This is the first comprehensive monograph on the theology of Abū l-Qāsim al-Kaʿbī al-Balkhī, a leading Muʿtazilī who flourished at the end of the Baghdādī school and at the beginning of the scholastic phase of Muʿtazilī history.
This edition and annotated translation of al-Qāsim's Kitāb al-mustarshid includes a discussion of anthropomorphism and interpretation of the Qur’ān in the theology of the Zaidite imam al-Qāsim ibn Ibrāhīm . Al-Qāsim's methods of interpretation are put forth and analyzed in light of early Qur’ānic exegesis.
A cherry is the fruit of many plants of the genus Prunus, and is a fleshy drupe (stone fruit), Michigan's Northwest Lower Peninsula is the largest producer of tart cherries in the United States. In fact, grow 75% of the country's variety of mighty Montmorency cherries. We use these Ruby Red Morsels of Joy in over 200 cherry products like Salsas, Chocolate Covered Cherries, Cherry Nut Mixes, and much more. Cherry fruits are rich in vitamins and minerals, and it is (...) one of the natural sources that can supply the body with abundant amounts of potassium and energy. There are two types of sour cherries, sour or tart, with a little acidity, and the red cherries have a blackish color. Cherry blossoms are very beautiful and in Japan cherry trees are celebrated in bloom. In this paper, machine learning based approach is presented for identifying type Cherry with a dataset that contains 7,002 images use 3,444 images for training, 2,410 images for validation and 1,148 images for testing. A deep learning technique that extensively applied to image recognition was used. 70% from image for training and 30% from image for validation. Our trained model achieved an accuracy of 100% on a held-out test set, demonstrating the feasibility of this approach. (shrink)
This article reviews the conception of interpretation deviation according to Ḥusayn al-Dhahabī. According to him, many interpreters have certain motives for making deviations in interpreting the Qur’an. Broadly speaking, al-Dhahabī conceptualizes mis-interpretation into two things. First, the interpreters who tend to overtake Isrāiliyāt history excessively, this occurs in the tafsir bi al-ma’thūr. Second, interpreters who interpret verses with incorrect meanings, this happens in tafsir bi al-ra’yi. This second deviation is often done by mufasirs who have certain mazhab background and Sufis (...) due to their use metaphorical language. The findings of this article are, al-Dhahabī considers that there are some deviations in the interpretation of the Quran in the book of al-Kashfu wa al-Bayān an Tafsīr al-Qur’ān by Abū Isḥāq Aḥmad ibn Ibrāhīm al-Tha’labī al-Naisaburī and al-Kashshāf ‘An Ḥaqā’iq Ghamāmi al-Tanzīl wa ‘Uyūn al-Aqawīl fī Wujūh al-Ta’wīl by Abū al-Qasīm Maḥmūd ibn ‘Umar Ibn M uḥammad Ibn ‘Umar al-Zamakhsharī. Some interpretations of al-Tha’labī are considered to be distorted due to a number of quotes from the history of Isrāiliyāt. On the other hand, some interpretations of al-Zamakhsharī are considered to be distorted because they distort the meaning and bias of the mazhab. (shrink)
This paper investigates the family history of Abū al-Faraj al-Iṣfahānī and the sectarian implications, in the second half of the ninth century, of their affiliation with the Ṭālibids alongside their connections with the ʿAbbasid court. By studying the Iṣfahānī family’s social networks and the wider socio-political milieu, the paper suggests that the Ṭālibids, who had strong presence in Samarra, attracted the political elite under ʿAbbasid rule, including the Iṣfahānīs, because their prestige as the Prophet’s close kin served as a source (...) of political legitimacy, which may have been used to secure the transfer of power in a turbulent time. The division of the Ṭālibids themselves into the politically active and the politically quietist also facilitated the alliance between the Samarrai elite and the latter kind of the Ṭālibids. This pattern is reflected in the dynamics of the Iṣfahānī family’s relationship with the Ṭālibids. An examination of the attitude of the Ṭālibids to the ʿAbbasid authority and al-Iṣfahānī’s Shiʿi belief seems to suggest that the Iṣfahānīs’ religious conviction may be understood as a kind of Shiʿism which embraces special reverence for ʿAlī and his virtuous descendants without enthusiasm for their political claims. (shrink)
Se reconstruyen en este artículo las familias Banū l-Ṭaylasān, Banū l-Šarrāṭ y Banū Ayyaš y se estudian las relaciones de parentesco establecidas entre ellas mediante una estrategia de alianzas matrimoniales diseñada por Abū l-Qāsim al-Šarrāṭ. Se aprecia cómo estos lazos familiares van estrechamente unidos a las relaciones de transmisión del saber, especialmente hadiz y ciencias coránicas. Se analizan asimismo las nisbas anṣāríes, posiblemente adoptadas tardíamente, que exhiben todos ellos.
