Results for 'Pyrrhonism'

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  1. Early Pyrrhonism as a Sect of Buddhism? A Case Study in the Methodology of Comparative Philosophy.Monte Ransome Johnson & Brett Shults - 2018 - Comparative Philosophy 9 (2):1-40.
    We offer a sceptical examination of a thesis recently advanced in a monograph published by Princeton University Press, entitled Greek Buddha: Pyrrho’s Encounter with Early Buddhism in Central Asia. In this dense and probing work, Christopher I. Beckwith, a professor of Central Eurasian studies at Indiana University, Bloomington, argues that Pyrrho of Elis adopted a form of early Buddhism during his years in Bactria and Gandhāra, and that early Pyrrhonism must be understood as a sect of early Buddhism. In (...)
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  2.  1
    Pyrrhonism: How the Ancient Greeks Reinvented Buddhism.Adrian Kuzminski - 2008 - Lanhan, MD: Lexington Books.
    Adrian Kuzminski argues that Pyrrhonism, an ancient Greek philosophy, can best be understood as a Western form of Buddhism. Not only is its founder, Pyrrho, reported to have traveled to India and been influenced by contacts with Indian sages, but a close comparison of ancient Buddhist and Pyrrhonian texts suggests a common philosophical practice, seeking liberation through suspension of judgment with regard to beliefs about non-evident things.
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  3. Agrippan Pyrrhonism and the Challenge of Disagreement.Diego E. Machuca - 2015 - Journal of Philosophical Research 40:23-39.
    This paper argues for the following three claims. First, the Agrippan mode from disagreement does not play a secondary role in inducing suspension of judgment. Second, the Pyrrhonist is not committed to the criteria of justification underlying the Five Modes of Agrippa, which nonetheless does not prevent him from non-doxastically assenting to them. And third, some recent objections to Agrippan Pyrrhonism raised by analytic epistemologists and experimental philosophers fail to appreciate the Pyrrhonist's ad hominem style of argumentation and the (...)
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  4. Pyrrhonism: How the Ancient Greeks Reinvented Buddhism.Adrian Kuzminski - 2008 - Lexington Books.
    Adrian Kuzminski argues that Pyrrhonism, an ancient Greek philosophy, can best be understood as a Western form of Buddhism. Not only is its founder, Pyrrho, reported to have traveled to India and been influenced by contacts with Indian sages, but a close comparison of ancient Buddhist and Pyrrhonian texts suggests a common philosophical practice, seeking liberation through suspension of judgment with regard to beliefs about non-evident things.
     
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  5.  19
    Classy pyrrhonism.Walter Sinnott-Armstrong - 2004 - In Pyrrhonian Skepticism. Oxford University Press. pp. 188--207.
    This essay invokes a technical framework of contrast classes within which Pyrrhonians can accept knowledge claims that are relativized to specific contrast classes, but avoid all unrelativized knowledge claims and all presuppositions about which contrast classes are really relevant. Pyrrhonians can then assert part of the content of everyday knowledge claims without privileging the everyday perspective or any other perspective. This framework provides a precise way to understand the central claims of neo-Pyrrhonism while avoiding most, if not all, of (...)
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  6. Does Pyrrhonism Have Practical or Epistemic Value?Diego E. Machuca - 2019 - In Giuseppe Veltri, Racheli Haliva, Stephan Franz Schmid & Emidio Spinelli (eds.), Sceptical Paths: Enquiry and Doubt from Antiquity to the Present. Berlin, Germany: Walter de Gruyter. pp. 43-66.
    My purpose in this paper is to examine whether Pyrrhonian skepticism, as this stance is described in Sextus Empiricus’s extant works, has practical or epistemic value. More precisely, I would like to consider whether the Pyrrhonist’s suspension of judgment (ἐποχή) and undisturbedness (ἀταραξία) can be deemed to be of practical or epistemic value. By ‘practical’ value I mean both moral value and prudential value. Moral value refers to moral rightness and wrongness; prudential value to the value of well-being, personal or (...)
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  7. The Pyrrhonist’s Ἀταραξία and Φιλανθρωπία.Diego E. Machuca - 2006 - Ancient Philosophy 26 (1):111-126.
    The purpose of the present paper is twofold. First, to examine what beliefs, if any, underlie (a) the Pyrrhonist’s desire for ataraxia and his account of how this state may be attained, and (b) his philanthropic therapy, which seeks to induce, by argument, ejpochv and ataraxia in the Dogmatists. Second, to determine whether the Pyrrhonist’s philanthropy and his search for and attainment of ataraxia are, as scholars have generally believed, essential aspects of his stance.
