A training physician has his first interaction with a pharmaceutical representative during medical school. Medical students are often provided with small gifts such as pens, calendars and books, as well as free lunches as part of drug promotion offers. Ethical impact of these transactions as perceived by young medical students has not been investigated in Pakistan before. This study aimed to assess the association of socio-demographic variables with the attitudes of medical students towards pharmaceutical companies and their incentives.
Firms are central to wealth creation and distribution, but their role in economic inequality in a society remains poorly studied. In this essay, we define and distinguish value distribution from value creation and value appropriation. We identify four value distribution mechanisms that firms engage in and argue that shareholder wealth maximization approach skews the value distribution toward shareholders and top executives, which in turn contributes to rising economic inequalities around the world. We call on organizational scholars to study the value (...) distribution role of firms and its consequences for society, and introduce the articles in this volume of the special issue on economic inequality, business, and society. (shrink)
El artículo se propone elucidar el papel que juegan los usos de “raza” en los escritos de Nietzsche, situándolos e interpretándolos en conjunto con el léxico de transformación del ser humano y de su crítica de la cultura. Para ello, se estudia su empleo junto a otros conceptos fronterizos e ideas análogas como el tratamiento de la cuestión judía, su crítica del nacionalismo, la figura de los buenos europeos, la metáfora de la bestia rubia, los tipos humanos y el (...) pensamiento de la cría. Se concluye que “raza” posee un indudable carácter fisiológico y evolutivo, pero a través del proceso de incorporación, el ámbito de la cultura y la moral intervienen de manera fundamental en su conformación, y como concepto, forma parte del mismo proyecto de transvaloración de los valores, la reforma de la cultura y de la humanidad. El artículo finaliza con una reflexión de la llamada a superar la raza. (shrink)
Religion has been in general neglected or even seen as a taboo subject in organizational research and management practice. This is a glaring omission in the business and society and business ethics literatures. As a source of moral norms and beliefs, religion has historically played a significant role in the vast majority of societies and continues to remain relevant in almost every society. More broadly, expectations for responsible business behavior are informed by regional, national, or indigenous cultures, which in many (...) parts of the world are heavily influenced by religious belief systems and religious institutions. In this essay, we discuss examples of how religion has functioned as a macro social force affecting business and society, discuss some of the key questions and issues related to research in this domain, offer some observations about why religion may be problematic with regard to its effects on business, and conclude by summarizing the articles contained in the special issue. (shrink)
The World Health Organization declares coronavirus disease 2019 as a pandemic, and The World Economic Forum argues that the COVID-19-induced global lockdown is the biggest psychological experiment. This study is an attempt to empirically evaluate the possible adverse psychosocial effects caused by COVID-19-related lockdown, if any. To do so, a cross-sectional study is conducted based on a comprehensive online survey using snowball sampling to analyze the level of social and psychological impacts during the early stage of the outbreak in Pakistan. (...) The questionnaire is filled out by the residents in Pakistan including working professionals and students. We find that the development of stress due to COVID-19-induced lockdown is particularly because of mood swings. Additionally, a higher prevalence of stress in the children of highly educated mothers is evident. To assess the belief in stakeholders, we focus gender, demographics, and education. It is observed that parental education and age significantly affect the belief in several stakeholders. The lockdown-induced fear of losing job is lower in female and male children whose fathers are graduates. Lastly, we observe that food storage and “no fear of losing job” significantly increases the odds of life satisfaction. These findings have important implications in the context of social insurance, parental education, and policy related to COVID-19 at various levels. This study further facilitates to understand the factors that might affect the mental health and life satisfaction of people during such pandemics. (shrink)
This article reviews some of the ethical aspects of collaborative research. Scientific collaboration has known potential benefits but it’s a challenging task to successfully accomplish a collaborative venture on ethically sound grounds. Current trends in international healthcare research collaboration reflect limited benefits for the majority of world population. Research collaboration between scientists of academia and industry usually has financial considerations. Successful cross-cultural and international collaborations have to overcome many regional and global barriers. Despite these difficulties, many scientific collaborations usually begin (...) with an informal meeting or contact. With advancement in global communications, scientists have greater responsibility towards the world community while considering the impact of their collaborative partnerships. I review the basic factors that are required for forging a collaborative partnership and responsible attitudes to sustain the relationship. Finally I conclude that scientists in healthcare research can play important roles beyond collaborations and contribute to bringing harmony, resolving differences across the nations and countries in today’s troubled world. (shrink)
"Guzmancismo" was a bet to provide Venezuela with modernizing politics structures controlled by the balance of interests emong the different groups of pressure. It linked the regional leaders to the centralist proyect. allowing them to have plots of power and "clientelismo" under the condition of standing surety for the public order in their states. This long historical period of Venezuela is presided by the deep impact of positivism between the venezolan elites whe searched for the conformation of their national identity.
