scott O. Lilienfeld - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
  28. Instrumental Rationality in Psychopathy: Implications From Learning Tasks.Marko Jurjako & Luca Malatesti - 2016 - Philosophical Psychology 29 (5):717-731.
    The issue whether psychopathic offenders are practically rational has attracted philosophical attention. The problem is relevant in theoretical discussions on moral psychology and in those concerning the appropriate social response to the crimes of these individuals. We argue that classical and current experiments concerning the instrumental learning in psychopaths cannot directly support the conclusion that they have impaired instrumental rationality, construed as the ability for transferring the motivation by means-ends reasoning. In fact, we defend the different claim that these experiments (...)
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  29. The Cognitive Neuroscience of Psychopathy and Implications for Judgments of Responsibility.R. James R. Blair - 2008 - Neuroethics 1 (3):149-157.
    Psychopathy is a developmental disorder associated with specific forms of emotional dysfunction and an increased risk for both frustration-based reactive aggression and goal-directed instrumental antisocial behavior. While the full behavioral manifestation of the disorder is under considerable social influence, the basis of this disorder appears to be genetic. At the neural level, individuals with psychopathy show atypical responding within the amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Moreover, the roles of the amygdala in stimulus-reinforcement learning and responding to emotional expressions (...)
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  30.  45
    Psychopathy: Assessment and Forensic Implications.Robert D. Hare & Craig S. Neumann - 2010 - In Luca Malatesti & John McMillan (eds.), Responsibility and Psychopathy: Interfacing Law, Psychiatry and Philosophy. Oxford University Press, Usa. pp. 93--123.
  31.  24
    Effect of Narcissism, Psychopathy, and Machiavellianism on Entrepreneurial Intention—The Mediating of Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy.Wenqing Wu, Hongxin Wang, Chundong Zheng & Yenchun Jim Wu - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  32.  43
    Psychopathy: Philosophical and Empirical Challenges.Marko Jurjako, Luca Malatesti & John McMillan - 2018 - European Journal of Analytic Philosophy 14 (1):5-14.
  33. Psychopathy and Responsibility Theory.Paul Litton - 2010 - Philosophy Compass 5 (8):676-688.
    Psychopathy presents a difficult challenge to moral and criminal responsibility theorists. Persons with the disorder have an impaired capacity for empathy and other moral emotions, and fail to feel the force of moral considerations. They have some rational impairments, but they reason adequately to manipulate, con, and exploit their victims, and otherwise to engage successfully in antisocial behavior. Is it appropriate to hold them morally responsible for their wrongdoing? Should the law hold psychopaths criminally responsible? This essay discusses philosophical (...)
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  34. Nepotistic Patterns of Violent Psychopathy: Evidence for Adaptation?D. B. Krupp, L. A. Sewall, M. L. Lalumière, C. Sheriff & G. T. Harris - 2012 - Frontiers in Psychology 3:1-8.
    Psychopaths routinely disregard social norms by engaging in selfish, antisocial, often violent behavior. Commonly characterized as mentally disordered, recent evidence suggests that psychopaths are executing a well-functioning, if unscrupulous strategy that historically increased reproductive success at the expense of others. Natural selection ought to have favored strategies that spared close kin from harm, however, because actions affecting the fitness of genetic relatives contribute to an individual’s inclusive fitness. Conversely, there is evidence that mental disorders can disrupt psychological mechanisms designed to (...)
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  35.  14
    The Societal Response to Psychopathy in the Community.Marko Jurjako, Luca Malatesti & Inti Angelo Brazil - 2021 - International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology.
    The harm usually associated with psychopathy requires therapeutically, legally, and ethically satisfactory solutions. Scholars from different fields have, thus, examined whether empirical evidence shows that individuals with psychopathic traits satisfy concepts, such as responsibility, mental disorder, or disability, that have specific legal or ethical implications. The present paper considers the less discussed issue of whether psychopathy is a disability. As it has been shown for the cases of the responsibility and mental disorder status of psychopathic individuals, we argue (...)
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  36.  37
    A Bayesian Account of Psychopathy: A Model of Lacks Remorse and Self-Aggrandizing.Aaron Prosser, Karl Friston, Nathan Bakker & Thomas Parr - 2018 - Computational Psychiatry 2:92-140.
    This article proposes a formal model that integrates cognitive and psychodynamic psychotherapeutic models of psychopathy to show how two major psychopathic traits called lacks remorse and self-aggrandizing can be understood as a form of abnormal Bayesian inference about the self. This model draws on the predictive coding (i.e., active inference) framework, a neurobiologically plausible explanatory framework for message passing in the brain that is formalized in terms of hierarchical Bayesian inference. In summary, this model proposes that these two cardinal (...)
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  37.  40
    Psychopathy, Neurotechnologies, and Neuroethics.Fabrice Jotterand - 2014 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 35 (1):1-6.