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  8. Pyrrhonism, Inquiry, and Rationality.Diego E. Machuca - 2013 - Elenchos: Rivista di Studi Sul Pensiero Antico 34 (1):201-228.
    In this paper, I critically engage with Casey Perin's interpretation of Sextan Pyrrhonism in his book, The Demands of Reason: An Essay on Pyrrhonian Scepticism. From an approach that is both exegetical and systematic, I explore a number of issues concerning the Pyrrhonist's inquiry into truth, his alleged commitment to the canons of rationality, and his response to the apraxia objection.
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  9. Pyrrhonism and the Law of Non-Contradiction.Diego E. Machuca - 2011 - In D. E. Machuca (ed.), Pyrrhonism in Ancient, Modern, and Contemporary Philosophy. Springer.
    The question of whether the Pyrrhonist adheres to certain logical principles, criteria of justification, and inference rules is of central importance for the study of Pyrrhonism. Its significance lies in that, whereas the Pyrrhonist describes his philosophical stance and argues against the Dogmatists by means of what may be considered a rational discourse, adherence to any such principles, criteria, and rules does not seem compatible with the radical character of his skepticism. Hence, if the Pyrrhonist does endorse them, one (...)
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  10.  75
    Outlines of Pyrrhonism.Sextus Empiricus - 1990 - Harvard University Press.
    Throughout history philosophers have sought to define, understand, and delineate concepts important to human well-being. One such concept is "knowledge." Many philosophers believed that absolute, certain knowledge, is possible--that the physical world and ideas formulated about it could be given solid foundation unaffected by the varieties of mere opinion. Sextus Empiricus stands as an example of the "skeptic" school of thought whose members believed that knowledge was either unattainable or, if a genuine possibility, the conditions necessary to achieve it were (...)
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  11.  83
    Is Pyrrhonism Psychologically Possible?Brian Ribeiro - 2002 - Ancient Philosophy 22 (2):319-331.
    In this paper I aim to address--and also to better understand--what is perhaps the most intuitive objection to Pyrrhonian skepticism, namely, that to completely suspend one's judgment is psychologically impossible. I propose to come to an understanding of Sextus's relation to this objection by trying to more clearly understand Sextus's claims about the "Skeptic". I hope to show that it is at least possible for us to understand Sextus and his claims about the "Skeptic" without being driven to either (1) (...)
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  12.  44
    Pyrrhonism.Diego E. Machuca - 2019 - Oxford Bibliographies in Philosophy.
    Pyrrhonism can safely be said to be the most prominent and influential form of skepticism in the history of Western philosophy. It was an important philosophical movement in the Hellenistic and Imperial ages, made a tremendous impact on modern philosophy, and some of its arguments continue to be a central topic of discussion in the contemporary philosophical scene. This can be taken to be a strong indication of the intriguing and challenging character of the Pyrrhonian outlook. After presenting the (...)
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  13.  98
    Can Pyrrhonists Act Normally?Jan Willem Wieland - 2012 - Philosophical Explorations 15 (3):277-289.
    Pyrrhonism is the view that we should suspend all our beliefs in order to be rational and reach peace of mind. One of the main objections against this view is that it makes action impossible. One cannot suspend all beliefs and act normally at once. Yet, the question is: What is it about actions that they require beliefs? This issue has hardly been clarified in the literature. This is a bad situation, for if the objection fails and it turns (...)
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  14.  98
    Pyrrhonism in Ancient, Modern, and Contemporary Philosophy.Diego E. Machuca (ed.) - 2011 - Springer.
    In recent years, there has been renewed interest in Pyrrhonism among both philosophers and historians of philosophy. This skeptical tradition is complex and multifaceted, since the Pyrrhonian arguments have been put into the service of different enterprises or been approached in relation to interests which are quite distinct. The diversity of conceptions and uses of Pyrrhonism accounts for the diversity of the challenges it is deemed to pose and of the attempts to meet them. The present volume brings (...)
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  15.  61
    Review: Pyrrhonism: How the Ancient Greeks Reinvented Buddhism. [REVIEW]Kristian Urstad - 2010 - Journal of Buddhist Ethics 17:56-65.
    Adrian Kuzminski’s book is a work of comparative philosophy. It examines Pyrrhonism in terms of its connection and similarity to some Eastern non-dogmatic soteriological traditions, in particular, to Madhyamaka Buddhism. An important part of the author’s objective is to examine the historical evidence supporting Pyrrhonism’s origins in Indian Buddhism and to gain a more nuanced understanding of both these philosophical and religious traditions.