Development of decision-support and intelligent agent systems necessitates mathematical descriptions of uncertainty and fuzziness in order to model vagueness. This paper seeks to present an outline of Peirce’s triadic logic as a practical new way to model vagueness in the context of artificial intelligence. Charles Sanders Peirce was an American scientist–philosopher and a great logician whose triadic logic is a culmination of the study of semiotics and the mathematical study of anti-Cantorean model of continuity and infinitesimals. After presenting Peircean semiotics (...) within AI perspective, a mathematical formulation of a Peircean triadic set is given in relationship with classical and fuzzy sets. Using basic logical operators, all possible respective implication operators, bi-equivalence operators, valid rules of inference, and associative, distributive and commutative logical properties are derived and verified through the truth function approach. In order to suggest practical directions, aggregation operators for Peirce’s triadic logic have been formulated. A mathematical formulation of a medical diagnostic problem and ER diagram of a library management system using Peirce’s triadic relation show potential for further applications of the proposed triadic set and triadic logic. Alongside, a classical AI game—The Wumpus World—is implemented to show practical efficacy in comparison with binary implementation. Besides giving some preliminary formulations for trichotomous set theory and definition of finite automaton, development of hybrid architectures for intelligent agents and evolutionary computations are discussed as potential practical avenues for Peirce’s triadic logic. (shrink)
This declaration ponders the impacts of Joule warm, separation, and warming radiation for the progression of MHD Sutterby nanofluid past over an all-inclusive chamber. The wonder of warmth and mass conduction is demonstrated under warm conductivity relying upon temperature and dispersion coefficients individually. Besides, the conventional Fourier and Fick laws have been applied in the outflows of warm and mass transport. The control model comprising of a progression of coupled incomplete differential conditions is changed over into a standard arrangement of (...) nonlinear coupled differential conditions by reasonable likeness changes. The subsequent arrangement of articulations is systematically treated through an ideal homotopic method. The impacts of various dimensionless stream boundaries on the speed, temperature, and focus fields are delineated through diagrams. The range of some parameters involved is assumed for the convergent solution as 0 < R e < 10, 0 < P r < 6.5, 0 < E c < 40, 0 < R d < 1.5, 0 < S 1 < 0.5, 0 < S 2 < 0.5, 0 < L e < 0.5, 0 < N t < 2.5, and 0 < N b < 2.0. The patterns of skin friction coefficient, local Nusselt, and Sherwood numbers are examined via bar charts. The principle consequence of the proposed study is that the decay of the speed for the Sutterby liquid boundary, the deterioration of the variable warm conductivity, the temperature, and the radiation increase the framework temperature. The delineation boundaries show the opposite conduct for the temperature and fixation outskirts layers. (shrink)
Student retention is an important concern for higher education institutions. The present study tested self-efficacy variable to examine the impact of personal ability of freshmen in their decision to stay in the institution of higher education. The data was collected from both public and private sector universities in Karachi. A survey method was used to collect the data from 645 students from public and private sector universities. The data was analyses on IBM SPSS Statistics 20. The result showed that self-efficacy (...) have a strong influence on intention of freshmen to stay in the same university. The impact of self-efficacy was the same for both public and private sector universities. It was recommended to include self-efficacy as a factor in retention studies. (shrink)