This study aims to look at the role of the practice of excellence strategies in education in achieving sustainable competitive advantage for the Higher educational institutions of the faculty of Engineering and Information Technology at Al-Azhar University in Gaza, a model, and the study considered the competitive advantage of educational institutions stems from the impact on the level of each student, employee, and the institution. The study was based on the premise that the development of strategies for excellence in education, (...) and its implementation is a vital important prerequisite to achieve sustainable competitive advantage in higher educational institutions. The study followed a systematic exploratory descriptive methodology through review of the theoretical literature, and the adoption of the experience of the Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology at Al-Azhar University in Gaza as a model for its unique experience in the field of excellence in education. The study results showed that the most important are: There is a strong correlation between the level of exercising excellence strategies in education and the achievement of higher educational institutions to the sustainable competitive advantage. The results include a general required number of important sub results on the subject of the model - Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology at Al-Azhar University in Gaza as follows: - The student considered the academic focus of the operation in the development process of the workers’ skills, particularly academics at the university helps to distinguish students and increase the employment rate after graduation. - The existence of consistency in development efforts and quality improvement for all three levels (student, employee, and the university), and this contributes to the Faculty excellence. - The Faculty has been able to achieve competitive advantages by offering excellent services without harming the efficiency, and this alone is a great success because improving service properties requires great investments, which negatively affect the continued institutional development. The study also reached a set of recommendations as follows: - The need to exercise excellence strategies in education, excellence reward at the national level, and those higher educational institutions follow the criteria for measuring the competitive advantages of its institutions always. - There is a need to increase efforts to implement programs of excellence, the allocation of adequate time, reward outstanding efforts as well. There is a necessity for each faculty to achieve competitive advantage and sustainability, using the general philosophies of competitive advantage, but with a different strategically content from what is in the private commercial sector, it reflects the Faculties mission and objectives, depending on making improvements and excellence in processes that ensure the safety of its outputs. As well as the need to find a balance between the work of teaching and research work of the faculty members, this has important implications regarding the criteria used in the process of excellence evaluation. The study recommended the adoption of strategies for excellence in education on a national public policy level mainly in the processes of change in higher education institutions. The need to support the existence of a common understanding of the efforts of excellence to create a general culture that appreciates excellence in faculties and universities. This underlines the need for transparent, fair rewards systems, to encourage innovation in education. The need to conduct a comprehensive surveys on the graduates of faculties and universities including the areas of employment and skills, because that will give accurate indications of the graduates and will help to establish a link to a more precise about the relationship of excellence strategies with the competitive advantages. (shrink)
This paper examines the history of glass colouring. It reviews Kitāb al-Durra al-maknūna of Jābir ibn Ḥayyān, which deals with the subject. The manuscript of this practical treatise was discovered recently. Part one of the paper deals with Jābir as a philosopher and chemist. The art of lustre-painting on glass originated in Syria during the Umayyad Caliphate in the eighth century and was soon practised in the neighbouring area. The paper reviews Arabic literature that deals with the colouring of glass (...) until the 13th century, and with pre-Islamic and Latin books of recipes that deal with glass colouring. Recipes for cast coloured glass are very few and scant in non-Arabic literature, and lustre-painting on glass was not mentioned in any treatise outside Arabic, even in the works of Theophilus and Neri. The colouring of glass gemstones by colour diffusion is not mentioned also. The paper compares the recipes of Kitāb al-Durra with the results of modern analysis of existing Islamic stained glass objects. There is a close correspondence, and the main indispensable ingredients in both cases are silver and copper compounds. Part one ends with an account of lāzaward as cobalt oxide in glass colouring. Part two of the paper gives a representative selection of recipes from Kitāb al-Durra for the three methods of glass colouring. (shrink)
This paper aims to assess knowledge management maturity at HEI to determine the most effecting variables on knowledge management that enhance the total performance of the organization. This study was applied on Al-Azhar University in Gaza strip, Palestine. This paper depends on Asian productivity organization model that used to assess KM maturity. Second dimension assess high performance was developed by the authors. The controlled sample was (364). Several statistical tools were used for data analysis and hypotheses testing, including reliability Correlation (...) using Cronbach’s alpha, “ANOVA”, Simple Linear Regression and Step Wise Regression. The overall findings of the current study suggest that KMM is suitable for measuring and lead to enhance high performance. KMM assessment shows that the university maturity level is in level three. Findings also support the main hypothesis and it is subhypotheses. The most important factors effecting high performance are: Processes, KM leadership, People, KM Outcomes, Knowledge Process. Furthermore the current study is unique by the virtue of its nature, scope and way of implied investigation, as it is the first study at HEI in Palestine explores the status of KMM using the Asian productivity model. (shrink)