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  16.  61
    On Pyrrhonism, Stances, and Believing What You Want.Richard Bett - 2015 - International Journal for the Study of Skepticism 5 (2):126-144.
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  17. Aporetic Pyrrhonism.Paul Woodruff - 1988 - Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 6:139-68.
  18.  30
    Pyrrhonism, Belief and Causation. Observations on the Scepticism of Sextus Empiricus.Jonathan Barnes - 1987 - In Wolfgang Haase (ed.), Philosophie, Wissenschaften, Technik. Philosophie. De Gruyter. pp. 2608-2695.
  19.  30
    Pyrrhonism and Medicine.James Allen - 2010 - In Richard Arnot Home Bett (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Scepticism. Cambridge University Press. pp. 232.
  20. Ancient Skepticism: Pyrrhonism.Diego E. Machuca - 2011 - Philosophy Compass 6 (4):246-258.
    Pyrrhonism was one of the two main ancient skeptical traditions. In this second paper of the three‐part series devoted to ancient skepticism, I present and discuss some of the issues on Pyrrhonian skepticism which have been the focus of much attention in the recent literature. The topics to be addressed concern the outlooks of Pyrrho, Aenesidemus, and Sextus Empiricus.
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  21.  34
    Berkeley, Pyrrhonism, and the Theaetetus.Kenneth Winkler - 2004 - In Walter Sinnott-Armstrong (ed.), Pyrrhonian Skepticism. Oxford University Press. pp. 48--54.
    This essay reinterprets Berkeley’s idealism as partially motivated by a need to overcome the Agrippan mode of relativity pressed by Pyrrhonists. It compares Berkeley’s solution to that of Protagoras as presented in Plato’s Theaetetus, and argues that Berkeley needed to depend on reason — intuition or demonstration — to avoid skepticism. In this interpretation, Berkeley is closer to the rationalist tradition than usually recognized.
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  22.  2
    How to Be a Pyrrhonist: The Practice and Significance of Pyrrhonian Skepticism.Richard Bett - 2019 - Cambridge University Press.
    What was it like to be a practitioner of Pyrrhonist skepticism? This important volume brings together for the first time a selection of Richard Bett's essays on ancient Pyrrhonism, allowing readers a better understanding of the key aspects of this school of thought. The volume examines Pyrrhonism's manner of self-presentation, including its methods of writing, its desire to show how special it is, and its use of humor; it considers Pyrrhonism's argumentative procedures regarding specific topics, such as (...)
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  23.  97
    Pyrrhonism and the Mādhyamaka.Adrian Kuzminski - 2007 - Philosophy East and West 57 (4):482-511.
    : The question of possible Indian influence on Pyrrhonist skepticism was raised long ago by Diogenes Laertius in his biography of Pyrrho. Diogenes tells us that Pyrrho adopted his "most noble philosophy" as a result of his contacts with Indian sages when he accompanied Alexander the Great on his expedition in the fourth century B.C.E. Most modern Western scholars have downplayed Diogenes’ claim as unsubstantiated, but the striking parallels to be found in subsequent ancient Pyrrhonist and Mādhyamaka texts suggest its (...)
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  24.  1
    Outlines of Pyrrhonism.Sextus Empiricus - 2020 - Sententiae 39 (2):125-137.
    The first Ukrainian translation of the classic work of ancient skepticism, Sextus Empiricus’ Outlines of Pyrrhonism, made by D. of Sc. Philology Lesia Zvonska under the scientific editorship of Dr. of Sc. in Philosophy. Oleg Khoma.
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  25.  51
    Pyrrhonism and Mādhyamika.Thomas McEvilley - 1982 - Philosophy East and West 32 (1):3-35.
  26.  54
    Pyrrhonism in the Political Philosophy of Thomas Hobbes.James J. Hamilton - 2012 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 20 (2):217-247.
    The importance of Pyrrhonism to Hobbes's political philosophy is much greater than has been recognized. He seems to have used Pyrrhonist arguments to support a doctrine of moral relativity, but he was not a sceptic in the Pyrrhonist sense. These arguments helped him to develop his teaching that there is no absolute good or evil; to minimise the purchase of natural law in the state of nature and its restrictions on the right of nature; virtually to collapse natural law (...)
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  27.  13
    Contemporary pyrrhonism.Barry Stroud - 2004 - In Walter Sinnott-Armstrong (ed.), Pyrrhonian Skepticism. Oxford University Press. pp. 174--187.