A control chart named as the hybrid double exponentially weighted moving average to monitor the mean of Weibull distribution in the presence of type-I censored data is proposed in this study. In particular, the focus of this study is to use the conditional median for the imputation of censored observations. The control chart performance is assessed by the average run length. A comparison between CM-DEWMA control chart and CM-based HDEWMA control chart is also presented in this article. Assuming different shift (...) sizes and censoring rates, it is observed that the proposed control chart outperforms the CM-DEWMA chart. The effect of estimation, particularly the scale parameter estimation, on ARL is also a part of this study. Finally, a practical example is provided to understand the application and to investigate the performance of the proposal in practical scenarios. (shrink)
The development of ideologies in re-construction and transformation of the Indian subcontinent during and after its division into new nation states in 1947emerged as the fault lines in its structural and organizational imbalances, which is an interesting phenomenon and at times led to the violent and radical political discourses. This ideological transformation became imbalanced, due to the exploitation by opportunists in state and political elements, through consciously planned attitude especially in dogma, religious traditions, ethnicity and political/state governance thereby fulfilling ulterior (...) motives. Resultantly, violence and conflicts emerged in both the fragile states of the Indian subcontinent besides undergoing a series of dictatorship, one party rule, manipulation of elites, and ethnic or national polarization ultimately leading to the weak governmental structure. This research was aimed at ascertaining both at theoretical and practical levels, the causes of intricacies involved in transformation of religious ideology into a fault line besides suppressing ethnic and identity markers of traditional society like Pakistan, exploiting the structural organization of political governments through state/bureaucratic regimes. It was discovered that this transformation became such due to the indulgence of state elements and their practices besides illiberal democratic governments, which were also leading to the violence and militancy where ideology/religion has been used for parochial political interests embodied in desires to hang on to power. Henceforth, the power made the dismemberment of joint Pakistan in post-1971era, whereas continuously challenged the fragile integrity after 1971. (shrink)
Ismat Chughtai is undoubtedly one of the biggest names in Urdu Literature. The following research paper intends to analyse the appearance of social issues such as informal social control over women in a patriarchal structure, portrayal of a female body in the advertisement, relationship pattern of men and women, notions of women as inferior being of society, in the selected writings of Ismat Chughtai, in relation to symbolic-interaction paradigm. The core idea of Symbolic-interaction is that social realities are based on (...) the social experiences, cognition and perception of an individual. The social understanding of an individual varies from situation to situation and depends on his/her experiences. Ismat Chughtai experienced society in her own way, which is portrayed in her fictional works, “Dil Ki Dunya”, a novel, “Khareed Lo”, “Paisha”, “Baykaar” and “Tera Haath”, the short stories and a non-fictional essay, “Aurat” which are chosen for the analysis of above-mentioned social issues in relation with the theory. It is concluded that Ismat’s writings are valuable, meaning full and relevant in as well in Sociology as in Psychology or Philosophy, in relation to Symbolic Interaction. Documents for analysis were chosen through Purposive sampling, the nature of research is inductive. (shrink)
What is difficult to imagine is also surprising to perceive. This indicates that active visual imagery is an integral part of active visual perception. Erroneous mental transformations provide clues to prior assumptions in visual imagery, just as visual illusions provide clues to perceptual assumptions. Visual imagery and perception share generic assumptions about invariants in images of rigid objects.