    In the last decade, a series of acts of violence has increased the interest in understanding what prompts individuals to engage in serial killing, bombing, and other violent acts. The shootings of Columbine, Newtown, and Aurora in the United States, and of Oslo in Norway, 9/11, and the recent bombing during the Boston Marathon have raised questions of how to thwart such tragedies as well as of how to detect and possibly “control” individuals posing a threat to public safety. In (...)
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  38.  26
    Psychopathy Moderates the Relationship Between Orbitofrontal and Striatal Alterations and Violence: The Investigation of Individuals Accused of Homicide.Bess Y. H. Lam, Yaling Yang, Robert A. Schug, Chenbo Han, Jianghong Liu & Tatia M. C. Lee - 2017 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 11.
  39. Divine Command Theory and Psychopathy.Erik Wielenberg - forthcoming - Religious Studies.
    I advance a novel challenge for Divine Command Theory based on the existence of psychopaths. The challenge, in a nutshell, is that Divine Command Theory has the implausible implication that psychopaths have no moral obligations and hence their evil acts, no matter how evil, are morally permissible. After explaining this argument, I respond to three objections to it and then critically examine the prospect that Divine Command Theorists might bite the bullet and accept that psychopaths can do no wrong. I (...)
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  40.  35
    Psychopathy and Responsibility.Walter Glannon - 1997 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 14 (3):263–275.
  41.  86
    Psychopathy and Answerability.Antony Duff - 2010 - In Luca Malatesti & John McMillan (eds.), Responsibility and Psychopathy. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 198-212.
  42.  33
    Psychopathy, Responsibility and the Moral/Conventional Distinction.Neil Levy - 2010 - In Luca Malatesti & John McMillan (eds.), Responsibility and Psychopathy: Interfacing Law, Psychiatry and Philosophy. Oxford University Press, Usa. pp. 213--226.
  43.  14
    Moral Emotions and Corporate Psychopathy: A Review.Benjamin R. Walker & Chris J. Jackson - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 141 (4):797-810.
    While psychopathy research has been growing for decades, a relatively new area of research is corporate psychopathy. Corporate psychopaths are simply psychopaths working in organizational settings. They may be attracted to the financial, power, and status gains available in senior positions and can cause considerable damage within these roles from a manipulative interpersonal style to large-scale fraud. Based upon prior studies, we analyze psychopathy research pertaining to 23 moral emotions classified according to functional quality and target. Based (...)
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  44.  16
    Psychopathy and Criminal Responsibility in Historical Perspective.Tony Ward - 2010 - In Luca Malatesti & John McMillan (eds.), Responsibility and Psychopathy: Interfacing Law, Psychiatry and Philosophy. Oxford University Press, Usa. pp. 7.
  45.  29
    Antisocial Process Screening Device, 56 Antisocial Tendencies, Self-Report Psychopathy Scale, 101 Antisociality, 123 Appeal to Nature Questionnaire, 184–187. [REVIEW]Griffith Empathy Measure & Psychopathy Checklist-Revised - 2012 - In Robyn Langdon & Catriona Mackenzie (eds.), Emotions, Imagination, and Moral Reasoning. Psychology Press. pp. 357.
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  46. Responsibility and Psychopathy: Interfacing Law, Psychiatry and Philosophy.Luca Malatesti & John McMillan (eds.) - 2010 - Oxford University Press.
    The discussion of whether psychopaths are morally responsible for their behaviour has long taken place in philosophy. In recent years this has moved into scientific and psychiatric investigation. Responsibility and Psychopathy discusses this subject from both the philosophical and scientific disciplines, as well as a legal perspective.
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  47. What Can Philosophers Learn From Psychopathy?Heidi L. Maibom - 2018 - European Journal of Analytic Philosophy 14 (1):63-78.
    Many spectacular claims about psychopaths are circulated. This contribution aims at providing the reader with the more complex reality of the phenomenon (or phenomena), and to point to issues of particular interest to philosophers working in moral psychology and moral theory. I first discuss the current evidence regarding psychopaths’ deficient empathy and decision-making skills. I then explore what difference it makes to our thinking whether we regard their deficit dimensionally (as involving abilities that are on or off) and whether we (...)
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  48.  44
    Psychopathy, Other-Regarding Moral Beliefs, and Responsibility.Lloyd Fields - 1996 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 3 (4):261-277.
  49.  22
    Psychopathy.Heidi L. Maibom - 2013 - In Hugh LaFollette (ed.), The International Encyclopedia of Ethics. Wiley-Blackwell.
  50.  19
    How Machiavellianism, Psychopathy, and Narcissism Affect Sustainable Entrepreneurial Orientation: The Moderating Effect of Psychological Resilience.Wenqing Wu, Hongxin Wang, Hsiu-Yu Lee, Yu-Ting Lin & Feng Guo - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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