    Fogelin claims that when he and others reflect on how we disregard uneliminated but eliminable defeaters while making knowledge claims in everyday life, our level of scrutiny rises, and we are inclined to give up those claims to know. This essay responds that a Pyrrhonist should resist this inclination and retain everyday knowledge claims. The possibilities which Fogelin classifies as uneliminated but eliminable defeators are actually eliminated by everyday evidence that we possess. As a result, Pyrrhonism is said to (...)
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  28. Argumentative Persuasiveness in Ancient Pyrrhonism.Diego E. Machuca - 2009 - Méthexis 22:101-26.
    The present paper has two, interrelated objectives. The first is to analyze the different senses in which arguments are characterized as persuasive in the extant writings of Sextus Empiricus. The second is to examine the Pyrrhonist’s therapeutic use of arguments in the discussion with his Dogmatic rivals – more precisely, to determine the sense and basis of Sextus’ distinction between therapeutic arguments that appear weighty and therapeutic arguments that appear weak in their persuasiveness.
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  29.  31
    Historical Reflections on Classical Pyrrhonism and Neo-Pyrrhonism.Gisela Striker - 2004 - In Walter Sinnott-Armstrong (ed.), Pyrrhonian Skepticism. Oxford University Press. pp. 13--24.
    This essay argues that ancient Pyrrhonists did not decide to suspend judgment, but rather claimed to have found themselves unable to arrive at any judgment. By giving up the attempt, they also claimed to have unexpectedly reached tranquility, then followed the customs of ordinary life without ever claiming to have found the truth. This anti-rational attitude is not likely to be typical of ordinary people, nor would it seem desirable to modern defenders of ordinary practices like Fogelin.
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  30.  33
    Pyrrhonism's Arguments Against Value.Mark L. Mcpherran - 1990 - Philosophical Studies 60 (1-2):127 - 142.
  31. Pyrrhonism and Protagoreanism: Catching Sextus Out?Verity Harte & Melissa Lane - 1999 - History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis 2.
    Prima facie, the sceptical procedure described in Sextus Empiricus' Outlines of Pyrrhonism I is committed to a gap between appearance and reality, that is, to the possibility that reality is other than it appears. But the Pyrrhonist is keen to avoid having commitments. In this paper, we consider whether the Pyrrhonist is indeed so committed; what, more precisely, the commitment might be; and whether it is the kind of commitment which can be dislodged in the way the Pyrrhonist advertises (...)
     
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  32.  40
    Wittgenstein and Pyrrhonism.Hans Sluga - 2004 - In Walter Sinnott-Armstrong (ed.), Pyrrhonian Skepticism. Oxford University Press. pp. 99--117.
    This essay traces the roots of Wittgenstein’s Pyrrhonism to Mauthner, and argues that Wittgenstein’s later views moved even closer to those of Mauthner, although Wittgenstein never became as thoroughgoing a Pyrrhonian as Mauthner had been. It is argued that Mauthner’s neo-Pyrrhonian view of language was “responsible for the linguistic turn in Wittgenstein’s thinking and thereby indirectly also for the whole linguistic turn in 20th-century analytic philosophy”.
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  33.  21
    Unpurged Pyrrhonism.Barry Stroud - 1997 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 57 (2):411-416.
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  34.  49
    The Cyrenaics Vs. The Pyrrhonists on Knowledge of Appearances.Tim O'Keefe - 2011 - In Diego E. Machuca (ed.), New Essays on Ancient Pyrrhonism. Brill. pp. 27-40.
    In Outlines of Pyrrhonism, Sextus Empiricus takes pains to differentiate the skeptical way of life from other positions with which it is often confused, and in the course of this discussion he briefly explains how skepticism differs from Cyrenaicism. Surprisingly, Sextus does not mention an important apparent difference between the two. The Cyrenaics have a positive epistemic commitment--that we can apprehend our own feelings. Although we cannot know whether the honey is really sweet, we can know infallibly that right (...)
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  35.  40
    Academics Versus Pyrrhonists, Reconsidered.Gisela Striker - 2010 - In Richard Arnot Home Bett (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Scepticism. Cambridge University Press. pp. 195.
  36.  25
    Unpurged Pyrrhonism.Review author[S.]: Barry Stroud - 1997 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 57 (2):411-416.
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  37.  62
    Review of Pyrrhonism: How the Ancient Greeks Reinvented Buddhism, by Adrian Kuzminski. [REVIEW]M. Jason Reddoch - 2010 - Philosophy East and West 60 (3):424-427.