Abstract— This study aimed to identify the degree of use of the capabilities of decision-support systems in Palestinian institutions higher education, Aqsa University in Gaza - a case study. The study used a analytical descriptive approach, and the researchers used the of questionnaire tool to collect the data, the researchers using stratified random sample distributed (150) questioners to the study population and (126) was obtained back with rate of 84%. The study showed that the most important results are: that senior (...) management supports the existence of decision support systems and that there is approval by the respondents on the paragraphs of the use of the capabilities of decision support systems in general. And that there are no significant differences between the averages of the answers of respondents differences about the degree of use of decision support systems capabilities attributed to personal data. The study also concluded a series of recommendations including: increasing the adoption of the senior management decision support in their decision-making systems. And increased regulatory attention to the potential available to decision support systems directly to the senior management in the Palestinian universities in the Gaza Strip. There is an increased interest in the physical and technical possibilities available for the use of decision support systems. There is an increased interest in human potential available for the use of decision support systems. Investment of information available to universities in building the capacities of integration techniques and other information technology capabilities. The empowerment of human resources in universities and participating in making decisions concerning the construction of the capabilities of information technology. (shrink)
The dominant approach to understanding Islamic Business Ethics has been based almost exclusively on either interpretations of the Qur’an and Sunna or influenced by Western understanding of Islam and ethics. However, there is a rich—largely ignored-tradition of ethical analysis conducted by Muslim philosophers which would broaden our understanding of Islamic ethics and hence IBE. We seek to correct this imbalance by examining works of Al-Ghazali, an early Muslim philosopher, scholar, and mystic. His approach to Sufism, combining an interpretation of revelation (...) with reason, can contribute to new developments in business ethics scholarship and practice especially in Muslim communities. His thought portrays a vibrant work ethic that, while based in Sufism, has important practical implications for business. We argue that including such historically and contextually recognized perspectives in our understanding of BE, both in theory and in practice, would work well with an audience that looks to Islam as a source of justice and proper moral conduct. (shrink)
The study aimed to examine the Information Technology used and its effect on the nature of the work of the administrators at Al-Azhar University in Gaza. The researchers used the analytical descriptive method through a questionnaire randomly distributed among the employees of Al-Azhar University in Gaza. The study was conducted on a sample of 77 employees the response rate was 92.20%. The study reached a number of results, the most important of which is that there is a high degree of (...) Information Technology Used at Al-Azhar University- Gaza from the point of view of the administrative staff, where the percentage (74.14%). And that there is a high level of the prevailing the Nature of Administrators Work from the point of view of administrative staff, where the percentage (72.14%), there is a direct correlation between the Information Technology Used and the Nature of Administrators Work, there is a statistically significant effect of the Information Technology Used on the Nature of Administrators Work at the university, the absence of differences between the sample according to the variable (gender and variable age) in their perception of the Information Technology Used and the Nature of Administrators Work, there are differences of statistical Sig. in the perception depending on the variable of scientific qualification in Field of the Nature of Administrators Work, while there were no differences in Field: technology used, the differences in the Nature of Administrators Work according to the scientific qualification were in favor of those who obtained the diploma degree compared to postgraduate studies, the absence of differences in the perception of employees of the Information Technology Used and the Nature of Administrators Work according to the variable years of service, and the variable level of employment (manager, head of department, administrative officer), and the change of the workplace. The study reached a number of recommendations, the most important of which is the necessity of giving universities the opportunity to participate in decision-making, the continued administration of universities interest and continuous improvement of the performance of its employees, the need to strengthen the periodic evaluation of job performance and to inform the employees and to express their opinion, the importance of solving the problems of Employees and giving them the opportunity to contribute to solving their own problems, the need to use the method of rotation of employees and periodically, and the importance of strengthening the democratic leadership style and empowering university staff. (shrink)
What is difficult to imagine is also surprising to perceive. This indicates that active visual imagery is an integral part of active visual perception. Erroneous mental transformations provide clues to prior assumptions in visual imagery, just as visual illusions provide clues to perceptual assumptions. Visual imagery and perception share generic assumptions about invariants in images of rigid objects.