During the outbreak of an epidemic, it becomes significantly essential to monitor the effects of containment measures and forecast the outbreak, including the epidemic peak. Many countries have either implemented strict lockdown to counter the spread of coronavirus disease or taken necessary preventive measures across the world to reduce the outbreak of this epidemic war. Several epidemic models have been presented across the world to examine the effects of public health-related strategies on mitigating the spread of current infectious disease, yet (...) no reputable model has been presented for Pakistan as well as other South-Asian developing countries as per the authors’ knowledge. In this research, an actual coronavirus prediction in Pakistan is presented, which may guide the decision-makers as to how this pandemic has spread across the country and how it can be controlled. Furthermore, in the absence of targeted medicines, the analysis helps to develop a precise plan for the eradication of the outbreak by adopting the calculated steps at the right time. The mathematical phenomenological models have been adopted in this study to predict, project, and simulate the overall affected cases reflected due to the recent outbreak in Pakistan. These models predict the expected growth, and the estimated results are almost well matched with the real cases. Through the calibration of parameters and analyzing the current situation, forecast for the appearance of new cases in Pakistan is reported till the end of this year. The constant level of number of patients and time to reach specific levels are also reported through the simulations. The drastic conditions are also discussed which may occur if all the preventive restraints are removed. This research quantitatively describes the significant characteristics of the spread of corona cases. It acknowledges and provides an understanding of a short-term and long-term transmission of coronavirus outbreak in the country as three evolutionary phases. Therefore, this research provides a pathway to cope with the emerging threat of a severe outbreak in developing and nondeveloping countries. (shrink)
The present investigation aims to propose a numerical model for assessing the complex damaging response of glass fiber-reinforced polymer- reinforced concrete columns having hybrid fibers and confined with GFRP spirals under concentric and eccentric compression. Fiber-reinforced concrete consists of polyvinyl alcohol fibers and polypropylene fibers. A total of six GFHF circular columns were constructed having a circular cross section of 250 mm and a height of 1200 mm. A commercial package ABAQUS was used for the finite element analysis of the (...) GFHF columns by using a modified concrete damage plastic model for hybrid fiber-reinforced concrete. The damaging response of GFRP bars was defined using a linear elastic model. The results depicted that the failure of GFHF columns occurred either in the upper or in the lower half portion with the rupture of GFRP longitudinal bars and GFRP spirals. The decrease in the pitch of GFRP spirals led to an improvement in the axial strength of GFHF columns. The eccentric loading caused a significant reduction in the AS of columns. The comparative study solidly substantiates the validity and applicability of the newly developed FEA models for capturing the AS of GFHF columns by considering the axial involvement of longitudinal GFRP bars and the confinement effect of transverse GFRP spirals. So, the suggested numerical model having a complex system of equations for HFRC can be used for the accurate analysis of HFRC members. (shrink)
Abortion is forbidden under normal circumstances by nearly all the major world religions. Traditionally, abortion was not deemed permissible by Muslim scholars. Shiite scholars considered it forbidden after implantation of the fertilised ovum. However, Sunni scholars have held various opinions on the matter, but all agreed that after 4 months gestation abortion was not permitted. In addition, classical Islamic scholarship had only considered threats to maternal health as a reason for therapeutic abortion. Recently, scholars have begun to consider the effect (...) of severe fetal deformities on the mother, the families and society. This has led some scholars to reconsider the prohibition on abortion in limited circumstances. This article reviews the Islamic basis for the prohibition of abortion and the reasons for its justification. Contemporary rulings from leading Shiite scholars and from the Sunni school of thought are presented and reviewed. The status of abortion in Muslim countries is reviewed, with special emphasis on the therapeutic abortion law passed by the Iranian Parliament in 2003. This law approved therapeutic abortion before 16 weeks of gestation under limited circumstances, including medical conditions related to fetal and maternal health. Recent measures in Iran provide an opportunity for the Muslim scholars in other countries to review their traditional stance on abortion. (shrink)
The following discussion with philosopher and political scientist Wendy Brown seeks to apply her provocative and indispensable ideas to recent political events and problems, in particular focusing on her work in Undoing the Demos and returning briefly to consider Politics Out of History in today’s context. The questions were collectively authored and the interview itself was conducted by Sebastian Raza via Skype on 23 May 2017. We would like to thank Wendy Brown for the generous contribution of her time (...) and for answering the questions so directly and clearly. (shrink)