    Pyrrhonism: How the Ancient Greeks Reinvented Buddhism, by Adrian Kuzminski, is a short monograph of four chapters in which the author argues that Pyrrho of Elis (ca. 365–270 b.c.e.) developed his form of skepticism after coming into contact with Indian philosophers on his journey with Alexander the Great. Although the subtitle suggests that the primary focus of the study will be to develop this argument for historical diffusion, the book is more of an apology for Pyrrhonism, which Kuzminski (...)
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  38. Neo-Pyrrhonism.Markus Lammenranta - 2018 - In Diego E. Machuca & Baron Reed (eds.), Skepticism: From Antiquity to the Present. London: Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 565-580.
    Fogelin’s neo-Pyrrhonism is skepticism about epistemology and philosophy more generally. Philosophical reflection on ordinary epistemic practices leads us to deny the possibility of knowledge and justified belief. However, instead of accepting the dogma that knowledge and justified beliefs are impossible, a neo-Pyrrhonist rejects the philosophical premises that lead to this conclusion. Fogelin argues in particular that contemporary theories of justification cannot avoid dogmatic skepticism, because they are committed to the premises of the skeptical argument deriving from the modes of (...)
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  39. David Hume: His Pyrrhonism and His Critique of Pyrrhonism.Richard H. Popkin - 1951 - Philosophical Quarterly 1 (5):385-407.
  40.  18
    Wittgenstein Studies and Contemporary Pyrrhonism.Sergey Kulikov - 2018 - Philosophia 46 (4):929-941.
    Interpretation of Wittgenstein’s statement ‘whereof one cannot speak, thereof one must be silent’ and consequences of rule-following paradox is the topic of this article. The revision of Wittgensteinian approach to the relations between speech and mind, and approaches to the speech by Vygotsky and Austin allow approving the disagreement with Wittgenstein and exhibit the cases when is necessary ‘to break silence and speak’. Argument is based on the hermeneutical approach to the skeptical image of Wittgenstein studies that disclose the meaning (...)
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  41.  8
    The Skeptic Way: Sextus Empiricus' Outlines of Pyrrhonism.Benson Mates (ed.) - 1996 - Oup Usa.
    A study of Pyrrhonean scepticism, consisting of a new translation of Sextus Empiricus' Outlines of Pyrrhonism, accompanied by an analytic introduction and an in-depth, section-by-section commentary - the first of its kind available.
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  42.  58
    The High Road to Pyrrhonism.Richard H. Popkin - 1965 - American Philosophical Quarterly 2 (1):18 - 32.
  43.  23
    Pyrrho and Early Pyrrhonism.Svavar Hrafn Svavarsson - 2010 - In Richard Arnot Home Bett (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Scepticism. Cambridge University Press.
  44. 'A Small Tincture of Pyrrhonism': Skepticism and Naturalism in Hume's Science of Man.Don Garrett - 2004 - In Walter Sinnott-Armstrong (ed.), Pyrrhonian Skepticism. Oxford University Press. pp. 68--98.
     
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  45.  8
    Pyrrhonism and Protagoreanism.Verity Harte & Melissa Lane - 1999 - History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis 2 (1):157-172.
  46.  42
    A Pyrrhonist Interpretation of Hume’s Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion.Jeffrey R. Tiel - 1996 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 34 (2):257-271.
  47. Pyrrhonism and the Dialectical Methods: The Aims and Argument of PH II.Justin Vlasits - forthcoming - Logical Analysis and History of Philosophy.
    The aim of this paper is to show how PH II constitutes an original, ambitious, and unified skeptical inquiry into logic. My thesis is that Sextus’s argument in Book II is meant to accomplish both its stated goal (to investigate the topics typically grouped together by dogmatists under the heading of “logic”) and an unstated goal. The unstated goal is, in my view, interesting in itself and sheds new light on Sextus’s methodology. The goal is: to suspend judgement on the (...)
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  48.  26
    Self-Bracketing Pyrrhonism.Luca Castagnoli - 2000 - Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 18:263-328.
  49.  8
    Pyrrhonism and the Dialectical Methods.Justin Vlasits - 2020 - History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis 23 (1):225-252.
    The aim of this paper is to show how Outlines of Pyrrhonism II constitutes an original, ambitious, and unified skeptical inquiry into logic. My thesis is that Sextus’ argument in Book II is meant to accomplish both its stated goal and an unstated goal. The unstated goal is, in my view, interesting in itself and sheds new light on Sextus’ methodology. The goal is: to suspend judgement on the effectiveness of dogmatic methodologies.
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  50.  28
    Is the Pyrrhonist an Internalist?Otávio Bueno - 2011 - In Diego E. Machuca (ed.), New Essays on Ancient Pyrrhonism. Brill. pp. 126--179.
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