The study aimed to study The Organizational Structure and its role in applying the Information Technology Used the Palestinian universities as a comparative study between Al-Azhar and Islamic universities. The researchers used the analytical descriptive method through a questionnaire that randomly distributed among Palestinian university workers in Gaza Strip. A sample of (182) administrative staff from the two universities, the response rate was (81.35%). The study reached a number of results, the most important of which is that there is a (...) high level of the Information Technology Used from the perspective of administrative staff, there is a direct correlation between The Organizational Structure and the Information Technology Used, the role and impact of The Organizational Structure in the nature of the Information Technology Used, the absence of differences between the sample according to the variable (gender and age), there are statistically significant differences in the perception of The Organizational Structure and the Information Technology Used according to the variable of scientific qualification in The Organizational Structure, while there were no differences in Field of the Information Technology Used, the differences in The Organizational Structure according to the scientific qualification were in favor of those who obtained the diploma degree compared to other practical qualifications, the absence of differences in the perception of employees The Organizational Structure and the Information Technology Used depending on the variable years of service, the differences in The Organizational Structure and technology perception depending on the job level variable (Director, Head of Section, and Administrative Officer) for the benefit of the Administrative Officer, the absence of differences in the perception of employees The Organizational Structure and the Information Technology Used depending on the workplace variable, the differences in the perception of employees The Organizational Structure and the Information Technology Used by the University working for the Islamic University. The study reached a number of recommendations, the most important of which is that the managements of the Palestinian universities in Gaza Strip should be given more attention to the existing The Organizational Structure and modified to suit the need of work, the need for universities to continue to pay attention to the continuous improvement of the Information Technology Used and strengthening the democratic leadership style and empowering university staff. (shrink)
During the outbreak of an epidemic, it becomes significantly essential to monitor the effects of containment measures and forecast the outbreak, including the epidemic peak. Many countries have either implemented strict lockdown to counter the spread of coronavirus disease or taken necessary preventive measures across the world to reduce the outbreak of this epidemic war. Several epidemic models have been presented across the world to examine the effects of public health-related strategies on mitigating the spread of current infectious disease, yet (...) no reputable model has been presented for Pakistan as well as other South-Asian developing countries as per the authors’ knowledge. In this research, an actual coronavirus prediction in Pakistan is presented, which may guide the decision-makers as to how this pandemic has spread across the country and how it can be controlled. Furthermore, in the absence of targeted medicines, the analysis helps to develop a precise plan for the eradication of the outbreak by adopting the calculated steps at the right time. The mathematical phenomenological models have been adopted in this study to predict, project, and simulate the overall affected cases reflected due to the recent outbreak in Pakistan. These models predict the expected growth, and the estimated results are almost well matched with the real cases. Through the calibration of parameters and analyzing the current situation, forecast for the appearance of new cases in Pakistan is reported till the end of this year. The constant level of number of patients and time to reach specific levels are also reported through the simulations. The drastic conditions are also discussed which may occur if all the preventive restraints are removed. This research quantitatively describes the significant characteristics of the spread of corona cases. It acknowledges and provides an understanding of a short-term and long-term transmission of coronavirus outbreak in the country as three evolutionary phases. Therefore, this research provides a pathway to cope with the emerging threat of a severe outbreak in developing and nondeveloping countries. (shrink)