To determine the knowledge, attitude, and ethical concerns of medical students and graduates with regard to Embryonic Stem Cell (ESC) research. This questionnaire based descriptive study was conducted at the Civil Hospital Karachi (CHK), Pakistan from February to July 2008. A well structured questionnaire was administered to medical students and graduate doctors, which included their demographic profile as well as questions in line with the study objective. Informed consent was taken and full confidentiality was assured to the participants. Data were (...) entered in a Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version.12) and analyzed. A total of 204 male and 216 female medical students and doctors were administered questionnaires out of which 105 males (51.4%) and 108 females (50%) were aware of the embryonic stem cell research and its ethical implications. Forty percent males and 47% of females were of the opinion that life begins at conception. Forty-six percent males and 39% females were in favor of stem cell research while only 31% males and 28% females supported the ESC research. Less than 1/3 of students supported using frozen embryos for research purposes while more than 2/3 indicated that they were unlikely to support abortion for stem cell research purposes. The majority of the students were in favor of stem cell research with some reservations regarding ESC research. A sizeable number of students withheld their views, reflecting their poor understanding of medical ethics. The result of the study indicates a need for incorporating bioethics into the medical curriculum. (shrink)
Gender involvement in agriculture is becoming more asymmetrical in rural areas due to differences in wages of respective labour resultantly affecting health, wealth and decision making power of women engaged in agriculture. Study, therefore, was planned to investigate status of women engaged in vegetable picking and see constraints faced by them. Descriptive statistics are used to analyze primary data collected during year 2013. Results reveal that average monthly household income and expenditure were Rs. 10770 and Rs. 9291. Average daily earnings (...) of males and females from vegetable picking were Rs. 333 and Rs.156 respectively which clearly shows disparity regarding wage rates. Female respondents were earning income also from other off-season sources in order to support family budget. Majority of female respondents were aware about harmful health effects of pesticides’ sprays on vegetables but they were still not using appropriate safety measures. They complained about different diseases while working in vegetable fields. It is suggested that training in other more remunerative non-farm/ off-season activities should be provided to females in order to improve wages on competitive basis. The pickers should be educated also about the importance of using safety precautions while working in vegetables fields. (shrink)
Este artículo propone que Palacios enuncia los elementos esenciales para un esbozo sistemático de una antropología filosófica, no exenta de las influencias de los pensadores de su época, principalmente racistas y evolucionistas, pero se separa de estos al intentar dar una visión panorámica del mesti..
Security has always been a force multiplier to concentrate over the traditional military stockpile for the perceived threats in the modern days of nation states focused on the conceptualization of non-traditional security dwelling into integration, like European Union’s regional cooperation rather than towards diverting assets on further devolutions or disintegrations over the phenomenon of ‘security dilemma’ as is the case of India and Pakistan. Indeed, the later phenomenological conceptual framework had never diminished in its essence which forced the welfare states (...) as well as the major powers including USA to maintain traditional military hardware in the age of 5th generation of warfare. India and Pakistan remained into zenith of vicious cycle of stock piling of latest weaponry under the outcome of irrational conclusions of prisoner’s dilemma of the belligerents fuelling traditional enthusiasm of ethnic and religious vehemence. This research is an effort to find out the gaps in easing the tensions over the détente and interdependent security while moving towards non-traditional security and instead of transforming both the states into welfare states or formerly highlighted integration of the region. Resultantly, the shedding away of the existing survival and deterrence phase led to the devolution of traditional hype of grotesque nuclear flash point. (shrink)
The developing countries like Pakistan are facing the problem of low girls’ school enrolment rate. The study estimates the determinants of girls’ school enrolment by employing Binary Probit modal using the PSLM data 2010/11.The results show that though the education of both mother and father affect positively the girls’ school enrolment, yet the former affects it more as compared to the latter. The relationship between age of children and school enrolment is of inverted ‘U’ shaped. Foreign remittances and land ownership (...) have more chances to affect the female school enrolment. School distance and poverty are major problems for female school enrolment. Further, females have more chances of school enrolment in urban areas as compared to rural ones. The results at provincial level reveal that mother’s education has more chances to affect the probability of girls’ enrolment in Sindh followed by Punjab as compared to KPK and Baluchistan. At a policy level government should pay more attention on girls’ school enrolment who are to become mothers tomorrow. The government should provide schools as near as possible to their homes. Free education should be provided especially for the poor. The ministry of Overseas Pakistanis and Human Resource Development should be made more effective in searching out jobs abroad. (shrink)